CM(2011)106 12 August 20111
1121 Meeting, 21 September 2011
2 Democracy and political questions
2.3 Centre of Expertise for Local Government Reform
5th annual activity report
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. RISING TO THE CHALLENGES 3
1. Rising to the challenges identified by the Advisory Board 3
2. Contribution to the Strategy for Innovation and Good Governance 5
II. THE CENTRE IN 2010: SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITY 5
1. General assessment 5
2. Activities implemented 6
III. PROSPECTS FOR 2011 7
1. General assessment 7
2. Activities envisaged 8
IV. LOOKING AHEAD: 2012 AND BEYOND 9
APPENDIX I – Current tools 10
APPENDIX II – Country-specific activities 14
1. Albania 14
2. Armenia 16
3. Belgium 17
4. Bosnia and Herzegovina 17
5. Bulgaria 18
6. Croatia 19
7. France 19
8. Georgia 20
9. Germany 22
10. Hungary 23
11. Malta 24
12. Moldova 25
13. Montenegro 26
14. Romania 27
15. Russian Federation (North-West Russia and Kaliningrad) 27
16. Russian Federation (Chechen Republic) 27
17. Serbia 28
18. Spain 31
19. Switzerland 32
20. “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” 32
21. Turkey 33
22. Ukraine 33
23. Kosovo2 34
APPENDIX III – Relations with partners 34
1. Relations with international organisations 34
2. Relations with other international partners 36
3. Relations with national partners 37
APPENDIX IV – List of abbreviations 39
Created at the beginning of 2006 following the decision of the Third Summit of Heads of State and Government3, the Centre of Expertise for Local Government Reform aims at building capacity in local authorities by the use of effective and impact-oriented programmes. Such programmes are inspired from new public management techniques and practice and make use of template forms and evaluation instruments (“tools”) and standard methodologies in order to implement impact-oriented projects (“country-specific programmes”) in co-operation with local, national and international stakeholders aiming at strengthening the institutional capacity of local authorities.
The Centre is part of the Secretariat (Directorate General for Democracy and Political Affairs) and works in co-operation with the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities (Congress) and the European Committee on Local and Regional Democracy (CDLR). It has an Advisory Board, which is a framework for consultation between the Secretariat, the CDLR and the Congress in order to provide advice to the Centre on:
a) the development and implementation of its strategic priorities and plans;
b) lessons to be drawn from an evaluation of its achievements;
c) opportunities for co-operation, both within the Council of Europe and with external partners.
The members of the Advisory Board are representatives of the CDLR (Greta Billing, Norway) and the Congress (in 2010, Keith Whitmore, UK), together with the Secretary General of the Congress and the Director of Democratic Institutions.
Since July 2010, the Centre has a Head who also heads the Division of Programmes for Democratic Stability.
The Centre of Expertise was created for an initial trial period of three years, expiring at the end of 2008. In the light of the good results obtained in its first years of operation, the Centre was confirmed by the decision taken by the Committee of Ministers on 16 May 2008.
I. RISING TO THE CHALLENGES
1. Rising to the challenges identified by the Advisory Board
In the light of the results of the first year of operation, the Advisory Board identified, in 2007, three main challenges for the Centre. These challenges were reconfirmed in 2009. In 2010, the Centre therefore continued to work along these lines, with a view to maximising the level of its activity within the limits of budgetary constraints in order to develop new tools and partnerships and to further developing its range of programmes towards Western European and Nordic countries.
first challenge consists of maximising the impact at the current level of resources.
full capacity-building programme may be quite expensive and human-resources intensive. Such programme may involve the use of various tools and methodologies and may involve self-assessment, benchmarking, peer reviews, training or individualised consulting. A full programme may last between 12 and 18 months and may cost (in operational costs), depending on he programme and the complexity and the options chosen, between €40,000 and €150,000.
resources of the Centre of Expertise are very limited and are no match for either the needs or the requests received. The ordinary budget (in 2010, €164,400) could not cover the implementation of more than two or three fully-fledged programmes.
the complexity of the programmes means that they demand significant management time. The Centre of Expertise has very limited human resources. The position of Head of the Centre was cancelled in 2009 for budgetary reasons. In 2010, the post of Head of the Programmes for Democratic Stability became vacant and it was decided that the incumbent would also head the Centre. Mr. Daniel Popescu, Administrator with the Centre, was appointed at the Head of both divisions but his post as administrator with the Centre of Expertise was subsequently redeployed, which meant a further decrease in the human resources of the Centre.
July 2010, the human resources allocated to the Centre therefore consist of 50% of a Head (Mr Daniel Popescu), one project manager (Mr. Olivier Terrien) and one assistant (Ms. Liliane Cuny). Strengthened links with the Division of Democratic Stability meant however that two of the project managers of this Division (Ms. Sylvia Ivanova, employed on extra-budgetary funding, and Mr. Alessandro Savaris, seconded by the Italian government), implemented not only legal assistance but also capacity-building programmes.
difficult resources situation means that Centre needed – and will undoubtedly continue to need - to find extra-budgetary resources in order to maximise the number of capacity-building programmes it could implement. In 2010, it implemented the equivalent of 20 full programmes in 15 countries. Details on the activities implemented appear in Appendix II. Work has started for the first time in Turkey and a full programme began in Spain.
the Centre organised three high-level conferences, in Dubrovnik (Croatia), Budva (Montenegro) and Bordeaux (France).
second challenge concerns the balanced arbitration between the three strands of work of the Centre of Expertise
Centre’s work is organised around three types of activity: an operational one (strengthening local authorities and their associations through the implementation of capacity-building programmes) and two more strategic, long-term ones (research and development of new tools on the basis of best European practice, and creating and developing partnerships with national and international stakeholders).
is increasing pressure from local stakeholders to launch new country-specific capacity-building programmes. These programmes are at the very core of the Centre’s mandate. However, in order to ensure that the Centre remains relevant in the medium-to-long term and continues to be at the fore of administrative innovation, it was considered that the Centre of Expertise needs to continue to develop new tools (instruments and methodologies) and to communicate and foster co-operation and partnerships with other stakeholders.
To respond to this challenge, the Centre of Expertise continued its work on developing new tools and its partnership-building initiatives. In 2010, a full new Toolkit was finalised, including Performance Management and Territorial Planning tools and a first draft of another one (Human resources management) was developed. Two high-level conferences were co-organised with institutional partners (UNDP, OSCE and OSI-LGI) and many programmes benefitted from support (financial or logistical) from international partners. Moreover, all 19 programmes were implemented in co-operation with local partners, more often than not local government associations.
However, in view of its diminishing resources, the Centre had to abandon some of its envisaged co-operation initiatives. No specific co-ordination meeting was organised with international partners. None was organised with the experts the Centre employs in its programmes. In the current situation, the initial ambition of the Centre to become a European hub and exchange platform for capacity building for local government had to be suspended, if not outright abandoned.
Detailed descriptions of the current tools developed and the partnerships created or envisaged are presented in Appendices I and III respectively.
third challenge concerns the need to extend the offer of capacity-building programmes to local authorities from Western and Nordic countries.
The Centre's programmes are based on the best of European practice and they should become relevant for building or strengthening the capacity of local authorities in all European countries, regardless of their geographical position or their experience in local government. All countries need to be able to benefit from administrative innovation and European best practice in the field of local government, which inspires the Centre's tools and programmes. Work in Western and Nordic countries would also strengthen the Centre's expertise and legitimacy and was considered to guarantee its long-term relevance.
In order to rise to this challenge, in 2010, the Centre continued to invest in its research and development capacity, to develop tools and programmes and update existing ones in the light of the most recent experience of local authorities throughout Europe.
The Centre extended its programmes to several EU member states. After piloting a programme in Spain and working in Bulgaria and Romania in 2007 and Malta in 2008, in 2009 the Centre implemented two programmes in Hungary and launched a new one in Spain. Substantial co-operation work was performed in France, although this work was not organised along typical tools developed by the Centre.
A Best Practice Programme was implemented in Switzerland.
Several local authorities from France, Belgium and Germany expressed interest in implementing capacity-building programmes offered by the Centre. Work in Belgium should start in early 2011.
2. Contribution to the Strategy for Innovation and Good Governance
the past few years, the Centre has developed a fair amount of expertise and experience in methodologies involving evaluation and self-assessment, benchmarking and comparing and learning from each other. In 2010, as in 2009, this experience was used for supporting the implementation of the Strategy for Innovation and Good Governance.
Strategy aims at mobilising central authorities (through strategic programmes of action agreed upon between governments and associations of local authorities) as well as local authorities (through the adoption of a commitment and an evaluation and improvement mechanism) towards implementing the “twelve principles of good democratic governance at local level”. Moreover, the Strategy provides for the development of a European Label of Good Governance to be granted in a decentralised manner by national platforms to be accredited by the Council of Europe.
Centre helped to promote the Strategy and also gave support to the preparation of the instruments needed for the future European Label of Good Governance (ELoGE) (benchmark, citizen survey and in particular methodology for granting the label and for accrediting national arrangements.
II. THE CENTRE IN 2010 – SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITY
1. General assessment
Like 2009, 2010 was a transition year. After the end of several activities funded by Joint Programmes with the European Commission or by voluntary contributions, substantial efforts were made for more funds raising. Some problems persisted, funding remained difficult to identify because of both changed rules in EU funding and the effects of the financial crisis on the level of voluntary contributions made available by governments.
Several planned projects were cancelled late in the year. Under these conditions, the level of activities, both in terms of number of programmes (20 in 15 countries) and of the quality thereof, can be judged as good. Three important, resource-intensive but very successful high-level regional conferences were organised in Bordeaux, Budva and Dubrovnik. These conferences, although very human-resource intensives, are not counted among the activities implemented. Moreover, at the end of the year, funding was received through two voluntary contributions (the second one signed in the first part of 2011) for a very substantial capacity-building programme to be implemented over three years in Ukraine. Activities based on these funds will start in early 2011; this guarantees already a far superior level of activity for the Centre in 2011.
In 2010, following the enlargement of the responsibility of the Head of the Division of Programmes for Democratic Stability to cover also the Centre of Expertise, substantial efforts were made to bring closer teams dealing with legal assistance and capacity building. Staff members were cross-trained. A new financial monitoring system was set up to detect over- and under-spending in order to allow for timely redistribution of resources. These measures made it possible to deal with a few cancellations of programmes which were decided by local stakeholders rather late in the year and to launch new and successful programmes that had been placed lower on the priority list.
A note should be added in respect of the way to estimate the level of activity. Counting simply programmes and countries does not present a full picture of the activity level; it is however a first indication in quantitative terms and the Centre has systematically strived to find quantitative descriptions of its activity. Some programmes requested very limited staff time from the Centre of Expertise (e.g. programmes in Moldova, Hungary and Switzerland, where local partners were able to implement most of the activities autonomously), while other were very time consuming (e.g. programmes in Albania or the various activities implemented in France, which were counted as a single programme but required substantial efforts, greater than the one a typical programme normally requires). Moreover, the three high-level conferences organised are not counted towards the total number of programmes, although each of them probably mobilised at least 50% of the staff time absorbed by a fully-fledged programme.
2. Activities implemented
The Toolkit on performance management and municipal planning was finalised and should be published in April 2011. The Toolkit on human resources management was developed and should be finalised (and possibly also published) in 2011. The decision was taken to continue the development of the tool on Leadership Development/Leadership Academy into a full toolkit, which would be a turn-key solution to the successful Leadership Academy Programme; this toolkit should be finalised (and also, subject to resources, published) in 2011. Toolkit III (on public ethics and financial benchmarking) was translated into French and the French version should be published in April 2011.
The activity of the Centre in 2010 is summed up below.
The Centre also assisted in the implementation of the Strategy, in particular by promoting it and the label and by supporting with the development of the European Label of Governance Excellence (ELoGE), which became operational in 2010.
General overview of activities implemented in 2010
Development of tools
Finalisation of Toolkit IV including the following tools:
- Performance management,
- Municipal planning.
Development of the first part of a new Leadership Academy Toolkit
Development of a first draft of a new Human Resources Management Toolkit
PROSPECTS FOR 2011
Human resources management
Support with strategic planning for Yerevan and other Armenian cities
International Conference on IMC
Survey on performance management with OPPALE
Seminar on “strategic management: comparison of European approaches” with INET
Seminar on "local democracy and citizen participation: European challenges and responses" with the Région Alsace and INET
4 training sessions for INET
Conference "Citizens at the heart of local democracy" with the City of Bordeaux and the University of Pau
Municipal Councillors Training Programme
Strategic Municipal Planning
Leadership Benchmarking Programme
Best Practice Programme
Role of local government executives
Best Practice Programme
Public Ethics at Local Level
International Conference on Public Ethics
Transfrontier co-operation programme in NW Russia
Five preparatory activities: workshop to democracy and best practice, seminar on municipal elections, study visit in a European country, workshop on the legal framework, workshop on strategic development
Performance management programme
Human Resources Management programme
Best Practice Programme
"the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”
Performance Management Programme
Leadership Academy Programme in Marmara Region
1. General assessment
The short-term prospects (2011) for the Centre of Expertise are very good. The Centre has established itself as a serious partner for national and international institutions, offering modern programmes to local authorities which want to improve the quality of their governance. It has raised interest among and obtained commitment from municipalities and associations in a large number of countries. And, last but not least, it has been able to secure extra-budgetary funding in order to respond to as many demands as possible.
The longer-term prospects for both capacity building and legal assistance activities are however something which needs to be looked closer into. A first and very brief presentation of possible future developments is included in the last part of this document.
It is difficult to make a clear and detailed planning of the activities for 2011, as the Centre does not always work on the basis of strategic and long-term programmes, but often rather on current demand; such demand fluctuates and the interest of local stakeholders may vary. However, the Centre has all reasons to believe that 2011 will be indeed a record year: it currently envisages the implementation of 33 programmes in 19 countries. Even if one or two of these are cancelled by local stakeholders at the last minute, it is clear that the number of both activities and countries where they will be implemented are well above those noted in any of the precedent years.
The Centre should also finalise two new toolkits, addressing issues which have been raised in the field during the activity implemented in previous years: leadership development and human resources management. It should also publish the toolkit on performance management and municipal planning (developed in 2010) and, subject to funding, the toolkit on inter-municipal co-operation (also developed in 2010 in a larger partnership, including UNDP and OSI/LGI and now available only on the web).
The Centre’s support for the implementation of the Strategy for Innovation and Good Governance at Local Level will also continue, in particular through addressing the specific needs of countries engaged in the Strategyand proviging support towards the implementation of the Strategy and the arrangements for delivering the Label.
2. Activities envisaged
The following table sums up the activities envisaged for 2011. As already mentioned, this is a very ambitious programme; however, it is based on funds already identified or under advanced negotiation.
Development and publication of tools
Publication of the new Toolkit on performance management and municipal planning
Finalisation and possible publication of the Toolkit on Leadership Development in Local Authorities (based on the tools developed for the Leadership Academy Programme)
Finalisation of the Toolkit on human resources management (publication subject to availability of funds in late 2011 or early 2012)
Publication of the French version of the Toolkit on Public Ethics and Local Finance Benchmarking
Possible publication of the Toolkit on Inter-municipal Co-operation
Human resources management*
State of local democracy in Albania*
Support with strategic municipal planning to the City of Yerevan and other Armenian Cities
4 training sessions on performance management for INET
Conference on public ethics with the City of Strasbourg
Training on local government and capacity building in Europe to the Strasbourg School of Political Studies.
Follow-up to the Strategic Municipal planning Programme
Training of municipal councillors
Best Practice programme
National Training Strategy
Best Practice Programme
Inter-municipal Co-operation Programme
Four new training activities (possibly, subject to approval by Russian authorities, a fully-fledged programme on municipal planning).
Human Resources Management*
Local Finance Benchmarking*
The youth and local government
Best Practice Programme in the Ticino canton
Leadership Academy Programme – continuation and extension at the national level
Follow-up to the Public Ethics Benchmarking Programme*
Best Practice Programme*
Performance Management Programme*
Local Finance Benchmarking*
Leadership Academy Programme*
* Programmes implemented with financial support from the EC or from member States
IV. LOOKING AHEAD: 2012 AND BEYOND
There is a profound reform which is being developed and implemented in the Council of Europe. Capacity-building and assistance activities in the field of local and regional government, like many others, will have to reform, improve and prove their relevance in order to survive.
There are two evolutions which will affect the Centre in 2012 and beyond. The first one is the need for the Council of Europe to decentralise, i.e. diminish its Strasbourg-based versus field offices-based human resources ratio. This affects the additional staff that ensures the implementation of the programmes, part of which used to be based in Strasbourg. The second evolution is the diminishing, for budgetary reasons, of the human resources allocated to the Centre of Expertise as from the end of 2012. This affects permanent staff based in Strasbourg. It is recalled that at the time of its creation, the Centre was given two positions of administrators and one of administrative assistant. The latter is already cancelled and one of the former will disappear as from mid-2012 but an ad hoc solution will be found until the end of the year.
In response to these evolutions, and in order to be able to provide both legal assistance and capacity building, measures will have to be taken both at the level of policy planning and at the level of internal management.
As regards policy planning, clearer and firmer mid-term perspectives will need to be given to and by member states and other international partners as regards the countries where assistance will be provided, in which forms and with which partners. A distinction, in working methods, between member states where the Council of Europe has an external presence (as from mid-2011) and those where it hasn’t one, will probably need to be made. Stronger networking with member states’ institutions and bodies that provide capacity building assistance will be developed.
As regards internal management, more integration and cross-training among staff dealing with both legal assistance and capacity building will be developed. Competences of staff in charge of programme implementation (out of Strasbourg) will need to be carefully scrutinised and where appropriate enhanced through training. Strasbourg-based staff will continue to provide quality control and administrative supervision for the local teams hired for implementing programmes funded by JPs and VCs.
APPENDIX I - Current tools
a. National Training Strategies
In many countries, local government training needs further development. National and local training capacity and training budgets are often inadequate. Core training packages may not have been sufficiently developed. Trainers may themselves need more training. There may be insufficient training standards for training programmes or materials. Against this background, the development of a National Training Strategy (NTS) is based on a comprehensive Training Needs Analysis including:
· Independent and reliable field research to allow training to be developed in response to the needs and expectations of municipal staff and elected representatives. In particular, this includes:
- a qualitative investigation based on a series of in-depth individual and focus group interviews with municipal representatives;
- a verifying survey based on questionnaires and conducted with municipalities.
· A legal analysis that will identify the training necessary for municipalities to fulfil their obligations properly.
· Bilateral meetings with key local government stakeholders to take account of their experience and perceptions and to build on current and recent initiatives.
The NTS allows organisations with a stake in local government to establish a more professional training environment.
This tool was published in Toolkit I and has been or is being implemented with the assistance of the Centre of Expertise in Albania, Armenia, Croatia, Georgia, Moldova and Montenegro.
b. Leadership Development
Strong leadership, i.e. the capacity of local authorities to develop a clear vision for the municipality and to make it come true through strategic management and involvement of the local community, is an essential feature of an effective local authority.
The Council of Europe has therefore developed a model “Benchmark of an Effective Democratic Local Authority” (The Leadership Benchmark) that sets out the expected levels of performance by a local authority in 9 leadership competences. It can be used in several ways, including a practical Peer Review methodology:
- Through local workshops. This introduces mayors, senior officials and elected members to the leadership competences expected of them.
- Through self-assessment. The leadership of the local authority systematically identifies its strengths and areas for improvement against the Benchmark and draws up an Improvement Plan.
- Through Peer Reviews. A national pool of competent senior officials and elected representatives are trained as ‘critical friends’ (external assessors); a team of 4 peers is invited into a local authority to identify its strengths and areas for improvement against the Benchmark by assessing strategic documents, using interview and workshop techniques with key stakeholders and participating in relevant meetings. The recommendations of the Peer Review team provide the basis for the leadership of the local authority to develop an Improvement Plan.
This tool was also published in Toolkit I and has been or is being implemented in Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Montenegro, the Russian Federation, Serbia and “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”.
c. Best Practice
There are local authorities in every country that achieve the highest standards in some aspects of their work. This best practice can be identified and shared with other local authorities. Learning from each other, rather than from an external expert, is indeed a best practice methodology.
The Best Practice programme applies a systematic approach, where best practice achievement in selected themes is identified and celebrated, but carries with it an obligation to pass on the best practice to other local authorities through a systematic training programme.
In practical terms, the programme explains very clearly how to launch an awareness-raising campaign through the preparation of a booklet and an application form to be sent to all local governments and through the media. Once applications are received, a Selection Panel will shortlist a number of them and will make
fact-finding missions to the respective municipalities. The Selection Panel will select the award-winning municipalities who will receive their awards during an official ceremony.
In the second stage, the dissemination phase includes Open Days and study visits organised in these municipalities, seminars and workshops, dissemination on paper and on CDROM, preparation and broadcasting of short documentary films etc.
Each year, a new Best Practice round with different themes can be launched.
This tool was published in Toolkit I and has been or is being implemented in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Hungary, Moldova, Montenegro, the Russian Federation, Serbia and “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”.
d. Fundamental Performance Review
Where a local authority recognises weakness in a service, it can use an internal review team to systematically review the service, identify best practice elsewhere and recommend the way forward. External assistance can provide objectivity and bring expertise. The tool is helpful when used in conjunction with, for example, the Leadership Benchmark or the performance management programme, when areas for development are identified.
This is a more basic tool and has not yet been implemented.
e. Guide to Local Democracy
To develop proper accountability for local government, the local population and organisations need to understand the rights, obligations and opportunities of their local authority. Where there is insufficient awareness, this Guide can be adapted and used as a tool in local seminars that bring together local people and the councillors and officials of their local authority. Such seminars can stimulate on-going dialogue between local authorities and the citizens they serve.
This tool was published in a separate booklet-format publication in 2007.
f. Public Ethics Benchmark
Democracy depends fundamentally on public trust. Without the broad confidence of the public in the integrity of those they elect to represent them, and of those employed to deliver services to them, democratic institutions will falter. Democracies across Europe are increasingly aware that standards of ethical behaviour must be actively nurtured.
To help do so, the Centre of Expertise has developed a tool that helps local authorities to assess and, above all, to improve public ethics.
This tool comprises a European Score Card and a methodology organised around objective self-assessments and reviews by trained peers.
It was developed in 2006 and was tested in Spain in 2007. It was implemented in Moldova, Ukraine and Romania. This tool was included in Toolkit III.
g. Strengthening the Capacity of Local Government Associations
Local Government Associations (LGAs) are critical institutions in building strong local government. An LGA is about developing “good governance”. A strong and independent LGA can make a difference. It promotes decentralisation, strengthens local authorities and builds up local government institutions, such as training agencies and information centres that can help local authorities to develop their expertise, to build capacity and to drive up performance towards European standards. However, in many countries the LGAs should be much stronger than they are and local authorities could benefit considerably from more comprehensive LGA support.
The Council of Europe and UNDP have brought together tested materials from across Europe in a Toolkit entitled “Towards a Modern Local Government Association” (Toolkit II).
The Toolkit is a single collection of modern and practical tools which should help an LGA to play a more significant role as a national advocate for better local government and to provide effective training and capacity-building services to municipalities. It focuses on the performance (self-)assessment of an LGA, its strengths and organisational development. It includes tools which can help local government associations to assess where they are, to improve their relevance and performance and to adapt to the needs of their members.
The Toolkit was introduced to local government associations from South-Eastern Europe (SEE), Armenia, Georgia, Ukraine, Turkey and Central Asia in co-operation with UNDP, SNV (Dutch development organisation), VNG International (Dutch local government Association) and NALAS (Network of Associations of Local Authorities in SEE).
h. Performance Management
Performance management is a key discipline that local authorities can use to drive up performance in internal and external services. Local authorities and their associations should identify those critical factors that determine good performance in a service (key performance indicators). Performance indicators can cover, for example, service efficiency and quality, user satisfaction, service accessibility, unit cost, etc.
A national Association can use research across local authorities and in other countries to determine what standards should be applied within each key performance indicator. Individual local authorities can agree performance targets with service managers to achieve or exceed the standard. Managers can use performance indicators to improve their own performance. Where performance indicators reveal weakness, action can be taken to initiate improvements.
Regular local authority reports with performance data will show the level of performance against the performance indicators over time and relative to other local authorities. The association (with the government where it has a direct interest) can use performance management to drive up performance across local government.
The Centre has developed a Performance Management Pack of tools and guides which were piloted in Bulgaria in 2006-2007 and implemented in Serbia in co-operation with French local authorities since 2008, in Albania and in “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”. New programmes will be launched in 2011 in Belgium (Wallonia and Brussels Capital Region) as well as in Ukraine. The structure of the pack includes simple performance management guides, using elements of the CDLR report on Performance Management at Local Level and other examples supplied in particular from the UK and Norway, and a communication strategy – an approach on how to promote a performance management structure.
This tool is being published in Toolkit IV together with the Municipal Planning tool.
i. Citizen Participation
Local government is accountable to local people. Accountability starts with elections. But it should go beyond that. Local people and organisations want a say in the local authority’s vision and priorities, in how it spend its revenues. Service users can contribute to the design and quality of services so that the service better meets local needs. Local organisations may be able to work in partnership with the local authority to deliver specific services more effectively.
How good is a local authority at engaging local people and organisations in local government? The Community Participation programme will enable a local authority to do a ‘stock take’ of its performance in this field and draw up an Action Plan to drive improvements.
The Steering Committee on Local and Regional Democracy (CDLR) piloted a “CLEAR” participation model5 in 5 member states. The first wave of tests ended with a final conference in June 2006 in Tampere (Finland); a second wave took place in 2007 in another group of countries. Subject to available resources, the results of this activity could be used to update and enrich the current Citizen Participation tool (already published in Toolkit I). The revised and completed version should be published in Toolkit V or VI.
Moreover, a new methodology of implementation (based, inter alia, on a version of the 360° review process) should be developed in order to increase the operability of the Citizen Participation tool included in Toolkit I.
A citizen participation programme is being implemented since the 2nd semester 2010 in several Spanish local authorities (Province of Gerona, Cities of Gerona, Malaga, Getafe, San Sebastien, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Pineda de Mar) in co-operation with the French municipalities of Strasbourg and Bordeaux.
j. Local Finance Benchmarks
Good local government depends fundamentally on the existence of sufficient financial resources, which allow local authorities to offer services that are adapted to their residents’ expectations, and on good financial management procedures, which provide both for the necessary flexibility in local budgetary questions and for clear accountability for financial decisions.
Based on the Council of Europe acquis, the Open Society Institute – Local Government and Public Services Initiative (LGI) and the Centre of Expertise have jointly developed a new tool, composed of four benchmarks, addressed respectively to local and central authorities and dealing both with the income and the expenditure side of local finance.
The Centre of Expertise and OSI successfully piloted this tool in Bulgaria, in co-operation with the National Association of Municipalities in the Republic of Bulgaria (NAMRB) and five municipalities.
This tool was published in 2009 Toolkit III.
k. “Leadership Academy” programme
Starting from its tools for leadership development and subject to resources, in 2008 the Centre of Expertise developed a “Leadership Academy” programme. The aim of such a “virtual” Academy is to improve the abilities of local leaders. In practice, the programme provides for a series of national and international activities for senior elected representatives and officials (i.e. Mayors, Heads of Administration and their deputies) to develop their leadership capabilities and to take leadership initiatives in their own local authorities.
This programme was implemented in North-West Russia and in Turkey. The development of the tools (including all basic training instruments and methods) should be published as Toolkit V or VI at the end of 2011 or the beginning of 2012.
l. Strategic Municipal Planning
Starting from the Leadership Benchmarking Programme, this Programme has for main objectives to support local authorities to create a vision for their municipality by involving citizens and in the form of the participative development of concrete municipal strategic plans. This tool includes a Guide to Municipal Strategic Planning, template plans as well as tools for ensuring information dissemination and exchange in the form of training and peer reviews. It also includes examples from several countries but also from its implementation in Georgia and Armenia.
It is being published in Toolkit IV, together with the Performance Management tool.
m. Inter-municipal Co-operation
In the light of the long-term challenges coming from public fiscal deficits, there is a need for more efficient local government and better management of public expenditure. Central and local government need to work together to give a strong sense of direction and make best use of resources. In this context, Inter-municipal Co-operation (IMC) has become a key area for reform, as a way to raise the quality of local government services, bring
efficiency and effectiveness in administrations, lead to more rational urban planning and sustainable local development policies. IMC is recognised as an important option available to municipalities for meeting the expectations of citizens for better services, more jobs and a cleaner environment. IMC enhance visibility of local authorities and attract public and private investments including access to external funds such as EU grants.
In 2008-2009, the Council of Europe, the UNDP Regional Centre in Bratislava and the Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative of the Open Society Institute (LGI) implemented a series of regional workshops and developed a set of modern and practical tools on IMC. A Toolkit on IMC was compiled and includes a Manual and a shorter Guide for Practitioners. They provide a clear explanation of IMC, including on its opportunities and risks, the steps needed to be to plan a successful IMC project, the legal forms and financial options, methods of accountability, etc. The Toolkit also offers a Training Library and access to an IMC Website containing further information and material such as case-studies and best practice.
The Toolkit’s immediate aim is to develop a commitment within countries to extend IMC initiatives. It helps develop IMC awareness and capacity at central and local levels and in local government associations. It is designed for participants with influence or decision-making authority.
It is meant to be adapted to the specific circumstances of a country and support a programme where national authorities will take steps to establish a more ‘enabling framework’ for IMC and launch a national IMC initiative. The local leadership in specific municipalities will take the initiative to launch IMC projects.
The Toolkit was officially launched during an International Conference on IMC (Sept 2010, Dubrovnik). It was already introduced in a number of countries such as Croatia, Moldova, Turkey, the Russian Federation and Ukraine.
n. European Local Democracy Week
This is not a tool developed by the Centre, but a practical initiative proposed (2007) by the European Ministers responsible for Local and regional Government and the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities, and managed since 2009 by the latter. Cities and towns of the 47 member countries of the Council of Europe are invited to join the European Local Democracy Week (ELDW) each year in October and to organise events which can improve the citizen participation and involvement in public life at local level. Each year the Congress prepares a Resource Kit with leaflets, posters and ideas of interactive events which can be organised in the framework of the theme chosen for the year. The Congress website gives details of ELDW activities organised by the participating municipalities. In 2010 the Centre supported the implementation of the European Local Democracy Week in Ukraine.
APPENDIX II – Country-specific activities
a. Previous activity
In 2009 the Council of Europe provided policy guidance and legal/technical support to the Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunications (MPWTT) in the drafting of the new law on territorial planning (Law No. 10119 adopted on 23 April 2009). The Council of Europe and the World Bank national and international experts were involved in the preparation of the establishment of the National Territorial Planning Agency (NTPA).
A follow-up project on “Reinforcing local and regional government structures in Albania” was developed in co-operation with the Ministry of Interior, the MPWTT and the Associations of Communes and of Municipalities. The project is aimed at:
- improving the framework for Inter-Municipal Co-operation (IMC),
- ensuring effective implementation of the new legislation on Territorial Planning,
- raising awareness on Human Resources Management (HRM), developing and implementing a set of modern tools on HRM for local administrations.
b. Activity in 2010
The project on “Reinforcing local and regional government structures in Albania” was agreed with the Swiss Co-operation Office in Albania (SCO-A) and funding for its implementation was offered by the Swiss Government. A trilateral co-operation agreement was developed to be signed between the Council of Europe, the Swiss Government and the Albanian Government.
A local Programme Manager was appointed. A programme Steering Committee was established to regularly review the implementation of the programme activities, provide comments and guidance for its effective and efficient implementation.
The official inauguration of the programme was organised in April. It was extensively covered by the national media (TV, newspapers).
Consultative Working Groups on Inter-municipal Co-operation (IMC) and Human Resources Management (HRM) were established to work on the outline for and carry out comprehensive technical analysis in the fields of IMC and HRM in Albania. All Working Groups’ meetings were organised with support and participation of the Council of Europe’s experts.
The Council of Europe carried out a series of meetings with the National Territorial Planning Agency (NTPA) and international organisations to plan an approach to multi-agency support to the NTPA. The USAID, the World Bank and the Council of Europe agreed to continue to provide joint support to NTPA towards building its capacities and drafting secondary legislation necessary for the implementation of the new law on Territorial Planning.
Continuous communication and support was established with other international organisations such as the OSCE mission to Albania, UNDP country office, UNOPS, GTZ, VNG International, LGDP – Decentralisation and Local Development Programme in Albania, a substantial ongoing Swiss-funded initiative, etc. They should launch complementary activities in the fields of IMC and HRM to reinforce the CoE action.
A separate project on Performance Management for local government was developed with UNOPS Albania (Art Gold 2 Albania). It should be discussed and agreed with UNOPS management centre at FAO in Rome for possible implementation in Albania in 2011.
The Council of Europe attended the Donors’ Working Group on Decentralisation in Albania, chaired by the Deputy Minister of Interior and facilitated by the Deputy Director of SCO-A. The CoE was invited to develop and support the establishment of thematic sub-Working Groups on Inter-municipal Co-operation and Human Resources Management.
A questionnaire on IMC aimed at the assessment of the level of IMC in the country has been drafted and distributed, through a series of 5 round tables organised in close cooperation with the Ministry of Interior (MoI), the Albanian Associations of Municipalities (AAM) and Communes (AAC) among Albanian LGUs. The round tables took place between 2-6 November in the cities of Berat, Elbasan, Durres, Lezhe and Sarande with the participation of 12 representatives of Albanian LGUs. Facing a delay in the process of collection of IMC questionnaires a new strategy of action was defined which foresees a more relevant role and the direct involvement of the CoE Information Office in Tirana in the activities.
An international expert, Ms.Suja Chacko, has been hired for drafting of the questionnaire and other partners have been consulted for the definition of the sample of LGUS. The questionnaire has been submitted to the Consultative Working Group on HRM which includes MoI, SCO-A, dldp, OSCE, revised on the basis of their comments.
An assessment of the current legislation on HR has been made by the Associations (AAM/AAC) which provided also some initial suggestions on the institutional changes which needs to be undertaken. These suggestions will be integrated in the HRM assessment report, conclusions and recommendations.
c. Future activity
Project on Inter-Municipal Co-operation (IMC)
During 2011 the assessment of the situation on IMC in the country should be finalised. The adaption of the Toolkit developed jointly by CoE/UNDP/LGI-OSI and of the training materials on IMC to the Albanian context should also be done and will be followed by a training programme on IMC for Albanian LGUs. A joint AAM/AAC IMC Policy Forum and a Final Evaluation Conference on IMC are also foreseen with the aim to monitor the development of Inter-Municipal Co-operation in the country on the long term.
Project on Human Resources Management (HRM)
The assessment of the situation of HRM in the country should be completed, the HRM tools developed, tested in the pilot LGUS and adapted to the Albanian context. A training programme on HRM for Albanian LGUs will be launched and the development of Human Resources Management on the long term in the country will be monitored through a joint AAM/AAC HRM Policy Forum and a Final Evaluation Conference.
Project on Assistance to the National Territorial Planning Agency
The entering into force of the sub-legal acts on territorial planning, prepared with the help of CoE, has been postponed to September 2011. Account taken of this delay and of the fact that NTPA has not renewed its commitment to co-operate on this module, it is currently envisaged that this programme be discontinued and replaced in 2011 by a Leadership Academy module.
a. Previous activities
National Training Strategy
In 2004, a National Training Strategy (NTS) for local government was prepared and adopted by a Steering Group bringing together all stakeholders co-chaired by the deputy Minister of territorial administration and the President of the Association of Communities in Armenia. In 2008, the Association of Communities approached the Centre of Expertise asked for support in updating the Training Needs Assessment (TNA). The TNA 2008 encompassed two components: a qualitative research implemented based on a series of in-depth individual interviews and a representative survey conducted on a sample of local government units in Armenia. The comprehensive research was implemented in 2008 and the survey in 2009.
In order to revise the Training Needs Analysis, the survey was conducted on a representative, country-wide sample of 341 municipalities, out of which 291 village communities and 50 town communities. It was carried out during the period from January to September 2009, and the CoE expert assisted the Armenian Association to analyse the results of the survey. Training activities are since being carried out, within that framework, by the Communities Association of Armenia and the Armenian Ministry of Territorial Administration but without direct Council of Europe involvement.
b. Activities in 2010
New Strategic Municipal Planning on Programme
A new Programme on Strategic Municipal Planning was launched in June 2010, with the support of the Communities Association of Armenia and the Armenian Ministry of Territorial Administration, in 10 pilot municipalities. These are: Yerevan, Goris, Vanadzor, Dilijan, Gyumri, Akhuryan, Meghrashen, Aragats,
Mkhchyan and Areni. The overall programme objective is to develop the municipal planning capacities of Armenian local municipalities and help them to improve their standards by providing an opportunity to take responsibility for their own improvement, and assist them in identifying clear visions, goals, objectives, programmes and projects to carry out and meet citizens’ needs. It is due to be implemented by 2012.
The programme builds on the Communities’ Association of Armenia’s request and the success of previous Leadership and Strategic Municipal Planning Programmes implemented by the Council of Europe in Albania and Georgia. It involves elected representatives as well as officials and experts from pilot local authorities involved in the Albanian and Georgian Leadership/Strategic Municipal Planning Programmes. These will be invited from time to time to participate in some of the programme’s activities to favour exchange of know-how and experience with their Armenian counterparts. Such cooperation falls, in particular, within the framework of the agreement that the Communities’ Association of Armenia and the National Association of Local Authorities of Georgia (NALAG) signed in 2009.
The Armenian Ministry for Territorial Planning is also following closely the Programme implementation with the likely view to draft specific legislation and/or amend the current Organic Law on Local Self-Government in order to introduce items concerning the approach to strategic municipal planning to be used in all Armenian local authorities, and make the proposed Council of Europe’s methodology compulsory. The drafting of four-year municipal plans is already an obligation stated in the Armenian Law but no specific approach is recommended.
A launching workshop with the elected representatives of the 10 pilots was held on 26 June 2010 and two specific training sessions with the pilots officials responsible for planning/municipal planners, were then organised on 24 and 25 November 2010, the first one being especially devoted to the officials of the City of Yerevan. Specific attention was given to the City of Yerevan because of its size and socio-economic importance but also because, as opposed to most other pilot municipalities, it has some extensive planning experience. However, its municipal plan is much too detailed, and thus needs to be revised to make it more concise, and more oriented towards an external audience with some clarity about the city vision, priorities and direction, key elements which are currently lacking.
Key elements of effective democratic leadership and strategic municipal planning at local level, with examples of existing practices in UK, Albania and Georgia, were also discussed in detail with representatives from these three countries during these two workshops, and the current needs, priorities and challenges of the Armenian municipalities and more especially of the pilot municipalities, as well as their current approach/experience of municipal planning were examined. Following the discussions, the draft action plan of the Armenia strategic municipal planning programme was discussed and agreed upon. An information leaflet about the programme was then produced and disseminated to all 10 pilot local authorities with the support of the Communities Association of Armenia.
c. Envisaged activities
In 2011, the Centre will work with the Armenian partners to pursue the implementation of the new Strategic Municipal Planning Project in several Armenian pilot municipalities including Yerevan. This will include the organisation of field visits, joint activities, specific training activities, public hearings and the publication of an Armenian Guide to Strategic Municipal Planning.
Preparatory work to the launch of a new performance management programme in 2011
Contacts have been established with the Union of Cities of Wallonia as well as with the Association of Cities and Communes of the Region of Brussels Capital, with a view to launch in 2011 a new programme on performance management at local level in several Belgian municipalities. The French cities of Lille and Le Havre should also be involved in these activities.
4. Bosnia and Herzegovina
a. Previous activities
2005 and 2007, the Centre of Expertise, in cooperation with the OSCE Mission in BiH as well as the RS and FBIH Associations of local authorities, implemented the 1st and 2nd Round of a best practice programme called BiH Beacon Scheme, as well as a project aimed at building the capacities of both Associations of local authorities.
3rd and 4th Round of the BiH Beacon Scheme (Best Practices Programme) were implemented in 2008 and 2009, but without Council of Europe's direct involvement. It was fully financed by local stakeholders, after the transfer of all management responsibilities to the FBIH Ministry of Justice, the RS Ministry of public administration and local self-government as well as the FBIH and RS Associations of local authorities.
b. Activities in 2010
A 5th Round of the BiH Beacon Scheme (Best Practices Programmes) was implemented by the local stakeholders (the FBIH Ministry of Justice, the RS Ministry of public administration and local self-government as well as the FBIH and RS Associations of local authorities) without direct Council of Europe involvement.
Meanwhile, the Centre of Expertise has continued its discussions with different potential donors, mainly the European Commission and the German Embassy in Sarajevo, with a view to obtain a voluntary contribution for the implementation of a project dealing with the promotion of public ethics at local level.
c. Envisaged activities
of a 6th Round of the BiH Beacon Scheme, without CoE direct involvement and launching, provided the necessary funding is secured, of a new programme aimed at promoting public ethics at local level in the framework of a larger programme including some legal assistance activities.
a. Previous activities
Leadership Benchmark, Performance Management, Financial Management Benchmarking
In 2003 - 2006, the Council of Europe worked with the National Association of Municipalities in Bulgaria (NAMRB) to implement a pilot Leadership Benchmark project based on Peer Reviews and a Self-Assessment process.
In 2006, the NAMRB provided assistance for the implementation of the Peer Review programmes in North-West Russia and Croatia.
In 2006 - 2007, the Centre of Expertise worked with the NAMRB to pilot a performance management programme in Bulgaria, focusing on local economic development and communications. Six pilot municipalities participated in the project: Ruse, Kurdjali, Strumiani, Dobrich, Gabrovo and Pazardjik.
In 2007, the Open Society Institute and the Council of Europe organise a full road test/ first implementation of the new tool on Benchmarking Local Finance.
In 2008-2009, the co-operation with Bulgarian authorities focused on the follow-up to the Performance Management programme in local economic development and communications (completed in early 2008) and the preparation of the ground for the implementation of the Strategy for Innovation and Good Governance (the Strategy).
b. Activities in 2010
In 2010, the Centre of Expertise offered technical support to Bulgarian authorities in order to set up arrangements for delivering the ELoGE label. Bulgarian application was successful, the Council of Europe Stakeholders' Platform delivering to Bulgaria the first accreditation to grand EloGE.
c. Envisaged activities
The Centre of Expertise is planning to organise, in cooperation with the NAMRB, two activities in 2011:
- A Public Ethics activity, aimed at helping local authorities to improve their regulation and practice in respect of anti-corruption policies and measures;
- A Leadership Academy Programme, aimed at improving the institutional leadership capacity of local authorities through improved leadership skills of their elected and appointed officials and through leadership tools given to local ownership.
a. Previous activity
In the last few years, the Council of Europe worked closely with the Croatian Associations of Municipalities and Towns on a series of capacity-building projects.
Croatian representatives attended the international training of trainers on Inter-municipal Co-operation (IMC) in November 2009 in Strasbourg. A detailed programme on IMC was devised by the National Association of Municipalities to be implemented in Croatia in 2010.
b. Activity in 2010
In June 2010, the Foundation Open Society Institute (OSI-ZUG) granted a voluntary contributions of € 40,000 to the Council of Europe for the publication and dissemination of the Toolkit on Inter-Municipal Co-operation (IMC) and in support of the project on Inter-municipal Co-operation in Croatia.
The IMC project in Croatia is being implemented by the Croatian Association of Municipalities in co-operation with the Association of Towns and the Ministry of Public Administration (the Ministry).
It started in June with the preparation of a comprehensive technical analysis on the current environment for IMC in Croatia.
A national Working Group of experts on IMC from the Associations of Towns and Municipalities, the Ministry and the Council of Europe was established to support the project implementation. A first meeting of the Working Group was held on 2 July in Zagreb to prepare the framework of the technical analysis on IMC environment, identify relevant information and material, and discuss the framework of the Croatian Toolkit on IMC.
Following the meeting, the Outline of the analysis was developed and agreed upon and the research launched.
The technical analysis was completed and a comprehensive report was prepared. It includes a review of the institutional, legal and financial framework for IMC. It identifies challenges and opportunities for IMC. It provides case studies of IMC in Croatia.
c. Future activity
On the basis of the results of the Technical analysis developed in 2010, recommendations for improvement and tools for encouraging IMC initiatives at local and central levels will be developed. In 2011, the Toolkit on IMC will be adapted to the Croatian environment – information, learning and training materials will be developed.
The project technical analysis and recommendations will be promoted, in the first instance, among the members of the executive boards of the two Associations and with the Ministry. The next activities of the project activities will focus on awareness-raising and promotion of the CoE-UNDP-LGI Toolkit on IMC.
a. Previous activities
The Centre co-operated intensively with several partners in France, in particular with:
- the National Institute for Territorial Studies (INET), offering training based on the Centre's tools and co-organising seminars;
- the Observatory for Local Government Performance (OPPALE), offering a European dimension to the reflexion on performance management systems and tools at local level.
b. Activities in 2010
The Cooperation Agreement signed in May 2008 between the Centre of Expertise and INET continued to be implemented:
- 4 training mini-sessions were organised in the Palais de l'Europe for French local government officials;
- a third joint seminar on "strategic management: comparison of European approaches" was organised in November 2010;
- a second joint Meeting on "local democracy and citizen participation: European challenges and responses" was organised in December 2010;
- a workshop on "Local government in a time of crisis: Risks and solutions" was also organised in December 2010 in the framework of the Entretiens Territoriaux de Strasbourg, co-organised by CNFPT and INET.
Further contribution was given to the work of the Observatory of Local Public Performance (OPPALE), in particular co-piloting, with the University of Pau, of the Working Group on "European experiences in local public performance": finalisation of a comparative study of UK, Norwegian and Belgium municipalities.
An international colloquy was organised on 24 and 25 June in Bordeaux on "The citizen at the heart of innovation at local level" in co-operation with the University of Pau. This event brought together more than 350 participants and many high-level officials.
The Centre contributed, together with the City of Lille and the Association of Local Democracy Agencies (ALDA), to the preparation of a Programme on "Digital cities”, which should make use of the performance management tools prepared by the Centre. This programme should be submitted to the 2011 edition of Interreg IVC.
Support was offered to the French cities which have tested the European Label of Governance Excellence (ELoGE).
c. Envisaged activities
Co-operation with INET, OPPALE should continue on the same basis as in 2009 and 2010.
Co-operation with Lille for a future project will also continue. Lille should also be associated to the future performance management programme to be launched in 2011 in Belgium.
An international colloquy on “Transparency and public ethics” will be organised in July 2011 in co-operation with the City of Strasbourg, the University of Pau and the CNFPT.
Support will be offered for the creation of a French national platform for delivering the European Label EloGE.
a. Previous activities
NTS, Councillors’ Training and Strategic Municipal Planning Programmes
Between 2004 and 2008, the former Directorate of Cooperation for Local and Regional Democracy (DCDLR) and later the Centre of Expertise for Local Government developed, in cooperation with the National Association of Local Authorities of Georgia (NALAG) as well as with the Norwegian Association of Cities and Regions, a National Training Strategy (NTS), including the creation of a National Training Coordination Agency (TCA), as well as a project on Human Resources Management at municipal level.
In 2008, the Centre of Expertise, in cooperation with the same partners and with the financial support of the Norwegian Ministry for Foreign Affairs, launched a Programme of Training of Municipal Councillors and Local Government Officials, as well as a Programmes of assistance to strategic municipal planning (SMP) and emergency municipal planning (EMP) in three Georgian pilot municipalities (Rustavi and Lanchkhuti for SMP and Senaki for EMP).
In 2009, the emergency planning programme came to an end, such responsibility being fully transferred to the national authorities with no more direct involvement of local authorities, but the Councillors Training and Strategic Municipal Planning Programmes continued.
The Councillors' Training Programme tools focus on the following three key topics - National Georgian legislation in the field of local self-government; Budgetary and financial planning procedure at local level and effectiveness of municipal councils and general management of municipal administration (including communication with citizens). These tools were finalised following their testing in 10 Georgian pilot local authorities.
The strategic municipal planning programme continued to be implemented in cooperation with the Georgian and Norwegian Associations of Local Authorities (NALAG and KS) and support was provided to the implementation of the strategic municipal plan developed by the municipality of Lanchkhuti for the period 2010-2014, the responsibility for the support to the Rustavi plan being taken over by UNDP.
A 2nd Round of the Strategic Municipal Planning Programme was then launched in October 2009, thanks to the renewed financial support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities (KS), in two new municipalities (Ozurgeti and Chokhatauri) located in the Guria Region, in South West Georgia, with a view to developing municipal but also regional strategic municipal plans.
b. Activities en 2010
Continuation of the Programme on Training of Municipal Councillors and Local Government Officials and of the 2nd Round the Strategic Municipal Planning Programme in two new pilot municipalities of the Guria Region (Ozurgeti and Chokhatauri), with a regional dimension
Since the last local elections held in May 2010, NALAG, in cooperation with other local training partners as well as international organisations such as GTZ, has been organising various training sessions in several Georgian municipalities, especially for the newly elected municipal councillors, using the training tools elaborated and tested in 2008 and 2009 in 10 pilot local authorities. A Guidebook for newly elected municipal councilors has also been prepared. It should be finalised and published in 2011.
The 2nd Round of the Strategic Municipal programme has also continued with direct assistance provided to the implementation of the strategic municipal plan of city of Lanckhuti. Such assistance included in particular the opening, in June 2010, of several one-stop-shop/information centres all over its territory as well as some activities of promotion of tourism.
Continued support was also provided to the drafting of the strategic municipal plans of the cities of Ozurgeti and Chokhatauri as well as to the strategic plan of the Region of Guria. Various working groups and public meetings, some with the participation of Council of Europe experts, have been organised with a strong political commitment of the Mayors as well as a strong involvement of the Governor of the Region.
In particular, a new field visit of the local and international experts was held in each pilot from 22 to 25 June 2010, with a view to meeting all key stakeholders of the Programme (Mayor and Chief Executive of pilot municipalities, some local officials such as heads of student and youth departments, as well as representatives of local NGOs and local media) and discuss with them the draft communities profiles of both pilot municipalities as well as to make a joint analysis of their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT).
A mid-term evaluation workshop was then organised on 12 October 2010 in Oslo in Norway with the participation of KS, NALAG as well as Council of Europe experts to review the implementation of the 2nd Round of the strategic municipal planning programme, identify its weaknesses, and where needed bring the necessary improvements.
The main conclusion of the meeting was that the 2nd Round of the strategic municipal planning programme is developing successfully with the plans of Ozurgeti and Chokhatauri now at the point where SWOTs and vision statements have been completed and development objectives have been defined. First drafts of the strategic municipal plans of Ozurgeti and Chokhatauri are thus ready for public hearings to be organised in the course of the first semester of 2011. The project has received regular national and regional coverage. In terms of support to projects implementation, as indicated above, a network of info-points has been opened across Guria Region, in particular nearby Lanckhuti and further projects will be supported through the programme in 2011.
The overall action plan of the programme was consequently revised and it was agreed that a next joint field visit of KS, NALAG as well as Council of Europe experts should be held in March 2011 in order to validate and mark officially the completion of the first phase of the project with the completion of the municipal plans for Ozurgeti and Chokhatauri. The second objective of such visit will be to launch the second stage (2011-2012) of the Strategic Municipal Planning Programme with the support to the development of a regional plan for Guria. Such plan should be situated at a more strategic level, taking into account projects of regional significance (e.g. relocation of refining capacity, potential new railway infrastructure, business and employment development, environment) to provide an outward facing perspective of Guria’s role in relation to Georgia and its economic and social development.
c. Envisaged activities
i Continuation, in cooperation with NALAG and KS, of the Municipal Councillors Training Programme, and organisation of additional training sessions with the completed training tools and publication of a Guidebook for newly elected municipal councillors.
ii Continuation of the 2nd Round of the Strategic Municipal Planning Programme in two new pilot municipalities of the Guria Region (Ozurgeti et Chokhatauri), in cooperation with NALAG and KS, as well as the office of the Regional Governor of Guria Region, with a view to develop local but also regional action plans.
The municipal and regional strategic municipal plans should be made public; a revised version of the national guide to strategic municipal planning, produced in 2009, should be published and disseminated in early 2012, with the support of NALAG, to all Georgian municipalities as well as national and international NGOs.
a. Activities in 2010
The cities of Offenburg, Ulm, Ingolstadt, Freiburg and Leipzig have been invited to participate in the activities on performance management applied to local budgets and municipal property as well as on human resource management at municipal level organised in Serbia with the participation of Serbian and French municipalities.
Offenburg officials took an active part in a joint workshop on local budgets and municipal property organised in 8 June 2010 in Belgrade, and Serbian officials were invited to meet HRM officials of the City of Freiburg during an HRM study visit that took place in November 2010. They also visited the School of Public Administration of Kehl (Hoschulle).
b. Envisaged activities
The active participation of these 4 German municipalities in various capacity-building programmes activities of the Centre of Expertise, notably those dealing with citizen participation in South Eastern Europe and Southern Caucasus, and/or the development of specific capacity-building programmes in Germany, in particular on performance management, is being discussed.
It is also foreseen that these cities will participate, in 2011, in the experimentation of the European Label on Governance Excellent (ELoGE).
a. Previous activities
Best Practice Programme and Leadership Development Programme
Two capacity-building programmes were launched in 2008 by the National Association of Local Authorities in Hungary (TÖOSZ) with assistance from the Centre of Expertise, and in co-operation with the Ministry of Local Government and other associations of local authorities in Hungary: the Leadership Benchmarking Programme and the Best Practice Programme. The activities continued throughout 2009, but also in 2010.
Two rounds of the Best Practice Programme were run up to now and the third round should be finalised in 2011. All the relevant news and information can be found on TÖOSZr webpage, including all the applications and case studies what we received until now:
In the Leadership Programme, four successful Peer Reviews were implemented, of which two in 2009: in Alsózsolca and Alsómocsolád.
All of the relevant documents can be reached on TÖOSZ website:
b. Activities in 2010
Best Practice programme:
The Best Practice Programme raised considerable interest and the practices collected were of high value. The programme should continue in 2011.
The Steering Committee (composed of various Partners’ representatives: Hungarian Municipality Association, Association of Hungarian Villages, National Development Agency, Ministry of Interior) conducted and evaluated the process with the help of the Selection Panel. It made a call for proposal for the Local Governments in three themes (roma integration, development projects with cooperation between communities and renewable energy projects). 21 applications were received, from them there were 18 approved by formal aspects.
The programme was disseminated through different channels: ÖNkormányzat newsletter, online newsletters, conferences, workshops connecting with local governments in the given period.
After receiving the best practices from LGs, the Steering Committee had a meeting about the schedule of the programme and nominated the experts in Selection Panel. Selection Panel prepared a short list from them, after reading and evaluating the applications. Experts visited the projects and the Steering Committee decided at the final conference the “winners”, who receive the prizes - one million HUF (about 3600 euro) in each themes and the other prizes.
Before closing the conference, the representatives of LGs who participated in the final competition received a one-day training about presentation methods. At the final conference, which took place on 12 May in Budapest, each municipality applied for best practice status had 15 minutes for introducing their good practice for the 150 LGs representatives who participated at this event. The main activity currently under way is the dissemination of knowledge and the training of the representatives of Local Governments on how they can help other Local Governments to multiply their know-how.
The number of applications was smaller both because it was an electoral year (at both national and local level) and because the themes were considered as more "difficult" than in the previous rounds.
Before creating a new call for application for 2010 TÖOSZ made a survey. More than half of the members know the Best Practices Programme; from other questions it became clear that transfer of knowledge is an important issue for the Mayors. The approval rate of the question was 4.2 point which can be considered as strong. All Mayors answered this question.
The most important factor for the Mayors when they decide about whether to apply or not was the long time frame (80%), before the general attention what could be achieved with the program (56%) and the prizes (48%). We made a diagram about the popularity of the topics for the next application period.
- Meeting of Steering Committee (SC) with 13 participants for 1 day (1/2/2010);
- Expert meeting with 10 participants for 1 day (18/2/2010)
- Visits of short listed LG projects (11/3/2010 – 31/03/2010)
- Workshop for the short listed projects owners with 18 participants for 1 day (29/04/2010)
- Closing conference with 150 participants for 1 day (12/05/2010)
- Training for leaders and experts of leading municipalities (18/11/2010) our leading expert, Dr. Katalin
- Dissemination Conference for 100 participants for 1 day (25/11/2010)..
Leadership Development Programme
Two new peer reviews were conducted in 2010 in Berhida and Dunaföldvár.
Peer examined the leadership practices of the host municipalities and made recommendations for improvement. On this basis, the municipalities under peer review prepared and started to implement improvement plans.
b. Envisaged activities
The Best Practice Programme will continue in 2011. Because of the local elections (October 2010), the local disseminations events will be organised in 2011:
- 22 February 2011 in Budapest XIII. District;
- 25 February 2011 in Mohács
- 1 March 2011 in Hernáda;
- 6 April 2011 in Csorvás.
TÖOSZ should also launch a new round of the programme in 2011.
A Leadership Academy Programme should also start in 2011.
a. Previous activity
Since 2009, the Council of Europe is working with the Department for Local Government (DLG) within the Office of the Prime Minister in Malta to prepare for the introduction of a new performance management regime for Maltese local councils.
A policy paper on performance management, a paper on the policy environment for a performance management system, and elements for an implementation strategy were developed. A national Task Force was established to develop the implementation strategy in 2010. Eight local services were selected for performance measurement following a comprehensive consultation process led by the CoE.
b. Activity in 2010
The Office of the Prime Minister in Malta whished to postpone the implementation of the project on performance management until 2011, due to other priorities and limited human resources capacities within the Department for Local Government (DLG) in 2010.
Instead, the Council of Europe was asked to organise in 2010 a series of meetings on the subject of the role of the Executive Secretaries in Maltese local councils. Information papers were prepared by Council of Europe’s experts from Italy, France and the UK and forwarded to DLG in Malta.
A National Seminar for Local Councils’ Executive Secretaries was organised at the initiative of the Office of the Prime Minister on 3 November. It brought together the executive secretaries of 61 (out of 68) local councils in Malta, senior representatives of the DLG, the Association of Local Councils and the Association of Executives Secretaries. The objectives were to review the new status of the Maltese Executive Secretaries in the light of the experience of other EU countries, such as France, Italy and the UK, with respect to the legal status and career development.
At the Seminar, the Director General of Information, Local Government and Public Consultation (OPM) emphasised the importance of good co-operation between his office and the CoE; he stressed that this co-operation is brining concrete and positive results for the Maltese local government structures. The DLG stressed the urgent need for a National Training Strategy for local government in Malta and encouraged the support of the CoE with this regard.
c. Future activity
The CoE expertise in 2011 will be needed to complete the policy document and templates of performance indicators, targets and objectives, as well as to provide advice on the system to put them in place and use. The CoE would work with the DLG to define the next stages of implementation and the launching of performance management across Malta.
a. Previous activities
i. Best Practice Programme, National Training Strategy, Public Ethics Benchmarking
Three rounds of the Best Practice Programme were implemented with a significant success in 2006-2008.
The National Training Strategy programme was implemented in partnership with the Moldovan Academy for Public Administration.
A Public Ethics Benchmarking Programme was implemented in 2007-2008.
(For further information about these programmes, see the website devoted to capacity building in local government in Moldova: www.local.md)
b. Activities in 2010
Best Practice Programme
The fourth round of Best Practice Programme for Local Authorities in Moldova was implemented in 2010, following the success of the 2008 programme, with one year break. The programme has become very popular in Moldova; its sustainability, although desired by all stakeholders, is still not secured from domestic sources.
The themes of the second round, the evaluation criteria and the composition of the Selection Panel were decided by the Steering Group at their meeting on 29 September 2010. The State Chancellery and the Ministry for Regional Development and Constructions were involved in the process from the beginning. For 2010, 3 themes were selected: local economic development; good governance; strategic management of local communities.
A brochure, including an application form, was prepared and sent to all local authorities. The Selection Panel received 37 applications for the Best Practice status and shortlisted 12 of them. It organised study visits during December 2010 to the shortlisted municipalities and selected the six best practices to receive the Award and status. One local authority was nominated to receive the Extraordinary Award. The Steering Group examined the procedure and endorsed the proposal of the Selection Panel on 4 March 2010.
An Award Ceremony is planned for 12 April 2011 to celebrate and disseminate the Award-winning practices. Dissemination activities include at the moment publication of all practice on the website www.local.md.
c. Envisaged activities
The Best Practice Programme will continue in 2011.
A proposal for a Joint Project with the European Commission, including both legal assistance and capacity building, was presented by the Moldovan government to the Commission. If the EC accepts it, this would open the door to substantial capacity-building work for the benefit of local authorities in Moldova.
a. Previous activities
A Joint Programme (JP) between the Council of Europe and the European Agency for Reconstruction was implemented in 2006-2008 in co-operation with the Ministry of the Interior and the Union of Municipalities of Montenegro. The JP included a module on capacity-building for local government with the following projects:
a) the preparation of a National Training Strategy,
b) a Best Practice programme, and
c) a Leadership Development programme.
A new Joint Programme between the Council of Europe and the EC Delegation in Montenegro on Strengthening Local Self-Government in Montenegro (Phase II) was launched in 2009. It included a module on strengthening public ethics at local level, aiming at implementing the anti-corruption programme. To complement the CoE project on ethics, VNG International launched a larger project on ethics in municipalities funded by MATRA, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands. OSCE Mission in Montenegro implemented, with the support of the Centre of Expertise, a complementary project on ethics at local level as well as the Best Practice and Leadership Development Programmes.
b. Activities in 2010
Within the Joint Programme between the Council of Europe and the European Commission Delegation on Strengthening Local Self-Government in Montenegro (Phase II), the Centre of Expertise implemented a Programme on “Transparent Municipality” in Montenegro. This included:
- analysis and up-date on the implementation of the National Programme and Action Plan on Fighting Corruption at Local Level in Montenegro;
- the development and use of a National Benchmark on a “Transparent Municipality” ;
- a national media campaign on “Transparent Municipality”;
- the development and implementation of a model communications strategy for municipalities;
The Centre of Expertise and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe, under the auspices of the Government of Montenegro, co-organised a Regional Conference for ministers, state secretaries, senior officials, local elected representatives and their associations of South-eastern Europe on “Good Governance, Transparency and Ethics at local level” which took place on 3-4 June 2010 in Budva. Participants took stock of progress made in the action engaged at both central and local level to fight corruption and promote public ethics. They exchanged information and good practice, reviewed current policies and considered further measures aimed at enhancing the quality of local governance, with particular focus on the transparency and the ethical conduct of public affairs by all those involved. Senior level officials from the Council of Europe, the OSCE – ODIHR, the Office of the Co-ordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities, and from other international organisations attended the conference.
c. Future activity
In 2011, the Centre of Expertise should implement a Financial Benchmarking activity, for both central and local government level. This activity should be based on the tool developed by the Centre of Expertise in co-operation with OSI-LGI and taking inspiration from Recommendations Rec(20004)1 and Rec(2005)1 of the Committee of Ministers.
a. Previous activities
In 2007-2008 Romania implemented a Public Ethics Benchmarking Programme in co-operation with the Romanian National Agency for Civil Servants.
b. Current and future activities
The Centre received expressions of interest for continuing capacity-building for local authorities in Romania. However, for the moment no budget has been identified for such activities.
15. Russian Federation (North-West Russia and Kaliningrad)
a. Previous activities
In 2005-2006, the Council of Europe worked with the Russian Congress of Municipalities and the Academy of Public Administration in NW Russia to pilot a Leadership Benchmark programme within the framework of a joint Council of Europe – European Commission programme for North-West Russia.
A Peer Review project was implemented in the region of Karelia and a Self-Assessment project, based on Council of Europe methodology and the Russian Leadership Benchmark, was piloted in the Kaliningrad region within the framework of the joint Council of Europe – EC programme for NW Russia.
Best Practice Programme
A Best Practice programme in transfrontier co-operation was implemented in NW Russia in co-operation with the Academy of Public Administration in St Petersburg, the Congress of Municipalities of Russia, and the regional local authority associations from the Regions of Kaliningrad and Pskov and the Republic of Karelia
Leadership Academy Programme
The North-Western Academy of Public Administration implemented, in 2008-2009, of a “Leadership Academy Programme” developed by the Centre of Expertise, based on co-funding and a statement of co-operation.
b. Activities in 2010
Inter-municipal co-operation in transfrontier regions
In late 2010, the Centre of Expertise associated with the Nordic Council in order to support the implementation of a programme aiming at facilitating transfrontier co-operation in NW Russia. The programme should be based, to a large extent, on the Madrid Outline Convention and on the Toolkit on IMC prepared by the Centre of Expertise.
c. Envisaged activities
Several programmes are envisaged and funding is being negotiated. The Centre of Expertise will launch the adaptation of the Toolkit on Inter-municipal Co-operation to Russian environment, in co-operation with the Ministry of Regional Development. This could lead to a fully-fledged programme on Inter-municipal co-operation. Other programmes could concern performance management, public ethics and a continuation of the Leadership Academy Programme.
16. Russian Federation (Chechen Republic)
a. Previous activities
Within the programme of co-operation between the Council of Europe and the Russian Federation for the Chechen Republic, in the area of Democracy and Development of Local Self-Government, the Centre of Expertise implemented specific local government training activities in 2008 and 2009.
b. Activities in 2010
In 2010, the Centre for Expertise implemented the following five training activities in the area of Democracy and Development of Local Self-Government:
- Workshop on the leadership capacities of the newly elected mayors;
- Seminar on the performance of the new competencies of the local authorities of the Chechen Republic;
- Practical workshop on the social-economic planning o territories (Open to representatives of all Republics of the North Caucasus Federal District);
- Legal assistance in developing normative acts in local self-government units;
c. Envisaged activities
After three years of basic training, the Centre of Expertise should switch its efforts to fully-fledged capacity-building programmes in 2012.
2011 will be a transitional year, were four 3-day events will be organised:
- two of them will still consist in traditional training (one being open to all subject in the North Caucasus District and organised in the region – in Pyatigorsk);
- the other two will constitute a light-version capacity-building programme, where participants will be familiarised with municipal planning tools and will also make use of them in order to improve in practical ways local government regulation and practice.
a. Previous activities
Programmes of exchange of best practices, leadership and performance management at local level
Between 2006 and 2008, the Centre of Expertise contributed to the successful implementation of Phase I of the Joint Programme between the Council of Europe and the European Commission on « Strengthening local self-government in Serbia ». This Programme included a component on building the capacities of Serbian local authorities divided in three distinct projects. Two projects focusing, on the one hand on the promotion of local leadership (benchmark of an efficient and democratic local authority), and on the other hand on the exchange of best practices, were launched in 2006 and completed in early 2008. A third capacity building programme aimed at promoting the use of performance management mechanisms in Serbian local authorities (in different key areas of the local administration: local economic development, communication with the citizens, internal communication, waste management and management of staff) was launched in 2007 and completed late 2008. It involved 10 Serbian and 6 French pilot municipalities and was implemented with the support of the French Embassy in Belgrade.
In 2009, a 2nd Round of the Performance Management Project was launched in September/October 2009 within the framework of a new Joint Programme between the Council of Europe and the European Commission on “Strengthening local self-government in Serbia Phase II. This new Round is again implemented in cooperation with the Standing Conference of Towns and Municipalities of Serbia (SCTM) as well as the French Embassy in Belgrade, and associate 5 French and 5 Serbian twinned municipalities (Le Creusot/Majdanpek; Suresnes/Kragujevac, Nevers/Sremska Mitrovica, Bricquebec/Sremski Karlovci, Territoire de Belfort/Novi Beograd). Moreover, the German municipality of Offenburg is also involved, with a view to favour greater exchange of know-how and experience.
The methodology and approach to be used are similar to the ones used during the 1st Round of the Project. However, the Programme this time focuses on the performance mechanisms and related indicators to be applied in order to improve the measurement and management of performance in the regulations on local budgets and the handling of municipal property. In addition, the Project is complementary to legal assistance activities led by the Council of Europe, also within the framework of the new Joint Programme with the European Commission, with the aim to submitting to the Serbian government, and its responsible Ministry for Public Administration, proposals for improvement of the legislation in the areas of local budgeting and property.
Several activities were organised. They included the drafting of a questionnaire on the experience of pilot municipalities in managing performance in the field of budgetary and financial planning/management of property (such tool was dispatched to all French and Serbian pilots), the organisation of a Joint launching Workshop, held on 30 September and 1 October 2009 in Belgrade, with the representatives of Serbian and French pilots, the Standing Conference of Towns and Municipalities, the French Embassy as well as Council of Europe’s experts, and the drafting of performance management tools specific to local budget and property and their experimentation in all pilot municipalities.
Continuation of the performance activities applied to local budget and property and legal assistance to the reform of the related legislation.
Specific activities were organised between Serbian, French and German Municipalities, with a view to continue meeting the following objectives:
- to improve the measurement and management of performance in the regulations of local budgets and the handling of municipal property in the 5 Serbian (Majdanpek, Kragujevac, Sremska Mitrovica, Sremski Karlovci, Novi Beograd), 5 French (Le Creusot, Suresnes, Le Territoire de Belfort, Nevers and Bricquebec) and 1 German pilot local authorities (Offenburg), via the development and use of different tools/strategies;
- to promote exchange of experience between the Serbian, French and German pilot local authorities, identify good practices to be learnt from best practice and formulate separate/joint recommendations for improvement of their respective practices;
- to raised awareness of elected representatives and officials of the Serbian, French and German pilot local authorities regarding the role and importance of the performance measurement and management at local level which includes a range of processes, techniques and methods that facilitate the identification of targets and measurement of progress towards achieving these;
- to facilitate the exchange of experience and the development, when appropriate, of lasting partnerships/projects between Serbian, French and German local authorities (though development of actual twinning is not the objective of the Project).
- to support the revision of the legislation in the field of budget and property in Serbia, through the submission to the Serbian relevant Ministries of proposals for improvement, in line with the needs and priorities of Serbian local authorities (identified through the activities).
- to support the revision of the legislation in the field of budget and property in line with the needs and priorities of Serbian local authorities, through provisions of new legislative recommendations and subsequent testing of proposed changes in practice.
A local and international experts’ meeting was organised on 22 January 2010 in Belgrade in order to discuss the conclusions of the Joint Launching Workshop on property held in September/October 2009 in Belgrade, as well as to review the draft performance management tools prepared and tested since, by the Serbian pilot local authorities. The latest development of the Serbian legislation in the field of local budget and property was also discussed. Representatives of the Standing Conference of Towns and Municipalities (SCTM) as well as the Serbian Ministries of Finance and Public Administration took an active part in this activity.
A field visit of international and local experts in each pilot local authority was then organised from 16 to 18 March 2010 to assist and monitor the implementation of performance management tools applied to local budgets and property and make, where needed, recommendations for improvement. The ongoing revision of the Serbian legislation on local budgets and property was also discussed with the elected representatives and officials of the pilot municipalities, with a view to identifying their key priorities and those issues that the legislators should, in their opinion, take into account in order to meet their needs.
Finally, a Joint Workshop was held in Belgrade, on 8 June 2010, with the participation of French and German pilots officials as well as representatives of the French Embassy in Serbia and the French University of Pau, to discuss the conclusions of the fields visits, review the final feedbacks of Serbian pilots on the testing/implementation of the performance management tools and introduce necessary improvements. German and French approaches to budget and property, with case studies of specific pilots, were also discussed in details, in particular the applied rules of financial auditing.
Proposals for key legal amendments still needed in order to make the Serbian legislation in the field of local budget and property fully in line with the European standards but also local authorities’ needs to improve their practices (in particular with regards to the application of performance management mechanisms) were also put forward. These were then discussed with the relevant Serbian Ministries.
Launching of a new project on the management of human resources at municipal level
A new set of activities dealing with the human resources management (HRM) at municipal level was launched. It is focusing on the definition of new modern human resource management tools (job descriptions, procedure of selection and recruitment, and mechanisms of evaluating staff performance) to be drafted on the basis of human resources needs assessment, and their testing in 6 Serbian local authorities (Kursumlija, Novi Pazar, Sombor, Uzice, Veliko Gradiste and Zemun).
Conclusions of such testing and subsequent recommendations shall be used to suggest amendments to the related legislation of status of Serbian local government officials. A Guide to HR Management with those new HRM tools shall be published and then disseminated to all Serbian municipalities, with the support of the Standing Conference of Towns and Municipalities of Serbia (SCTM).
The HRM programme is being implemented with the support of the Standing Conference of Towns and Municipalities (SCTM) as well as the Serbian Ministry of Public Administration. It involves German and French experts from public and private sectors, in particular from the Urban Community of Lille and the French private HR company Altedia.
A first international HRM experts meetings was organised on 1 March 2010 in Strasbourg, with the objectives to review the latest development of the Serbian legislation dealing with the status of local government officials, as well as the existing HRM practices in Serbian municipalities; consider and discuss the proposed methodology and action plan for HRM activities and their link with the ongoing revision of related Serbian legislation; agree on the selection procedure and criteria for the six Serbian pilot local authorities as well as on the types of tools to be used to carry out an HRM needs assessment. At the meeting, Council of Europe experts from France and Germany shared their HRM experience.
A series of bilateral meeting between local and international experts and key HRM local and international stakeholders, namely the representatives of the Ministry of Public Administration and Local Self-Government, the SCTM and the Municipal Support Programme financed by the European Commission was then organised on 21 May 2010 in Belgrade. These meetings had for main objectives to make sure that the proposed action plan of the HRM activities was in line with the ongoing revision of the related Serbian legislation and above all complement the other related activities of key stakeholders.
These meetings were followed by a Joint Seminar with the representatives of the 6 Serbian pilot local authorities organised on 15 September 2010 in Belgrade. The proposed action plan of the programme was on that occasion discussed and adopted, and a detailed draft HRM needs assessment questionnaire presented and agreed upon. Such questionnaire was then sent to all 6 pilots municipalities. A field visit of HRM local and international experts was then organised on 20 and 21 October as well as on 1 November in order to more especially review the existing HRM practices of the 6 Serbian pilot municipalities in line with their answers to the HRM needs assessment questionnaire.
Finally, a study visit of Serbian pilots' officials in Strasbourg, Kehl and Freiburg was organised on 18 and 19 November 2010. On that occasion, Serbian officials met with representatives of the Strasbourg City and Urban Community (CUS), the French National Institute of Local Government Studies (INET), the French National School of Administration (ENA), the Strasbourg Institute of Political Studies (IEP), the Municipality of Freiburg, the Kehl School of Public Administration and Council of Europe experts. They exchanged experience and know-how concerning HRM municipal practices, local government officials recruitment procedure, and training tools used in France and Germany, with a view to improving Serbian practices in this field.
c. Envisaged activities
1. Continuation of activities of Phase II of the Joint Council of Europe/European Commission Programme dealing with the performance management applied to local budgets and property, with the participation of Serbian, French and German Municipalities. A study trip of Serbian officials to France and a Joint Conference/ Roundtable to discuss results of the performance management activities in light of review and elaboration of the Law on local budgets and assessment of the Law on public property are in particular foreseen.
2. Continuation, in the framework of Phase II of the Joint Council of Europe/European Commission Programme, of a new set of activities dealing with human resources management at municipal level, with a view to contribute to the reform of the status of Serbian local government officials. Answers to the HRM needs assessment shall be examined and subsequent HRM tools elaborated, to complement the related bylaws to the Law on status of local government officials, and a Guide to HRM at municipal, published and disseminated to all Serbian local authorities.
A joint Workshop on HR Management at municipal level in Europe is scheduled on 8 April 2011 in Strasbourg in order to review the findings/preliminary conclusions of the HRM Programmes implemented so far in Serbia and Albania, discuss their possible extension to other CoE countries such as Ukraine and Armenia, as well as review the draft version of the new CoE Centre of Expertise Toolkit dealing with HR Management and bring the necessary improvement. Local and international experts involved in the Serbian HRM activities shall be invited to take an active part in this activity.
a. Previous activities
The programme on Public Ethics Benchmarking and Improving was road-tested in Spain in 2007, in co-operation with the Spanish government and 5 Spanish municipalities.
Experimentation of the European Label of Good Governance and Innovation as well as launch of a new citizen participation programme
A new programme on citizen participation at local level was launched in Spain in parallel to the experimentation of the European Label of Governance Excellence (ELoGE). This programme involves 7 Spanish local authorities (Province of Gerona and the cities of Gerona, Malaga, Getafe, San Sebastien, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Pineda de Mar) as well as the two French cities of Strasbourg and Bordeaux, which are both pilots of ELoGE. The citizen participation programme is based on the use of the related Centre of Expertise tool that includes a detailed questionnaire to be filled in by local authorities as well as a template for elaboration of so called plan of improvement of citizen participation mechanisms.
A 1st meeting of Spanish and French pilots of the Label and of the citizen participation programme was organised on 26 and 27 October 2010 in Gerona, in order to discuss the expediency of launching the Council of Europe European Label (ELoGE) in Spain, the relevance of such an instrument for Spanish authorities, and the steps which this would require. Participants exchanged views on ways to promote local-level innovation and good governance internationally, to evaluate the progress of municipal action (performance management) and to develop citizen participation at local level.
As well as analysing the tools made available by the Council of Europe's Centre of Expertise for Local Government Reform for promoting citizen and general civic participation, participants were invited to describe the relevant approaches established by their own local authorities, and to study those of the other local stakeholders attending. A UK representative presented the experience of British local government in applying performance management mechanisms, which inspired some of the Label’s principles, and in promoting citizen participation.
c. Envisaged activities
Continuation of the experimentation of ELoGE as well as of the implementation of the programme on citizen participation at municipal level, with the participation of French cities of Bordeaux and Strasbourg. Two joint meeting are due to be held on 10 and 11 March 2011 in San Sebastien and in September/October 2010 in Malaga or Getafe, with the presence of officials from Belgium and Norway, countries where the European Label has also been tested.
a. Previous activities
Following the official request by the Training Centre for Local Authorities within the Ticino Cantonal Government (CFEL), the Centre of Expertise assisted, in 2009, in launching the Best Practice Programme in the Ticino Canton.
The first round of Best Practice Programme for Local Authorities in Ticino Canton was officially launched in October 2009 during the conference hosted by the Major of City of Lugano. The programme focused on two main themes: “Innovations in internal management in local government authorities” and “Innovations in external actions of local government authorities”. The first thematic area included all innovative initiatives related to the internal organisation, human resources management, accounting and auditing, financial management, total quality management, and efficiency promotion; while the second thematic area included all innovations aiming at improving public services delivery, economic development promotion, infrastructure building, social and cultural promotion, and citizens’ engagement.
b. Activities in 2010
Best Practice Programme in 2010
The themes, the evaluation criteria and the composition of the Selection Panel were decided by the Steering Group, composed by representatives from: Training Centre for Local Authorities in Ticino; Association of Urban Municipalities; Association of Mountain Regions; Union of Municipal Secretaries; Council of Europe; and representatives from Universities. A brochure, including an application form, was prepared and sent to all local authorities, and the deadline was agreed for 30 April 2010.
The Selection Panel received 35 practices from 27 municipalities from Ticino from which 9 practices for the theme “Innovation in internal management” and 26 practices for “Innovation in external action”. Results demonstrated that the Best Practice Programme had been very well perceived by the local authorities.
The practice submitted by the group of municipalities Manno – Bioggio – Agno received the award for internal innovation, while municipality of Chiasso was selected as a best innovative practice in external action. The awarded municipalities were officially announced on a final conference dedicated to innovation in local government, held on 19 November 2010 in Bellinzona.
The second round of the Best Practice Programme 2011 also was announced at the conference for the same two themes.
c. Envisaged activities
Dissemination of best practices will include development of publication collecting all initiatives that had been presented, and they will be also available on the website of the Training Centre for Local Authorities in Ticino: http://www4.ti.ch/decs/dfp/cfel/.
The workshops will be organised in selected municipalities in order to share the knowledge and experience.
The deadline for the second round of Best Practice is agreed for 30 April 2011, and the award ceremony is planned for November 2011.
“the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”
a. Previous activities
From September 2006 to February 2007, the Centre of Expertise implemented a Leadership Benchmark project for local government with the financial support of the Government of Japan. The project was implemented in co-operation with the national Association of Local Self-Government Units (ZELS) and with support from the Ministry of Local Self-Government. As a result of this project and following the consultation workshops, the Leadership Benchmark and its self-assessment tool were amended and published.
In May 2007 the Centre of Expertise secured an agreement on a substantial Joint Programme with the EAR in Skopje on capacity-building for local government. The programme “Leadership Benchmark and Best Practice programme” started in June 2007 and was completed in February 2009. The Programme included three modules:
- a Leadership Development programme including further dissemination of the Leadership Benchmark, Peer Reviews and Self-assessment process;
- a Programme on public ethics at local level, including the development of standards on public ethics, a national campaign on the “Transparent Municipality”, selection, award and dissemination of good practices;
- a Best Practice Programme: identification, official recognition and dissemination of best practice in local government leadership, service provision and community participation.
The joint programme “Leadership Benchmark and Best Practice Programme” was completed in February 2009.
In 2009, the Centre of Expertise assisted the Ministry of Local Self-Government to launch a programme on Performance Management for Local Authorities.
b. Activities in 2010
The implementation of the Performance Management Programme continued in 2010. Pilot municipalities independently developed Plans for Performance Management in the two identified areas: public cleaning and property tax. Plans were submitted to ZELS and the Council of Europe for further revision. A Final Conference was organised in April to present the results and to develop a strategy for dissemination of the programme to the other municipalities in the country.
c. Envisaged activities
Currently, no activities are envisaged in 2011 in "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
a. Activities in 2010
The Centre of Expertise implemented, in co-operation with the Union of Municipalities of the Marmara Region (UMMR), a Leadership Academy Programme.
Two 3-day training sessions were organised in the second part of 2010. UMMR covered organisational costs, while the Council of Europe provided expertise.
b. Envisaged activities
The last session of the Leadership Academy Programme will be organised in March 2011 and is expected to be enlarged to the whole of Turkey in co-operation with the Union of Municipalities of Turkey.
In the light of the success of this programme and the numerous plans to extend it to other countries, a Regional Training of Trainers for countries who will launch the Leadership Academy Programme in 2011 will be organised in Ankara on 18-20 March.
a. Previous activities
In the framework of a Joint Programme between the Council of Europe and the European Commission concerning fighting corruption in Ukraine, the Centre of Expertise implemented in 2007-2008 a module of capacity building for local authorities in the field of public ethics at local level, which was organised around the newly created Benchmarking and Improvement Programme on public ethics at local level.
b. Activities in 2010
An ambitious capacity-building programme was prepared for Ukraine. The support of Denmark and Switzerland for this programme was secured. However, due to late signature of contracts with donors, the implementation of this programme will only start in 2011.
c. Envisaged activities
Five fully-fledged capacity-programme will be implemented:
- a follow-up to the (very successful) public ethics programme;
- a Best Practice Programme;
- a Performance Management Programme;
- a Leadership Academy Programme;
- a Local Finance Benchmarking Programme.
Moreover, the Centre of Expertise will offer support to Ukrainian authorities in respect of the implementation by Ukraine of the Strategy for Innovation and Good Governance at Local Level.
a. Previous activities
A project “If I were a Mayor” was implemented in co-operation with the Association of Kosovo Municipalities (AKM). The best 23 essays identified during this project were published in three languages (Albanian, Turkish and Serbian), and the publication was distributed to the municipalities and other local government institutions, international organizations, media and NGOs. All information about the project can be found on the AKM website: www.komunat-ks.net.
b. Future activities
A new project "Youth and Local Government in Kosovo" to be implemented by the AKM will be supported in 2011 by the Centre of Expertise.
APPENDIX III – Relations with partners
1. Relations with international organisations
a. Co-operation with the European Union and its institutions
The European Commission is co-financing programmes in countries covered by the Centre of Expertise, through joint programmes with the Council of Europe. The Centre of Expertise contributes, since late 2009, to the implementation of Phase II of the Joint Programme on “Strengthening local self-government in Serbia” co-financed by the European Commission. This programme include activities of legal assistance and of local authorities’ capacity building focusing on performance management applied to local budgets and municipal property, as well as the management of human resources at municipal level.
b. Co-operation with OSCE (ODIHR and Montenegro)
A Regional Conference on Good Governance, Ethics and Transparency was organised on 3-4 June 2010 in Budva, Montenegro with support of the Council of Europe and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (Montenegro and ODIHR). The Conference was organised at the invitation of the Ministry of Interior and Public Administration of Montenegro and in co-operation with the Union of Municipalities of Montenegro.
More than 60 selected senior officials – ministers, state secretaries, local elected representatives and their associations – from Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia and “the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” met in Budva to take stock of progress made in the action engaged at both central and local level to fight corruption and promote public ethics. Key national and international organisations contributed to the conference: Centre for Development of Non-governmental Organisations in Montenegro, Citizen Information and Education Centres, Network for Affirmation of NGO Sector (MANS) in Montenegro, Local Democracy Agencies, Network of Associations of Local Authorities in South East Europe, the United States Agency for International Development, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), International Cooperation Agency of the Association of Netherlands Municipalities (VNG International).
The Conference provided a platform to exchange information and good practice, review current policies and consider further measures aimed at enhancing the quality of local governance, with particular focus on the transparency and the ethical conduct of public affairs in the region.
The participants in the Conference endorsed a list of recommendations on strengthening the quality of local governance through sound public ethics and transparency at local level. They also agreed to consider taking the appropriate action for the Strategy for Innovation and Good Governance at Local Level of the Council of Europe to be adopted in, and implemented by the countries of the region, with the involvement of governments and local authorities’ associations and with the support of the International community.
c. Co-operation with OSCE OCEEA Vienna
Good working relation was established with the Office of the Coordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities in Vienna. The Co-ordinator attended the Regional Conference in Budva (3-4 June). His office officially supported the organisation of the International Conference on Inter-municipal Co-operation which took place on 23-24 September in Dubrovnik. Next co-operation activities in the field of good governance at local level with a particular look at local economic development and transparency are being developed and will be implemented in 2011.
d. Co-operation with UNDP Bratislava
An International Conference on Inter-municipal co-operation (IMC) was organised on 23-24 September 2010 in Dubrovnik, Croatia at the initiative of the Council of Europe and UNDP Bratislava regional Centre. This was the last activity of the trilateral co-operation project of CoE, LGI (OSI) and UNDP Bratislava Regional Centre (UNDP/BRC), launched in 2008 to promote IMC in Europe. The Office of the Coordinator of OSCE Economic and Environment Activities in Vienna joined this project in 2010.
The Conference was organised under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Administration of Croatia, with support from the CoE, LGI, UNDP, OSCE OCEEA, the Association of Towns and the Association of Municipalities in Croatia.
It brought together more than 80 selected participants – state secretaries, deputy ministers, senior local government officials and elected representatives, executive and political heads of local government associations – from Albania, Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovakia, the Russian Federation, “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”, Turkey, Ukraine and also Kosovo7, senior officials from the CoE, UNDP Bratislava and country offices, the Office of the Coordinator of OSCE Economic and Environment Activities and the Network of Associations of Local Authorities in South-east Europe (NALAS). The Congress of Local and Regional Authorities and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe attended the conference and voiced their strong support to IMC further development.
The Conference was set in the context of the actual situation of post-economic crisis which suggests more efficient local governance, better management of public expenditure and greater collaboration between stakeholders. Utrecht agenda of the European ministers responsible for local and regional government (agreed in November 2009) was used as a background for the Conference. The IMC Toolkit was officially inaugurated.
A set of recommendations for further action aimed at extending IMC throughout local government was developed and endorsed by the participants. Following the Conference, the recommendations were forwarded to the CDLR, the Congress and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe.
The Croatian Government expressed officially, in the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, their satisfaction with the International Conference. Letters of appreciation were received from participating countries.
2. Relations with other international partners
a. Co-operation with UNDP Bratislava regional Centre and the Local Government and Public Service Initiative of the Open Society Institute (LGI – OSI)
The Council of Europe, the United Nations Development Programme and the Local Government and Public Service Initiative of the Open Society Institute finalised their Toolkit on Inter-Municipal Co-operation (IMC). The aim of the Toolkit is to promote IMC throughout local government and includes a Manual, a Guide for Practitioners and a Library for Trainers.
An IMC Website was created on the basis of the produced material. An Information Brochure was developed to promote the IMC Toolkit. It addresses the leadership of municipalities – particularly Mayors – and Local Government Associations (LGA). It explains IMC and introduces the IMC Toolkit. It shows how the IMC Toolkit might be used to develop both the right environment and a robust IMC project.
b. Co-operation with the Local Government and Public Service Initiative of the Open Society Institute (LGI – OSI)
In June 2009-2010, the Foundation Open Society Institute (OSI-ZUG) granted voluntary contributions of more than 60 000 Euros to the Council of Europe for the publication and dissemination of the Toolkit on Inter-Municipal Co-operation (IMC) and in support of a project on Inter-municipal Co-operation in Croatia. In 2010, this included the publication and dissemination of an information brochure on the IMC Toolkit, the organisation of the International Conference on IMC and the official inauguration of the Toolkit (23-24 September 2010, Dubrovnik) and the launching and implementation of a comprehensive technical analysis on IMC in Croatia (for more details, see in country report, Croatia).
c. Co-operation with NALAS (Network of Associations of Local Authorities in South-eastern Europe)
In 2010, the Council of Europe continued to work closely with NALAS. NALAS contributed to the organisation of both the Regional Conference on Good Governance, Ethics and Transparency (June, Budva) and the International Conference on IMC (Sept, Dubrovnik). President and Vice-president attended the conferences. A joint meeting was organised with NALAS and ANCI (the Italian Association of Local Authorities) in December in Rome.
d. Co-operation with UDITE (European Federation of Local Government Chief Executives)
Good working relations were established with UDITE. The Centre of Expertise was invited to contribute to the biannual Congress (General Assembly of UDITE) which took place on 28-29 October in Strasbourg and to the UDITE Bureau Meeting held in Toledo in Spain on 13 March 2010 in order to present the tools and approaches proposed for capacity building. Following the Congress, the new President of UDITE visited the Centre of Expertise to discuss co-operation. It was agreed to develop and implement jointly a project in the field of Performance Management in 2011, involving chief executives from several European countries.
UDITE has been very supportive to the launching of the testing of the European Label for Innovation and Good Governance at local level in Europe in France and Spain.
3. Relations with national partners
All country-specific capacity-building activities are implemented in close co-operation with national partners. More often than not, such partners are associations of local authorities.
a. Co-operation with the International Cooperation Agency of the Association of Netherlands Municipalities (VNG International)
VNG International promoted the Toolkit on IMC in South Caucasus (Armenia) and Ukraine.
Close co-ordination with VNG international was carried out in Montenegro for the implementation of the national programme “Transparent Municipality”. A high level National Conference on Public ethics and Transparency was co-organised in Montenegro with OSCE and VNG Internation
b. Co-operation with Norwegian KS
Since 2008, the Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities (KS) is financing, from funds provided by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the implementation of some municipal councillors’ training and strategic municipal planning activities in Georgia. These are due to continue till 2012.
c. Co-operation with French partners
French Observatory of Local Authorities Performance (OPPALE)
The Centre of Expertise continues its close co-operation with the French Observatory of Local Authorities performance, which was set up in 2007. The Centre of Expertise is a member of the Steering Committee of OPPALE and has also joined the Working Group on the definition and global approach to strategic and performance management, with amongst others, the cities of Bordeaux, Nantes, Pau as well as the Department of Gironde.
Since early 2009, the Centre of Expertise is leading, together with the University of Pau and Pays de l’Adour, the Working Group of the Observatory on “the European experiences of performance management”, and in that framework a best practice comparative survey with a sample of French, British, Belgian and Norwegian pilots municipalities..
French National Institute of Local Government Studies (INET) and the French National Centre of Local Public Service (CNFPT)
The Centre has developed close ties with the French National Institute of Local Government Studies (INET), based in Strasbourg, which trains the senior officials of French local authorities. A formal co-operation agreement was signed in May 2008. This agreement foresees the inclusion of a specific module on the capacity-building activities of the Centre of Expertise into the training programmes of the INET, regular visits by INET trainees to the Council of Europe, the production of joint publications on key topics of interest, the creation of a common expert database as well as the co-organisation of joint events.
In 2010, a 2nd seminar on “local democracy and citizen participation” was organised on 12 December 2010 in cooperation with the Region Alsace and a 3rd Edition of the Joint Council of Europe/INET Seminar on “The European approaches to strategic management” was held from 23 to 25 November 2010, both at the Palais de l’Europe.
As it was the case in 2008 and 2009, four training sessions were organised in 2010, at the Council of Europe headquarters, within the framework of a Programme called “Managing in complexity” during which INET students were introduced to the main Centre of Expertise’s tools, including the European Label ELoGE, as well as European approaches (mainly British and Norwegian) to performance management.
A 4th edition of the Joint Council of Europe/INET Seminar on “The European approaches to strategic management” is scheduled from 15 to 17 November 2011 at the Palais de l’Europe. It shall focus on “Strategic Management and Democracy” and should be a Joint French and German event, to be co-organised with the Euro-Institute and the School of Public Administration in Kehl.
The University of Pau and the Pays de l’Adour (UPPA)
The Centre of Expertise has deepened its co-operation with the University of Pau beyond their common involvement in the activities of the French Observatory of Local Authorities Performance (OPPALE).
Both structures co-organised in June 2009, in Pau, a Colloquy entitled “Comparative analysis of performance management tools and models at international level”.
A 2nd international Colloquy was jointly organised by the two partners with City of Bordeaux on “The citizen at the heart of innovation at local level” on 24 and 25 June 2010, and a 3rd Colloquy focusing on “Transparency and public ethics: a challenge to democracy” will be co-organised on 30 June and 1st July 2011, in cooperation with the Urban Community of Strasbourg and the CNFPT (French National Centre of Local Public Service).
Academics of the University of Pau are also involved in the drafting of the Toolkit V of the Centre of Expertise dealing with Human Resource Management at municipal level, whose preparation started in 2010 and which shall be finalised and published in 2011.
The French National School of Public Administration (ENA) & The Strasbourg School of Political Studies (Science-Po)
Contacts have been established with the French National School of Public Administration (ENA) and the Strasbourg School of Political Studies (Sciences-Po), in particular within the framework of the implementation of the activities of the Joint Programme on “Strengthening local self-government in Serbia” (Phase II) dealing with the management of human resources at municipal level.
Both institutions have hosted Serbian officials on the occasion of the study trip organised on 18 and 19 November 2010 and contacts have since been maintained in order that their experts can support the implementation of such HRM programme and participate in some related activities in the course of 2011.
It was also agreed that experts of the Centre of Expertise would, from 2011 onwards, give lectures on local authorities institutional framework and capacity building in Europe, within the framework of the Master II called ALORE “Local and regional administrations in Europe and that the students of this degree would from time be invited to participate in the Centre’s activities to be held at the Palais de l’Europe.
Contacts with French Cities
Close contacts have been established with several French cities in the framework of the experimentation of the European Label ELoGE. These are Strasbourg, Bordeaux, Nantes, Le Havre, Suresnes, Nevers, Bricquebec, Bondy and the Community of Vichy Val d’Allier.
It is in the framework of such close cooperation that the Centre of Expertise, the City of Bordeaux and the University of Pau and the Pays de l’Adour (UPPA) co-organised, on 24 and 25 June 2010, an international Colloquy on “The citizen at the heart at innovation at local level”, as a follow-up to the joint Council of Europe/University of Pau International Conference entitled “International comparative analysis of performance management tools and models used in the local public sector” held in Pau in June 2009.
This Colloquy gathered around 350 participants, locally elected representatives and officials, representatives from other public sector fields, associations, NGOs and civil society from all over Europe as well as Canada.
d. Contacts with German local authorities (Offenburg, Ulm, Ingolstadt Freiburg, Leipzig) and with the Kehl School of Public Administration (Hoschulle)
Contacts have also been maintained or established with several German municipalities.
An elected representative of the City of Offenburg was again invited to share his know-how and experience in the field of strategic management during the 2nd Edition of the Joint Council of Europe/INET Seminar on “The European approaches to strategic management” organised in November 2010 at the Palais de l’Europe.
The cities of Offenburg, Ulm, Ingolstadt, Freiburg and Leipzig were involved in the activities on performance management applied to local budgets and municipal property as well as on human resource management at municipal level, organised in the framework of Phase II of the Joint Programme on “Strengthening local self-government in Serbia” until 2012, with the participation of Serbian and French municipalities.
It is in that framework that Offenburg officials took an active part in a joint workshop on local budgets and municipal property organised in 8 June 2010 in Belgrade, and that Serbian officials were invited to meet HRM officials of the City of Freiburg during an HRM study visit that took place in November 2010. They also visited the School of Public Administration of Kehl (Hoschulle).
APPENDIX IV – List of abbreviations
AAM: Association of Albanian Municipalities: www.aam-al.org
ALDA: Association of Local Democracy Agencies: www.ldaaonline.org
CDLR: European Committee on Local and Regional Democracy: www.coe.int/local
CLEAR: Can do, Like to, Enabled to, Asked to, Responded to
CNFPT: French National Centre for Territorial Public Service (Centre National de la Fonction Publique Territoriale): http://www.cnfpt.fr
CoE: Council of Europe: www.coe.int
EAR: European Agency for Reconstruction: www.ear.europa.eu
EC: European Commission: www.ec.europa.eu
ELoGE: European Label of Governance Excellence
HR: Human Resources
INET: French National Institute for Territorial Studies (Institut National des Etudes Territoriales): http://www.inet.cnfpt.fr
KS: Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities: www.ks.no
LGA: Local Government Association
LGI: Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative: www.lgi.osi.hu
NALAG: National Association of Local Authorities of Georgia
NALAS : Network of Associations of Local Authorities in South-East Europe: www.nalas.eu
NAMRB: National Association of Municipalities in the Republic of Bulgaria: www.namrb.org
NGO: Non-Governmental Organisation
NTS: National Training Strategy
JP: Joint Programme Council of Europe – European Commission
OPPALE: French Observatory of Local Authorities’ Performance (Observatoire de la Performance Publique dans l’Administration Locale)
OSCE: Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe: www.osce.org
OSI: Open Society Institute: www.soros.org
SCTM: Standing Conference of Towns and Municipalities in Serbia: www.skgo.org
SEE: South-East Europe
SNV: Netherlands Development Organisation: www.snvworld.org
SWOT: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
TCA: Georgian Training Co-operation Agency
TNA: Training Needs Analysis
UNDP: United Nations Development Programme: www.undp.org
USAID: United States Agency for International Development: www.usaid.gov
VNG: Association of Netherlands Municipalities: www.vng.nl, www.vng-international.nl
ZELS: Association of Local Self-Government Units of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoina: www.zels.org.mk
1 This document has been classified restricted at the date of issue; it will be declassified in accordance with Resolution Res(2001)6 on access to Council of Europe documents.
2 “All reference to Kosovo, whether to the territory, institutions or population, in this text should be understood in full compliance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 and without prejudice to the status of Kosovo.”
3 Decision taken on the recommendation of the 14th Conference of European Ministers responsible for Local and Regional Government.
4 In partnership with the Association of Municipalities of Kosovo. All reference to Kosovo, whether the territory, institutions or population, in this text shall be understood in full compliance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 and without prejudice to the status of Kosovo.
5 CLEAR is an acronym for : Can do, Like to, Enabled to, Asked to and Responded to.
6 “All reference to Kosovo, whether to the territory, institutions or population, in this text should be understood in full compliance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 and without prejudice to the status of Kosovo.”
7 “All reference to Kosovo, whether to the territory, institutions or population, in this text should be understood in full compliance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 and without prejudice to the status of Kosovo.”