Convention on the Conservation

of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats

Standing Committee

Resolution No. 4 (1996) listing endangered natural habitats requiring specific conservation measures

(Adopted by the Standing Committee on 6 December 1996)

The Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, acting under the terms of Article 14 of the convention,

Having regard to its Resolution No. 1 (1989) on the provisions relating to the conservation of habitats,

Having regard to its Recommendation No. 14 (1989) on species habitat conservation and on the conservation of endangered natural habitats,

Acknowledging that for Contracting Parties which are Member States of the European Union the list of natural habitats requiring specific conservation measures corresponds to Annex I of the Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora,

Resolves to identify the natural habitats listed in Annex I to this resolution as endangered natural habitat types requiring specific conservation measures. (Selected habitats are marked with the sign !)

Resolves to update periodically Annex I to this resolution.

Revised Annex I of Resolution 4 (1996) of the Bern Convention

on endangered natural habitat types using the EUNIS habitat classification

(Adopted by the Standing Committee on 9 December 2010)


      A Marine habitats

      A1 Littoral rock and other hard substrata

      A1.1 High energy littoral rock

    ! A1.11 Mussel and/or barnacle communities

    A4.14 Mediterranean and Black Sea communities of lower mediolittoral rock very exposed to wave action

    ! A1.141 Association with [Lithophyllum byssoides]

      A1.2 Moderate energy littoral rock

    ! A1.22 Mussels and fucoids on moderately exposed shores

      A1.4 Features of littoral rock

    ! A1.44 Communities of littoral caves and overhangs

      A2 Littoral sediment

    ! A2.2 Littoral sand and muddy sand

    ! A2.3 Littoral mud

    ! A2.4 Littoral mixed sediments

    ! A2.5 Coastal saltmarshes and saline reedbeds

    includes the following subtypes separately listed in or split units from the 1998 version:

    A2.521 Atlantic and Baltic brackish saltmarsh communities

    A2.531 Atlantic upper shore communities

    A2.542 Atlantic lower shore communities

    A2.5514 [Salicornia veneta] swards

    A2.5515 Black Sea annual [Salicornia], [Suaeda] and [Salsola] saltmarshes

    A2.553 Atlantic [Sagina maritima] communities

      A2.6 Littoral sediments dominated by aquatic angiosperms

    ! A2.61 Seagrass beds on littoral sediments

    ! A2.621 [Eleocharis] beds

      A2.7 Littoral biogenic reefs

    ! A2.72 Littoral mussel beds on sediment

    ! A3 Infralittoral rock and other hard substrata

    includes the following subtypes separately listed in or split units from the 1998 version:

    A3.71 Robust faunal cushions and crusts in surge gullies and caves

    A3.74 Caves and overhangs in infralittoral rock

    ! A4 Circalittoral rock and other hard substrata

    includes the following subtypes separately listed in or split units from the 1998 version:

    A4.24 Mussel beds on circalittoral rock

    A4.26 Mediterranean coralligenous communities moderately exposed to hydrodynamic action

    A4.32 Mediterranean coralligenous communities sheltered from hydrodynamic action

    A4.71 Communities of circalittoral caves and overhangs

    ! A5 Sublittoral sediment

    includes the following subtypes separately listed in or split units from the 1998 version:

    A5.627 Baltic mussel beds in the infralittoral photic zone

      A6 Deep-sea bed

      A6.9 Vents, seeps, hypoxic and anoxic habitats of the deep sea

  A6.91 Deep-sea reducing habitats

    ! A6.911 Seeps in the deep-sea bed

      B Coastal habitats

      B1 Coastal dunes and sandy shores

    ! B1.3 Shifting coastal dunes

    ! B1.4 Coastal stable dune grassland (grey dunes)

    ! B1.5 Coastal dune heaths

    ! B1.6 Coastal dune scrub

    ! B1.7 Coastal dune woods

    ! B1.8 Moist and wet dune slacks

    ! B1.9 Machair

      B2 Coastal shingle

    ! B2.3 Upper shingle beaches with open vegetation

      C Inland surface waters

      C1 Surface standing waters

    ! C1.1 Permanent oligotrophic lakes, ponds and pools

    includes the following subtype separately listed in or split unit from the 1998 version:

    C1.14 Charophyte submerged carpets in oligotrophic waterbodies

      C1.2 Permanent mesotrophic lakes, ponds and pools

      C1.22 Free-floating vegetation of mesotrophic waterbodies

    ! C1.222 Floating [Hydrocharis morsus-ranae] rafts

    ! C1.223 Floating [Stratiotes aloides] rafts

    ! C1.224 Floating [Utricularia australis] and [Utricularia vulgaris] colonies

    ! C1.225 Floating [Salvinia natans] mats

    ! C1.226 Floating [Aldrovanda vesiculosa] communities

      C1.24 Rooted floating vegetation of mesotrophic waterbodies

      C1.241 Floating broad-leaved carpets

    ! C1.2416 [Nelumbo nucifera] beds

    ! C1.25 Charophyte submerged carpets in mesotrophic waterbodies

      C1.3 Permanent eutrophic lakes, ponds and pools

      C1.34 Rooted floating vegetation of eutrophic waterbodies

      C1.341 Shallow-water floating communities

    ! C1.3411 [Ranunculus] communities in shallow water

    ! C1.3413 [Hottonia palustris] beds in shallow water

      C1.4 Permanent dystrophic lakes, ponds and pools

    ! C1.44 Charophyte submerged carpets in dystrophic waterbodies

    ! C1.5 Permanent inland saline and brackish lakes, ponds and pools

      C1.6 Temporary lakes, ponds and pools

    ! C1.66 Temporary inland saline and brackish waters

    ! C1.67 Turlough and lake-bottom meadows

      C2 Surface running waters

      C2.1 Springs, spring brooks and geysers

    ! C2.12 Hard water springs

      C3 Littoral zone of inland surface waterbodies

      C3.4 Species-poor beds of low-growing water-fringing or amphibious vegetation

    ! C3.41 Euro-Siberian perennial amphibious communities

      C3.42 Mediterraneo-Atlantic amphibious communities

    ! C3.421 Short Mediterranean amphibious communities

    ! C3.422 Tall Mediterranean amphibious communities

      C3.43 Central Eurasian amphibious communities

    ! C3.431 Ponto-Pannonic riverbank dwarf sedge communities

      C3.5 Periodically inundated shores with pioneer and ephemeral vegetation

      C3.51 Euro-Siberian dwarf annual amphibious swards

    ! C3.511 Freshwater dwarf [Eleocharis] communities

    ! C3.512 Dune-slack [Centaurium] swards

    ! C3.5132 Swards of small [Cyperus] species

    ! C3.5133 Wet ground dwarf herb communities

    ! C3.55 Sparsely vegetated river gravel banks

      C3.6 Unvegetated or sparsely vegetated shores with soft or mobile sediments

    ! C3.62 Unvegetated river gravel banks

      D Mires, bogs and fens

      D1 Raised and blanket bogs

    ! D1.2 Blanket bogs

      D2 Valley mires, poor fens and transition mires

    D2.2 Poor fens and soft-water spring mires

    D2.22 [Carex nigra], [Carex canescens], [Carex echinata] fens

    ! D2.226 Peri-Danubian black-white-star sedge fens

    ! D2.3 Transition mires and quaking bogs

    includes the following subtype separately listed in or split unit from the 1998 version:

    D2.3H Wet, open, acid peat and sand, with [Rhynchospora alba] and [Drosera]

      D3 Aapa, palsa and polygon mires

    ! D3.1 Palsa mires

    ! D3.2 Aapa mires

    ! D3.3 Polygon mires

      D4 Base-rich fens and calcareous spring mires

    ! D4.1 Rich fens, including eutrophic tall-herb fens and calcareous flushes and soaks

    ! D4.2 Basic mountain flushes and streamsides, with a rich arctic-montane flora

      D5 Sedge and reedbeds, normally without free-standing water

    ! D5.2 Beds of large sedges normally without free-standing water

      D6 Inland saline and brackish marshes and reedbeds

    ! D6.1 Inland saltmarshes

    includes the following subtypes separately listed in or split units from the 1998 version:

    D6.15 Interior Iberian [Microcnemum] and [Salicornia] swards

    D6.16 Interior central European and Anatolian [Salicornia], [Microcnemum], [Suaeda] and [Salsola] swards

      E Grasslands and lands dominated by forbs, mosses or lichens

      E1 Dry grasslands

      E1.1 Inland sand and rock with open vegetation

      E1.11 Euro-Siberian rock debris swards

    ! E1.112 [Sempervivum] or [Jovibarba] communities on rock debris

    ! E1.2 Perennial calcareous grassland and basic steppes

    ! E1.3 Mediterranean xeric grassland

      E1.7 Closed non-Mediterranean dry acid and neutral grassland

    ! E1.71 [Nardus stricta] swards

      E1.8 Closed Mediterranean dry acid and neutral grassland

    ! E1.83 Mediterraneo-montane [Nardus stricta] swards

    ! E1.B Heavy-metal grassland

      E2 Mesic grasslands

      E2.2 Low and medium altitude hay meadows

    ! E2.25 Continental meadows

      E3 Seasonally wet and wet grasslands

    ! E3.1 Mediterranean tall humid grassland

    includes the following subtypes separately listed in or split units from the 1998 version:

    E3.111 [Serapias] grassland

    ! E3.4 Moist or wet eutrophic and mesotrophic grassland

    ! E3.5 Moist or wet oligotrophic grassland

      E5 Woodland fringes and clearings and tall forb stands

      E5.4 Moist or wet tall-herb and fern fringes and meadows

      E5.41 Screens or veils of perennial tall herbs lining watercourses

      E5.411 Watercourse veils (other than of [Filipendula])

    ! E5.4111 [Angelica archangelica] fluvial communities

    ! E5.4112 [Angelica heterocarpa] fluvial communities

    ! E5.4113 [Althaea officinalis] screens

    ! E5.414 Continental river bank tall-herb communities dominated by [Filipendula]

    ! E5.415 Eastern nemoral riverbanks with tall herb communities

      E5.42 Tall-herb communities of humid meadows

    ! E5.423 Continental tall-herb communities of humid meadows

    ! E5.424 Eastern nemoral Tall-herb communities of humid meadows

      E6 Inland salt steppes

    ! E6.1 Mediterranean inland salt steppes

    ! E6.2 Continental inland salt steppes

    includes the following subtype separately listed in or split unit from the 1998 version:

    E6.23 Central Eurasian solonchak grassland with [Crypsis]

      E7 Sparsely wooded grasslands

    ! E7.3 Dehesa

      F Heathland, scrub and tundra

      F2 Arctic, alpine and subalpine scrub

      F2.2 Evergreen alpine and subalpine heath and scrub

      F2.22 Alpide acidocline [Rhododendron] heaths

    ! F2.224 Carpathian [Rhododendron kotschyi] heaths

    ! F2.225 Balkan [Rhododendron kotschyi] heaths

    ! F2.26 [Bruckenthalia] heaths

      F3 Temperate and mediterranean-montane scrub

      F3.2 Submediterranean deciduous thickets and brushes

      F3.24 Subcontinental and continental deciduous thickets

    ! F3.241 Central European subcontinental thickets

      F4 Temperate shrub heathland

    ! F4.1 Wet heaths

    ! F4.2 Dry heaths

    ! F4.3 Macaronesian heaths

      F5 Maquis, arborescent matorral and thermo-Mediterranean brushes

      F5.5 Thermo-Mediterranean scrub

    ! F5.52 [Euphorbia dendroides] formations

    ! F5.54 [Chamaerops humilis] brush

    ! F5.55 Mediterranean pre-desert scrub

    ! F5.56 Thermo-Mediterranean broom fields (retamares)

    ! F5.5B Cabo de Sao Vicente brushes

      F6 Garrigue

    ! F6.7 Mediterranean gypsum scrubs

    ! F6.8 Xero-halophile scrubs

    ! F7 Spiny Mediterranean heaths (phrygana, hedgehog-heaths and related coastal cliff vegetation)

      F9 Riverine and fen scrubs

    ! F9.1 Riverine scrub

    ! F9.3 Southern riparian galleries and thickets (Excluding F9.35: Riperian stands of invasive shrubs)

      G Woodland, forest and other wooded land

      G1 Broadleaved deciduous woodland

      G1.1 Riparian and gallery woodland, with dominant [Alnus], [Betula], [Populus] or [Salix]

    ! G1.11 Riverine [Salix] woodland

    ! G1.12 Boreo-alpine riparian galleries

    ! G1.13 Southern [Alnus] and [Betula] galleries

      G1.2 Mixed riparian floodplain and gallery woodland

    ! G1.21 Riverine [Fraxinus] - [Alnus] woodland, wet at high but not at low water

      G1.22 Mixed [Quercus] - [Ulmus] - [Fraxinus] woodland of great rivers

    ! G1.221 Great medio-European fluvial forests

    ! G1.223 Southeast European [Fraxinus] - [Quercus] - [Alnus] forests

    ! G1.224 Po [Quercus] - [Fraxinus] - [Alnus] forests

      G1.3 Mediterranean riparian woodland

    ! G1.36 Ponto-Sarmatic mixed [Populus] riverine forests

    ! G1.37 Irano-Anatolian mixed riverine forests

    ! G1.38 [Platanus orientalis] woods

    ! G1.39 [Liquidambar orientalis] woods

      G1.4 Broadleaved swamp woodland not on acid peat

      G1.41 [Alnus] swamp woods not on acid peat

      G1.411 Meso-eutrophic swamp alder woods

    ! G1.4115 Eastern Carpathian [Alnus glutinosa] swamp woods

    ! G1.414 Steppe swamp [Alnus glutinosa] woods

    ! G1.44 Wet-ground woodland of the Black and Caspian Seas

      G1.5 Broadleaved swamp woodland on acid peat

    ! G1.51 Sphagnum [Betula] woods

    ! G1.6 [Fagus] woodland

    ! G1.7 Thermophilous deciduous woodland (excluding G1.7D Castanea sativa woodland)

    includes the following subtypes separately listed in or split units from the 1998 version:

    G1.7B [Quercus pyrenaica] woodland

    G1.7C Mixed thermophilous woodland

    ! G1.8 Acidophilous [Quercus]-dominated woodland

      G1.A Meso- and eutrophic [Quercus], [Carpinus], [Fraxinus], [Acer], [Tilia], [Ulmus] and related woodland

    ! G1.A1 [Quercus] - [Fraxinus] - [Carpinus betulus] woodland on eutrophic and mesotrophic soils

    ! G1.A4 Ravine and slope woodland

    ! G1.A7 Mixed deciduous woodland of the Black and Caspian Seas

    ! G2 Broadleaved evergreen woodland (excluding G2.8 Highly artificial broadleaved evergreen forestry plantations and G2.9 Evergreen orchards and groves)

      G3 Coniferous woodland

      G3.1 [Abies] and [Picea] woodland

    ! G3.15 Southern Apennine [Abies alba] forests

    ! G3.16 Moesian [Abies alba] forests

    ! G3.17 Balkano-Pontic [Abies] forests

    ! G3.19 [Abies pinsapo] forests

    ! G3.1B Alpine and Carpathian subalpine [Picea] forests

    ! G3.1C Inner range montane [Picea] forests

    ! G3.1D Hercynian subalpine [Picea] forests

    G3.1E Southern European [Picea abies] forests

    ! G3.1E1 Southeastern Moesian [Picea abies] forests

    ! G3.1E3 Montenegrine [Picea abies] forests

    ! G3.1E4 Pelagonide [Picea abies] forests

    ! G3.1E5 Balkan Range [Picea abies] forests

    ! G3.1G [Picea omorika] forests

    ! G3.1H [Picea orientalis] forests

      G3.2 Alpine [Larix] - [Pinus cembra] woodland

    ! G3.21 Eastern Alpine siliceous [Larix] and [Pinus cembra] forests

    ! G3.22 Eastern Alpine calcicolous [Larix] and [Pinus cembra] forests

    ! G3.25 Carpathian [Larix] and [Pinus cembra] forests

    ! G3.26 [Larix polonica] forests

      G3.3 [Pinus uncinata] woodland

    ! G3.31 [Pinus uncinata] forests with [Rhododendron ferrugineum]

    ! G3.32 Xerocline [Pinus uncinata] forests

      G3.4 [Pinus sylvestris] woodland south of the taiga

    ! G3.41 Caledonian forest

      G3.42 Middle European [Pinus sylvestris] forests

      G3.423 Western Eurasian steppe pine forests

    ! G3.4232 Sarmatic steppe [Pinus sylvestris] forests

    ! G3.4233 Carpathian steppe [Pinus sylvestris] woods

    ! G3.4234 Pannonic steppe [Pinus sylvestris] woods

      G3.44 Spring heath [Pinus sylvestris] forests

    ! G3.442 Carpathian relict calcicolous [Pinus sylvestris] forests

    ! G3.4C Southeastern European [Pinus sylvestris] forests

    ! G3.4E Ponto-Caucasian [Pinus sylvestris] forests

      G3.5 [Pinus nigra] woodland

    ! G3.51 Alpino-Apennine [Pinus nigra] forests

    ! G3.52 Western Balkanic [Pinus nigra] forests

    ! G3.53 [Pinus salzmannii] forests

    ! G3.54 Corsican [Pinus laricio] forests

    ! G3.55 Calabrian [Pinus laricio] forests

    ! G3.56 [Pinus pallasiana] and [Pinus banatica] forests

    ! G3.6 Subalpine mediterranean [Pinus] woodland

    G3.7 Lowland to montane mediterranean [Pinus] woodland (excluding [Pinus nigra])

      G3.71 Maritime [Pinus pinaster ssp. atlantica] forests

    ! G3.711 Charente [Pinus pinaster ssp. atlantica] - [Quercus ilex] forests

    ! G3.712 Aquitanian [Pinus pinaster ssp. atlantica] - [Quercus suber] forests

    ! G3.714 Iberian [Pinus pinaster ssp. atlantica] forests

    ! G3.72 [Pinus pinaster ssp. pinaster] ([Pinus mesogeensis]) forests

    ! G3.73 [Pinus pinea] forests

      G3.74 [Pinus halepensis] forests

    ! G3.741 Iberian [Pinus halepensis] forests

    ! G3.742 Balearic [Pinus halepensis] forests

    ! G3.743 Provenço-Ligurian [Pinus halepensis] forests

    ! G3.744 Corsican [Pinus halepensis] woods

    ! G3.745 Sardinian [Pinus halepensis] woods

    ! G3.746 Sicilian [Pinus halepensis] woods

      G3.747 Italic [Pinus halepensis] forests

    ! G3.7471 Gargano [Pinus halepensis] forests

    ! G3.7472 Metapontine [Pinus halepensis] forests

    ! G3.7473 Umbrian [Pinus halepensis] forests

    ! G3.748 Hellenic [Pinus halepensis] forests

    ! G3.749 Illyrian [Pinus halepensis] forests

    ! G3.74A East Mediterranean [Pinus halepensis] forests

    ! G3.75 [Pinus brutia] forests

    ! G3.8 Canary Island [Pinus canariensis] woodland

    ! G3.9 Coniferous woodland dominated by [Cupressaceae] or [Taxaceae]

    includes the following subtypes separately listed in or split unit from the 1998 version:

    G3.9C [Cedrus] woodland

    ! G3.D Boreal bog conifer woodland

    ! G3.E Nemoral bog conifer woodland

      H Inland unvegetated or sparsely vegetated habitats

    ! H1 Terrestrial underground caves, cave systems, passages and waterbodies

      H2 Screes

      H2.6 Calcareous and ultra-basic screes of warm exposures

      H2.61 Peri-Alpine thermophilous screes

    ! H2.613 Paris Basin screes

      X Habitat complexes

    ! X01 Estuaries

    ! X02 Saline coastal lagoons

    ! X03 Brackish coastal lagoons

    ! X04 Raised bog complexes

    ! X18 Wooded steppe

    ! X29 Salt lake islands

    ! X35 New EUNIS complex ! "Inland Sand Dunes"