PDF
 
 
 
 

P-PG/Prev-LS(2005)1

Life skills training in schools

Manual

by Richard IVES

*****

The booklet, ‘Life skills training in schools’, was produced by Richard Ives together with a group of Russian educationalists, narcologists, etc... Accordingly, Richard Ives does not claim sole authorship, as much the content was determined by the Group. As such, it is specific to the Russian situation, and is not necessarily directly applicable to other circumstances.

Council of Europe, Pompidou Group, 2005

The opinions expressed in this work are the responsibility of the authors and do not reflect the official policy of the Council of Europe.

No part of this document may be translated, reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic (CD-Rom, Internet, etc.) or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the Pompidou Group Secretariat.

Table of contents

Preface
Introduction
1. Teacher’s Role in the Development of the Program
2. Methods for conducting class hours
3. Recommendations for school medical practitioners (Medical assistants and nurses) on how to use present manual
4. Programme of Additional Education
"TRAINING IN LIFESKILLS AND ACQUIRING EXPERIENCE FOR THEIR APPLICATION"

5. Results expected from training
6. Conditions for implementing programme lifeskills in school

7. Additional information
8. Additional reference material for specialists working with children in schools (Teachers, psychologists, medics)
9. Some Articles From the UNO Convention on Child’s Rights (1989)

*****

Preface

Drug and substance abuse has been identified as a problem faced by children and young people for over 30 years now. Since then different prevention programmes were developed to enable primary prevention of alcohol and drug abuse among children and teenagers. Only very few prevention concepts and methods developed and applied during the past 30 years actually showed the desired results. The life skills approach has been yielding the most promising prevention results. Thus, at present time the preventive strategy of social training ranks as the most promising and efficient one across and abroad. These Life Skills Training Programmes focus on primary and secondary prevention but can also be used in tertiary prevention (rehabilitation and resocialisation). Life Skills Training is based on the idea of training teenagers in how to resist the negative influence of their schoolmates, adults, mass media and the environment encouraging the use of narcotics (legal and illegal).

School is a perfect place for drug abuse prevention. Independent researches proved that the most efficient anti-drug school programs were those, where prevention of psychoactive substance abuse by schoolchildren was enabled through training children and teenagers in how to resist the negative influence of their schoolmates, adults and even mass-media, often encouraging the use of drugs.

The Pompidou Group has published this life skills manual for schools under the authorship of Mr. Richard Ives (U.K.).

Teachers, social workers, psychologists and carers who work with children in schools are at the forefront to deal with this challenging task. It is hoped that the manual will be a useful tool in their day-to-day work meeting this challenge.

Dr. Thomas Kattau Strasbourg, November 2003
Council of Europe
Pompidou Group

*****

Introduction

Why is the program “Teaching Life Skills to Young People and Practical Experience of Using the Skills” recommended for schools?

PAS abuse is one of the most important problems in the world. If we want to protect children against narcotics, we need to give them adequate information to make them more self-sufficient, to support their strive for a healthy life style.

Why do young people use drugs? Why do they start using PAS and keep on doing this after their first experience, when everybody knows how dangerous it is? There are many answers to this question, and we would like to present both social and individual prerequisites for drug abuse.

The social factors include:

      · Accessibility of drugs, expanding drug sales networks, extending the assortment range of narcotics, despite all efforts of the police and other institutions;

      · Ads of tobacco and alcohol (which are also considered to be PAS) encouraging many young people to use PAS;

      · An earlier age of sexual maturity; during the last 100 years the age of mensis decreased from 16 to 12, but despite early sexual maturity, school training has been extended, thus having extended the period of juvenility (in terms of immaturity of mind). Juvenility is a period of self-identification, it’s a span of time linking childhood to adult life, the latter being full of duties and responsibilities. Teenagers, being under the pressure of “adult responsibilities”, may start using PAS;

      · Role of mass media. They have a bearing on advertising narcotics and on a certain behavior related to narcotics; e.g. the stories of famous actors and pop stars who were very successful in what they did despite using drugs. Part of young people may fall under the influence of that and conclude that the use of drugs is not a barrier on the way to success;

      · Very fast changes in the world. Economic instability, wars, violence, political changes give grounds for mistrust in the future. Young people are able to believe that they know life much better than the older generation. They are sure that some of the life values could be rejected, as they have other bearings in their life. Capitalist culture encourages material approach towards life and underestimates inner personal values;

      · Difficulty and impossibility to implement the dream of life, although many young people aim high. Failures may lead to frustration and despair. A person in this state is very vulnerable and may start using PAS. An excessive parental pressure generates a feeling of feebleness, which can lead to drug abuse.

Individual factors of PAS abuse:

· Imitation

Young animals – and Man is a child of nature – learn from adults through imitating them. So, if a young person sees an adult smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol he or she will wish to do the same. This also refers to drug and alcohol abuse. Imitation – what might a teenager or a child think?: “When I grow up, I want to be like my Dad”, “I want to do all that my favorite pop star does”, “I want to be like my elder brother’s friend” [Possible illustration: a man is sitting on the sofa and takes pleasure in drinking beer, a child next to him is imitating his father. Caption: “When I grow up I will be like my Dad!”

· Belonging to a group

A human being is a social animal expecting to be accepted by the group he wants to belong to. The like people attract, and it’s especially important for teenagers who start to realize their own ego. When asked about the reasons of using PAS, they often answer that they wanted to be part of a group. Belonging to a group –what would a teenager think: “Everybody I know uses drugs”, “I want to stay in this group, and if they use drugs, I will do the same”, “I will use drugs, therefore I will stay in the group”. [Possible illustration: a young man expelled from the group is standing and watching the others having fun.]

· Need to feel like a grown up

Adults have “advantages and benefits”. Adults are allowed to do the things forbidden for children (e.g. to drink alcohol), adults are more respected. Sometimes adults treat young people like children and expect an adult behavior from them. No surprise that teenagers want to look like adults, when they are not. Some of them think that the use of drugs will make them even more experienced; wishing to be like a grown up – what would a young person think?: “I’m mature enough to take decisions!”, “I’m a grown up, I may drink alcohol – I can take care of myself” [Possible illustration: a little child is sitting at the bar on a very high stool, holding a big glass of martini with cherries and a cocktail umbrella in it…”.

      · Curiosity

Narcotics are wrapped in mystery thus exciting curiosity. Curiosity is an important quality for learning, teachers have to encourage it, but not in terms of drugs, naturally. Curiosity – what would a young person think?: “It’s very interesting and exciting!”, “Why do they stop me?” [Possible illustration: a child is entering a tiger’s cage]

      · Searching for one’s own capacities

Juvenility is the time for capacity identification, young people want to know what a human being is capable of. Teenagers ask themselves: “What can I do?”. And they investigate their capacities and the capacities of others. Some of them need to know the boundaries and limits of parental love and care. Searching for boundaries – what would a young person think?: “I want to be free”, “I’m able to stop whenever I want!”[Possible illustration: a child (group of children) climbs over a fence bearing a “Danger” sign].

· Low self-esteem

Some teenagers have a low self-esteem and they want to know what others think of them. The use of drugs makes them think higher of themselves. A low self-esteem: “I feel bad, but I won’t do anything to feel better”, “I’m not as attractive as my friends”. [Possible illustration: a young man is looking in the mirror seeing a monster in it”.

      · Escape from reality

Many teenagers want to escape from reality. Some of them are in difficult circumstances: they are insulted in family, they are humiliated, beaten, raped. The others conceal their problems. Unrequited love is an example. The problem of hyper protection, or when the possibilities don’t meet the parents’ expectations, or a general life discontent. Escape from reality – what would a young person think?: “I won’t be able to stand this”. [Possible illustration: a prison, a window and the face of a young man in it, he says: “I don’t want to be here”].

· Boredom and need for emotions

Many people say their life is boring. More often they simply justify their inertia, but some of then are really bored. They thirst for emotions, but don’t always get them, as they think they have social problems or physical defects. Boredom and need for emotions – what would a young person think: “What am I doing now?”, “I want to feel high!”. [Possible illustration: a young man is laying on the bed, the title is: “What am I doing?” Or the other way round, he’s surrounded with a lot of toys, sport goods, and computers: ”I’ve got nothing to do here”].

· Following traditions/ being a special one

For many people clothing is an important “part of life”. One wants to dress in the latest fashion, but also to distinguish him/herself from others. The use of drugs is, so to say, a part of subculture. Some young people have already “tried” everything in their lives, and the use of drugs is the only “new thing” for them. Following traditions/ being a special one – what would a young person think?: “I’m young and different from others!”, “My generation has other rules of life!” [Possible illustration: parents and a teenager walk together, the father is dressed in an ordinary way, the son – in a “loud” way.

      · Lack of information, mistrusting information

There is a lot of inaccurate information about narcotics. The information about drug addicts and their problems can be wrong or ridiculous. No surprise young people are very critical to such an information. Lack of information, mistrusting information – what would a young person think?: “Adults know nothing”, “They are lying to me so that I don’t spend my time the way I like!” [Possible illustration: a child with his eyes wide open (depicted in a daub way), “Using hash you will get your brains exploded right away!”].

      · Invulnerability/ risk

Often teenagers have no experience in what they do. Sometimes they don’t know their “weak points” and sensitive spots, they run risks, whereas adults think before doing something. Invulnerability/ risk – what would a young person say?: “I’m too clever to worry!”, “Nothing will happen to me!” [Possible illustration: a young man is doing a stupid thing, he has attached home-made wings to his back and wants to jump off the rock, saying: “I’m safe!”].

Besides these factors there are many others and you could ask a pupil whether he/she knows other reasons why people use drugs.

1. Teacher’s Role in the Development of the Program

“Teaching Life Skills to Young People”

Before you get down to lessons we recommend to do the following:

1) Read the main material to be aware of the topic contents and to understand the lesson’s scientific basics better.

    NB: complicated scientific information has to be presented in such a way that the material would correspond to the level and comprehending abilities of pupils.

2) Pay special attention to the time necessary to fulfill the tasks. The ideal length of lesson stages is noted in the manual. But we know that there are no identical classes. Only you yourself can determine the exact lesson duration, taking the complicacy of the subject into account as well as your pupils’ capacities and interests.

3) Study the program and the exercises to be able to collect all additional materials necessary for the lessons.

4) REMEMBER! Teacher as a real person is an important link between pupils and the program materials.

5) The manual uses the principle of inner motivation with an aim to reinforce the positive effect of the training materials on children.

6) Before using the training materials, please brief the parents on the prevention of use of tobacco and other psychoactive substances. The parents have to be aware of what you suppose to tell their children about.

To be able to use the manual in an efficient way it is important to know the necessary minimum of approaches and special training techniques, which are listed below:

· Teacher’s role;
· Positive psychological environment;
· Group methods

Unlike traditional subjects, the object is a contradictory sphere of life. A teacher of Mathematics knows his subject better than his pupil, but sometimes it’s hard for him to comprehend how difficult the child’s life is in a family of alcoholics. He’s not an expert there. The special role of a teacher starts with the fact that pupils may know something better than he does, that they are capable to explain complicated things in simple terms, because these things are part of their lives. A teacher has to be prepared to learn that some children in the class are suffering from alcohol abuse in their families. A teacher has to tell the truth to the children, being sympathetic and straightforward in doing so.

In order to avoid revelations beyond the sphere of professional interests and competence of a teacher, it is very important to:

1. NEVER ASK “CLOSED QUESTIONS”, WHICH REQUIRE DEFINITIVE SPECIFIC ANSWERS ABOUT FAMILY LIFE.

2. TRY TO SAY HOW IT SHOULD BE, AND NEVER DISCUSS REAL FAMILY SITUATIONS.

Psychological environment is very important for any success in training.

First of all, for real work in the sphere of correction of interpersonal relations it is not necessary to develop a complex of “ideally correct instructions and recommendations, whatever happens in a lifetime”, but:

1) – to create an atmosphere of trust and admission, e.i. every member of the group has to feel that he’s admitted by all other members and by the teacher not due to his merits, but simply because he’s a person belonging to this group.

2) – a person can speak frankly and disclose his very personal problems only when he/she is sure that others are ready to listen to him/her attentively and try to understand without judging whether he/she was right or wrong in his/her specific case. When arranging prevention activities in the group it is extremely important to inure all the participants to listening to their interlocutors and to avoid any judgmental statements.

3) – the most significant and efficient factor of psychological correction is the ability to accept somebody else’s opinion. And he/she has to be really sure that other members of the group are favorably disposed towards him/her and the only reason for telling him/her unpleasant things is their sincere wish to help him/her to solve his/her personal problems. That is why it’s extremely important to lay the rule down once and for all not to speak of anybody, unless the person concerned asks for it.

4) – any psychological correction work has to be done under the “here and now” conditions. This means that importance is attached to current feelings, thoughts, ideas and doubts emerging from the communication itself, and not to the feelings remembered and the patterns prepared in advance.

5) – when communicating with each other we often remember an absolutely brilliant quotation of M. Maeterlinck: “Human language is not perfect… The true communication takes place in silence”. The practice of communications proves that the words are not always needed to express sincere feelings. We should take that into account when arranging constructive relations and give much attention to monitoring and structuring non-verbal expression of feelings and emotions. You can notice someone saying “yes”, while shaking “no” with his head, speaking about his sympathy for the interlocutor, while moving away from him – all that is about non-verbal expression of feelings. You shouldn’t always draw the audience’s attention to that, but you have to understand that bringing such a discord to naught will be a significant objective indicator of success in your work.

6) – the last and may be the most important thing , that we’d like to note is the necessity of being sincere. Children are hypocrisy-sensitive. They actively familiarize themselves with the world, they question and revalue everything, this explains why they never accept ready-made truths (the contact immediately becomes formal – they know they have to agree, why should they talk then?). In the course of work, when discussing different situations you will certainly face different attitudes – don’t be afraid to express doubts together with the children and even to acknowledge lack of competence – they will understand you and will appreciate your sincerity!

7) - A person going to work in the field of psychology of relations must not think that he/she could do this staying apart from the process, that he/she could establish real confidential relations in the group being on neutral positions himself/herself. In practice, you will inevitably face the necessity of making choice: either you join the process, or the process rejects you.

2. Methods for conducting class hours

The group work requires involvement of classmates who are worthy of respect. This allows pupils to compete with each other and study from each other.

Use the following methods:

Brainstorming

Brainstorming is necessary for developing creative thinking. Brainstorming helps pupils do not judge strictly themselves and others. Ask a group of pupils to put forward as many ideas as they can and represent them on the blackboard. Do not pay attention to some ideas which may seem stupid: the number of ideas matters. Nobody in the group should comment on whether the idea is positive or negative. Upon completion of brainstorming, the assessment of ideas takes place and the surprising thing is that sometimes the most stupid idea may have big potential.

Role Games and Psycho-Drama

Knowing how it feels to be in "somebody's skin" helps to develop empathy, sympathy and the possibility to investigate various aspects of a situation. You may ask children to imagine themselves in various situations - "the dramatic situation" facilitates getting used to the problem. The most people like this method. It is possible to take the psycho-drama as playing some historic events.

Games and Modeling

At times, in order to start thinking it is necessary to create a model of some realistic situation which occurs in our life (see activity "What Would I Do?).

Developing Opinions Through Discussion and Debate

Many of the issues which are described in the above sections are questionable: children and teachers often have their own opinion. Therefore, it is very important to determine somebody's own opinion. In the course of discussion, children realize that there exist a lot of opinions concerning one and the same issue.

Advertising Sheets, Leaflets, Posters, Emblems

The school training normally includes the following sections: listening to a teacher and making written works. Writing down is very important for systematizing knowledge and for developing abilities to communicate with other people. It is possible to make notes in the form of an advertising sheet, leaflet, poster, that is to say, in the form of everything which may contain information for others. Posters, for instance, should be designed by applying efforts of all pupils. Design and illustration become very important for children, since these facilitate their communication with each other. Their works may be put up either in the classroom or in the school.

Stories

Many people learn from stories which represent an important way of transferring knowledge and morals and even television soap operas, in their manner, teach us how to investigate the current events. Stories and narrations allow pupils to transfer their experience in the fictitious form and they do not tell about themselves things they would like to pass over in silence. Different people interpret one and the same story in a different manner. We often need folk tales, life stories and fiction since they help us to get a better understanding of our problems.

Use of Audio and Visual Aids

The use of the audio and visual aids is limited in the class, since some teachers find it difficult to operate them. Agree, however, that it is very a simple job just to record a radio program. The use of the video camera for recording a play also presents no special problems. All these aids motivate children to develop their talents. To improve the class work one may use video clips as well as create telecasts.

Work with Informal Leaders

It is possible to involve (after preliminary training) senior pupils in the work with junior pupils. This involvement is of particular value while conducting the anti-drug work: senior pupils are more informed about drugs, sometimes, even better than teachers. More often, they enjoy more confidence than teachers.

Work in Groups and in Pairs

Young people follow examples of other people and teach from experience of other people. That is why, the group work is of significant importance. However, the teacher should control the group. The duties of the teacher should include watching whether somebody in the group dominates over the rest in the group and whether all group members take part in the work. The group members should not include only friends: in order to improve the group environment it is necessary to learn how to respect point of view of other people. This contributes to the development of communicative skills.

Cocktail Party

This exercise is suitable for commencing the group work, especially when the group members are not familiar with each other. Ask them to imagine that they are invited for a party - "cocktail-party" (certainly present your apologies for lack of strong drinks and snacks). Explain the essence of the task: talk to several unknown people for 10-15 minutes. These people may tell something about themselves: how many brothers and sisters they have, what is their favourite kind of sport, etc. Watch how the participants do the exercise. Recommend them to do the exercise 3-4 times. Encourage pupils who are in the process of uninterrupted communication.

Birthdays and Names

Form the class in a row according to the dates of pupils' birthdays. Form the row in such a way that pupils born in January find themselves from one side, whereas pupils born in December, from the other side. You may ask them to form the row voiceless. It is also possible to group children according to the first latter of their names (in the alphabetic order).

Group Leaders and Self-Forming Groups

Sometimes, it is possible to allow the group formation according the participants' wish (for example, "Form five groups!") or appoint a leader in charge of the group formation.

Animals

Prepare cards for the whole class. Each card should bear a name of an animal. For example, form 5 groups out of 30 pupils each comprising 6 pupils and make 30 cards. Six cards should bear the name of one and the same animal (pay attention to the animals' names, since if there are Mussulmen in the class it is not recommended to use the word "pig", etc.). It is possible to give to senior pupils cards with the names of animals which are difficult to distinguish (for example, pigeon, swallow, eagle). Ask children to represent these animals, find out "who is who" and group along the principle "new animal" (all "pigeons" in one group, whereas all swallows, in another group).

Favourite Things

Sometimes, it is good to divide the class into unequal groups. Ask pupils to unite according to their favourite colour, favourite TV programme, etc.

Numbers

Assign to each pupil his/her number. Divide them into three groups each comprising three pupils with numbers 1st, 2nd, 3rd. After that, children should form groups according to their numbers.

3. Recommendations for school medical practitioners (Medical assistants and nurses) on how to use present manual

In the last few years, reforms in public health brought significant changes to nursing. The traditional treatment of medical assistants and nurses as doctors' helpers only involved in taking care of the patients and in rendering first medical aid is undergoing changes. The sphere of their independent activities is expanding. The World Medical Assembly defines the main task of the nursing personnel as "maintaining health, preventing diseases, determining the patient's needs and taking actions aimed at solving these issues together with the patient".

Acting Order No. 249 issued by the Ministry of Public Health of the Russian Federation "On Nomenclature of Professions of Secondary Medical and Pharmaceutical Personnel", dated 19.08.97, approves new qualification characteristics for nurses and medical assistants which include the pedagogical activity in the sphere of hygienic education and in popularization of healthy way of life.

This Manual would allow nurses and medical assistants to introduce new approach towards teaching teenagers in schools, sanatoriums, boarding schools, rehabilitation centers as well as in families.

It is necessary to determine the composition of the group of trainees and fix the time which is the most suitable for training. The training programme should include exercises which meet the trainees' requirements, their specific psychological problems, individual abilities and possibilities. The programme should also meet the degree of education of the medical personnel involved in training. Having thoroughly studied the Manual, one should pay special attention to the technique of the group work and to thorough selection of the content of the lessons. It is also necessary to establish therapeutic cooperation between medical workers and trainees.

It is necessary for the medial worker involved in training to take the professional post-diploma courses of professional upgrading on specialization "Organization of Nursing", "Medical Treatment" (qualification "Nurse-Organizer and Teacher of Nursing", "Medical Assistant of General Practice"). This is possible while taking a cycle of upgrading courses on hygienic education, subject seminars on nursing pedagogic or valeology at the faculty of post-diploma and additional education at the Sverdlovsk medical college.

For conducting lessons, it is necessary to allocate a special premise (classroom) and create there comfortable free environment. The classroom should be outfitted with necessary equipment and devices (audio and video equipment, special literature, paper, pens, pencils, etc.).

Upon completion of each lesson, the nurse or medical assistant should analyze it and make conclusions on meeting the set goals, on motivating the trainees and on efficiency of the lesson. The state of some pupils may be discussed with the school doctor. If necessary, the joint correction of further goals and training scope may be made.

In the course of training, the nurse and medical assistant should also observe the principles of professional medical ethics and follow the provisions of "Ethic Code of the Nurse in Russia", especially in the part of making no harm to the patient, in the part of observing the old medical principle "First of all, do not make harm!".

4. Programme of Additional Education

"TRAINING IN LIFESKILLS AND ACQUIRING EXPERIENCE FOR THEIR APPLICATION"

4.1. Explanatory note

The training programme has been designed with the purpose of training children and teenagers in lifeskills and fundamentals of knowledge in the sphere of social relations and culture. The purpose of training children and teenagers in compliance with this programme is preparing them for future life and successfully adapting them to the environment of teenagers and adults.

The World Health Organization defines the notion "lifeskills" as "abilities of adaptive and positive behavior which allow a person to adequately communicate with every-day life". The World Health Organization suggests that the following lifeskills be included in the programme of training in lifeskills:

    - making decisions and solving problems;

    - creative and critical thinking;

    - communicative and interpersonal relations;

    - self-determination and sympathy;

    - restraining emotions and work with stress.

    Teachers do not have a common opinion on how to conduct lifeskills lessons - same as there is no the common opinion on methods of religious and sexual education, of "culture of drinking alcohol" and of many other spheres. In order to successfully implement the programme it is necessary to create favourable and comfortable conditions at school and in the class.

    The programme has been designed for 32 hours. It may be realized during class hours and during hours of educational work.

4.2. Curriculum

Ord. No.

Activity and issues under discussion

Number of training hours

1

Start

· Starting lesson

· "Hello!"

2

2

Main Needs

· Life Pyramid

· "Cake" of Needs

· My Development

· My Choice

· Rights of Child

· World of My Passions

7

3

Self-Understanding and Self-Esteem

· Who Am I?

· Are We similar? - We Are Different!

· I Have Right to Express My Opinion

· Puppet-Show

· Are You Good Listener?

8

4

Feelings

· Friendship

· Box With Problems

· I Like - I Do Not Like

5

5

Thoughts

· I Have My Own Opinion

· What Would I Do?

4

6

Communication

· Our Roles

· I and I of Others

· Different Ways of Communication

· Are You Sure?

· Cooperation

5

 

Total

32

4.3. ACTIVITY "START"

4.3.1. Activity “Starting lesson”

Objective: to establish main rules for work on "Lifeskills".

Developing lifeskills: ability to communicate, sympathy, ability to listen, understanding of own point of view and points of view of others.

Training Procedure

    1. Explain pupils that you are going to conduct class hours in a new manner. Tell them that during these lessons you will investigate personal problems of pupils, help them start talking about the problems which worry them, train them how to express one's own feelings and how to listen to other people. Show children the importance of participation in discussions. Explain them that you would like to establish rules. Ask the class's opinion about main rules. For example, do not interrupt, do not criticize, listen to other pupils speaking.

    2. Divide pupils into small groups and ask them to prepare a list of rules they would like to adhere. It is necessary to select somebody in the group who would write down the rules and inform the class about these rules.

    3. Select (from each group) a pupil who would present the results of discussion to the class. Set the task: "Write down the main aspects (points) either on the blackboard or on paper and than discuss each point, select only the required points and after that re-write down them on a clean sheet of paper".

Feedback

Find out whether the work is of use. Do we need allocate some more time during next lessons in order to do similar work? What to do when the rules fail to adhere?

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

In order to facilitate reminding of the studied material, pupils may write down these rules on the inner sides of notebooks' covers. They may re-consider these rules or change something in the future. As a homework, they may discuss them with their parents and try to invent rules for the family. Some pupils may design a poster illustrating the rules. In several months, re-discuss the rules and decide on their necessity.

For Activity "Start"

Time frames:

1. Introduction - 10 minutes

2. Group discussion - 15 minutes

3. Discussion in class - 30 minutes

Organization:

whole class, than small groups, than again whole class

Necessary aids: paper, pens

Preparatory work: no

Peculiarities:

pay attention to and take care of especially sensitive children, follow the established rules

4.3.2. Activity: Hello!

Objective: creating positive, kind, comfort and trustworthy environment

Developing lifeskills: ability to communicate

Training Procedure

    1. Create the trustworthy environment in the class. Ask children to form a circle, look attentively at each other and form a row according to:

· The colour of their eyes;

· The colour of hair;

· The size of footwear;

· The colour of clothing;

· The number of apartments, etc.

Other options are possible: to group according to the year seasons, to a favourite colour and so on. This exercise creates free and easy atmosphere and allows the participants to know each other more closely.

    2. All form a circle again. Game "Snowball". The participants in turn pronounce their names and some personal characteristic feature which begins from the first letter of the name. Each next participant first pronounces names and specific features of previous participants, than his own name and a feature. In such a manner, each subsequent participant pronounces more and more names and features. This facilitates memorizing and helps to relieve tension.

    3. All sit down and form a circle, a leader occupies the place in the center of the circle. As soon as the leader says "Change the places those who…", (pronounced is one of the features adherent to the participants - those who have a dog; those who like reading; those who are brave; those who woke up in good spirits, etc.) the participants change their places. The leader's aim is to occupy a chair while all others move. The participant which does not have enough place to sit down becomes the leader. This game satisfies all participants irrespective of their age and contributes to getting free.

    4. "Hello!"

    The participants move freely, approach each other, say Hello and inform about themselves as follows: "Hello! My name is… I was lucky because…".

    5. All sit down in the circle again and tell about new things they learnt about each other and whether it was interesting to communicate.

Feedback

What feelings experienced the participants while telling, "I was lucky…", whether difficulties took place.

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Learn from the parents what brought luck to their life.

For Activity "Hello!"

Time frames

1. 10 minutes

2. 5 minutes

3. 10 minutes

4. 10 minutes

5. 10 minutes

Organization:

Whole class, circle

Necessary aids:

none

Preparatory work:

no

Peculiarities:

Pay attention to children which are difficult to establish contact

4.4. ACTIVITY "MAIN NEEDS"

4.4.1. Activity "Life Pyramid"

Objective: to help pupils to know their own requirements and these of other people.

Developing lifeskills: ability to listen, to communicate, to cooperate.

Training Procedure

    1. Ask one of the pupils to read the story "Shirt of Happy Man" (see below). Discuss this story in the class.

    2. Divide the class into three groups and ask pupils to think over the question "What is happiness?". After that each pupil should write down a list of things which would make him happy at present and in the future. After that, ask pupils to number items in this list according to their importance. After that, ask pupils to draw a pyramid (or give them a photocopy of the pyramid). It is necessary to write down the basic items at the base of the pyramid, a bit higher in the pyramid there should be items of lesser importance, etc. After that, each group should discuss all pyramids and create one pyramid common for each group. Remind the importance of treating with respect the common opinion.

    3. On a big sheet of paper draw one big pyramid for the whole class and agree with the class the important items (steps) of the pyramid.

Feedback

What did pupils learn from this exercise? Were they surprised at some items? Was it interesting for them to learn that some people have absolutely similar opinion, whereas others, absolutely opposite? What did they learn in the course of discussion? Did they like to take part in the exercise?

Consolidating knowledge by doing homework and exercises. The above-said is continuation of previous tasks. As the homework, children may discuss such "the pyramid" with their parents.

"Story of Shirt of Happy Man"

One king had a son whom he loved very much. The king hoped that his son will reign the kingdom. However, his son was very unhappy, nothing made him glad. The king tried to brighten up his son by various ways. He bought him best toys, traveled with him to the world's most exotic places, took him to the best theatres and cinema theatres, made him surprises of every sort and kind, took other children to the palace to play with his son. However, all his efforts were for nothing - the son remained unhappy. The king asked a personal doctor to come to him. "Check up my child and find out what is wrong with him", said the king. The doctor said that he is able to do nothing. He suggested that the king ask a fore-teller.

The fore-teller had a very long talk with the king and his son. After that, he thought for a long time and said, "The boy needs a shirt of a happy man!". After that, the king's advisers asked, "Where can we get such the shirt?" "In the kingdom", was the answer.

The king ordered his servants to find the happiest man, and soon he was brought to the royal court. The man's jokes made everybody laugh and he was considered the happiest man. However, the jester told to those present that he is not that happy. He was very sad while thinking over jokes and amusements he had to demonstrate to the royal court.

Another - the richest - man was taken to the king. Perhaps, he is the happiest? However, it turned out that he is also not that happy, since every day he is forced to increase his wealth and keep watch over the money every night.

One more man was taken to the court: this time in broken shoes and old raincoat. He looked like a poor man. The man approached the king and said, "I've heard that you are looking for a happiest man in the world?". "I am this lucky man", he added. All members of the royal court ran into panic, "How he may be happy?". "I have no money", he said. "I am not worried about the increase in the money and about its safekeeping. I do not have any envious persons. I have a lot of time for happiness". The king said, "The kind man, my son is very unhappy and only the happy man's shirt can save him. I will give you everything you would like to have, only give me your shirt!". "I am happy enough without everything, I need nothing", said the happy man. "I couldn't help you even I would like to". He threw open his raincoat under which there was no any shirt at all.

For Activity "Life Pyramid"

Time frames

1. 15 minutes

2. 20 minutes

3. 20 minutes

Organization:

whole class, 3 groups, whole class

Necessary aids:

paper, sheet of Whatman paper

Preparatory work:

no

Peculiarities:

no

What do we think about "Story of Shirt of Happy Man"?

The story is wonderful for developing children. A group of teachers from Macedonia was given this story and asked to use it in the programme "Lifeskills". Teachers suggested the following:

    1. To complete the story (provided that pupils did not read it before);

    2. To read the story up to the moment when the rich man tells that he is unhappy and ask pupils to complete the story;

    3. Those who wish may read their version of the story before the class;

    4. The story may be considered the starting point for discussion "What is happiness".

Questionnaire About Happiness

The questionnaire contains versions of answers: What brings happiness to people and what does not bring happiness to people. After that, each fills out the questionnaire and has the right to add their own judgement on happiness. The teacher writes down on the blackboard the number of answers on each item and emphasizes the common opinion of the class about happiness. After that, the discussion of items added by pupils takes place.

Draw Picture of Happy Man

Children draw a happy man and write down what he says about his happiness as well as the reason of being happy. For example, "big smile", nice hair-do", shining sun", "somebody was very kind to me!". After that, children draw themselves and write down the reasons of their happiness. They talk over this in small groups and discuss topics "How to bring happiness to people?", "What would I do in order to make my friend happier?".

Range of Emotions

Happiness is one of manifestations of emotions. Besides happiness, there are sorrow, anger, fear. Help pupils to make a list of possible emotions. According to the list, draw faces which demonstrate the given emotions. Write down the kind of the emotion on the back side of the sheet of paper. Pictures on which the majority of the class determined the kind of the emotion should be put up on the wall. You may ask pupils "to play these emotions". The teacher appoints a leader (an actor) for each "emotion". In total, 4-5 emotions should be taken for consideration. Each leader gathers his team, and children play through the situation which demonstrates the selected emotion. For example, playing through emotion "sadness" children demonstrate what a person feels when he loses a domestic animal.

Help to Unhappy Man

Pupils discuss what they would do in the place of the king in the above story (the king tried to help to his son to find external reasons of unhappiness of his son, but he did not look at his heart). How can we help to unhappy men?

4.4.2. Activity "Cake of Needs"

Objective: to help pupils to determine major human needs - physiological and psychological.

Developing lifeskills: understanding of distinctive features, to learn how to help himself and to other people.

Training Procedure

    1. Ask pupils to recall the task with the pyramid. Ask question "What are the main vital needs of a human being?". Help them: to drink, to eat, to dress, to protect himself, to continue generation, sex. In addition, there exist other important needs: to love and to be loved, to reach success in one's life, the possibility of choice, joy from living, need to learn and investigate. Ask pupils to allocate these needs on the steps of the pyramid. Will there be many pupils which allocate the need to survive on the steps of the pyramid?

    2. Ask pupils to draw a circle (it is an individual work) and divide it into four sectors. Let's name it "Cake" of needs". Mark the first piece of the cake as "love" and inscribe the names of those you are loved by. Mark the second piece of the cake as "abilities" and inscribe the names of those possess them. Mark the third piece of the cake as "freedom" and inscribe the names of those you are free and easy to communicate. Mark the fourth piece of the cake as "joke" and inscribe the names of those you are often joking with.

    3. Divide the participants into pairs. Each participant in the pair should tell to his partner about those whose names are inscribed in the "cake" of needs".

    4. Discuss with all classmates the names they would like to inscribe in the "cake". After that, discuss some other names they would like to put on the list.

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

In an effort to develop children's abilities, suggest the following: ask children to form groups of three pupils. Each member should tell about two things he is good at. After that, the remaining two members should additionally tell about their abilities.

For Activity "Cake" of Needs"

Time frames

1. 15 minutes

2. 15 minutes

3. 10 minutes

4. 5 minutes

Organization:

whole class, dividing into pairs, whole class

Necessary aids:

pyramid (see above)

Preparatory work:

conduct after training 1.1

Peculiarities:

no

4.4.3. Activity "My Development"

Objective: to help children to understand that each person has his own rate of development, to help children to start thinking about their future development.

Developing lifeskills: self-representation, evaluation of differences, thoughts about the future.

Training Procedure

    1. The whole class. Bring from home your photographs which represent you in your early age. Show the photos to each other. If necessary, put down the name on the photo's back. The teacher should also have his photo which represents him while a child. Collect all photos. Divide the class into groups of 4-5 people. Give by guess-work 1 photo per each group. Let each group to decide on who is represented on the photo. After that, the photo should be given to a person it represents. If children fail to guess who is represented on the photo at a glance, continue the work until "the owner" of the photo is found. Discuss with pupils what features they used to recognize the schoolmate, what helped them and what not.

    2. Ask children to gather in groups once again. This time, ask them to take their own photo. Give them the task: write down a list of changes which have taken place since the time the photo was made.

    3. The whole class discusses these changes. Physical changes took place: an increase in height, a change in the shape of the body. Intellect has also underwent changes. Children are allowed to do things they were not allowed to do before. After that, discuss what changes may take place in the future. How would they look like at the age of 10 and 20? What actions would they be able to take in the future?

Feedback

What feelings did pupils experience when other pupils examined their photos?

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Children should ask parents to show them photos of their parents when they were children and ask them how they have change since the time when they were 10 or 20 years old.

For Activity "My Development"

Time frames

1. 20 minutes

2. 20 minutes

3. 20 minutes

Organization:

groups of 4-5 people, after that the whole class

Necessary aids:

photographs of pupils in early age

Preparatory work:

bring photographs of pre-school age

Peculiarities:

remember that some pupils are shy, do not critisize photographs. Some pupils may be unwilling to bring their children's photos. Explain this to the class not going into the details. Allow these pupils to participate in the class work

4.4.4. Activity "My Choice"

Objective: to learn children how to make their choice.

Developing lifeskills: decision making, critical thinking.

Training Procedure

    1. Work in the group comprising 4-5 people. Ask pupils which life period in the past, present or future they would like to find themselves? Which sex (male/female) would they choose? Explain your choice.

    2. The whole class. Those who wish may speak before the class. Children understand that different people make different choice.

    3. Individual work. Divide a sheet of paper into two columns having entitled the left column as "My choice" and the right column as "No possibility to choose". Examples in the left column: my friends, a pen for the lessons; in the right column: the parents, the time for sleep.

    4. Those who wish read their notes, whereas the teacher writes down this information on the blackboard. Discuss with children what to do when there is no the possibility to choose, how to make the right decision. For example, children do not select their names and some children do not like their names. However, there is the possibility to use nicknames. Or may be it is easier to learn to like one's own name?

Feedback

Children proudly say that they have a choice. For example: "Yesterday I made a choice - to help my parents at home".

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Discuss with the class why children are allowed to do some things and are not allowed to do other things. Explain them that when doing some definite things there exist some risk, for example, driving a car (without experience of driving), drinking alcohol (especially harmful for the growing organism). Underline, that there exist a legal protection and prohibition of the parents. Write down a complete list of things which "are not allowed by law" for children and teenagers. After that, add the list with the things which are allowed and indicate from what age it is allowed. Tell pupils about the Convention of the United Nations Organization on the Children's Rights (see Appendix).

For Activity "My Choice"

Time frames

1. 10 minutes

2. 5 minutes

3. 15 minutes

4. 15 minutes

Organization:

groups, whole class, individual work, whole class

Necessary aids:

none

Preparatory work:

no

Peculiarities:

pay special attention to pupils living in restrained conditions and who do not have freedom in the family

4.4.5. Activity "Rights of Child"

Objective: to inform children about the rights and laws of the society, to learn them to find help when necessary.

Developing lifeskills: self-esteem, independence, decision making.

Training Procedure

    1. Divide the class into 4 groups.

    The first group fills out the list "The rights I have and want to retain".

    The second group fills out the list "The rights I do not have but I want to have".

    The third group fills out the list "If I were a parent I would give my children the right to…".

    The fourth group fills out the list "Should my rights be broken I would do…".

    Should any of the groups be the first in writing the list, it may be asked to do the task of the other group.

    2. Each group report to the whole class, the rest add the report.

    3. Tell children how the rights of children are protected in your country (Oblast, city). Give examples.

    4. Give children a list of persons in charge and their telephone numbers (whom they may address in the case of necessity). Such information may be put up on the school board of notice in order pupils may use this information at any time.

Feedback

Ask somebody to give examples of infringement of his own rights. What did they feel and did as this took place?

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Read at home Convention of the United Nations on Children's Rights, including chapters concerning drugs (certainly, if you have enough copies of Convention). It is possible to talk with friends about the topic "Should I be responsible for some things, children could…".

For Activity "Rights of Child"

Time frames

1. 20 minutes

2. 15 minutes

3. 15 minutes

4. 10 minutes

Organization:

4 groups, whole class, 4 groups

Necessary aids:

list of persons and their telephone numbers at infringement of children's rights

Preparatory work:

1. children must know what "rights" are

2. familiarize yourself with Convention on Children's Rights (see Appendix)

Peculiarities:

bear in mind that some children in the class need immediate help

4.4.6. Activity "World of My Passions"

Objective: revealing many-sided personality.

Developing lifeskills: communication, understanding oneself and other people

Training Procedure

    1. The whole class. Children sit down and form a circle. They pass some thing (a ball) to each other and talk about themselves beginning sentences with words "None of you know that I…", "None of you know that I have…".

    2. Talk about passions and hobbies. Children tell about their favourite occupation and hobbies and demonstrate hand-made articles and things which they brought from home and which are connected with their passions. Several groups are being formed according to children's passions (sport, computer, music, etc.).

    3. Group work. Suggest children to talk about their passions, share impressions, share experience, learn five more new facts about each other's passions as well as attract attention of children who do not have any passions. Children join groups which interests they share most.

    4. All children sit down and form the circle again. They discuss news they learned about each other.

Feedback

Ask if somebody developed a passion right now.

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Ask pupils to question their parents and grown-up friends about their childish passions. Which of them have remained from childhood?

For Activity "World of My Passions"

Time frames

1. 15 minutes

2. 10 minutes

3. 15 minutes

4. 5 minutes

Organization:

Class, circle, groups, circle

Necessary aids:

Ball

Preparatory work:

Children bring from home things related to their passions

Peculiarities:

Do not ignore children which do not have special interests and passions, which are constrained and not easy to communicate with others

4.5. ACTIVITY SELF-UNDERSTANDING AND SELF-ESTEEM

4.5.1. Activity "Who Am I?"

Objective: to help pupils to realize themselves, to identify themselves.

Developing lifeskills: self-understanding, self-esteem, ability to communicate.

Training Procedure

    1. Create the trustworthy environment in the class, if possible. Sit down and form a circle. If you are limited in time, do this exercise in small groups. Ask each pupil to tell about his or her name. Who selected it for them? Tell to the whole class what each name means. Which names would pupils prefer should they be given a chance to change their existing ones?

    2. Work in pairs. One pupil asks another, "Who you are?". The latter answers in a very short manner (positive information). The former does not comment and repeats the question. The latter should give an answer in a different way. Proceed five times. After that, children "change places".

    3. The whole class. Feedback. What did you feel while providing positive information about yourself? What difficulties did the interviewed experience (difficulties connected with refuse to comment are meant).

    4. Unite pairs and form a group of 4-6 people.

    5. Give everybody a sheet of paper. Give to each group some old newspapers and magazines, pair of scissors, colour pens, pencils, glue. Let everybody make "My map" which would include a note and a drawing. The drawing should provide some positive information about the map's owner. Let children use words cut from newspapers and illustrations cut from magazines and paste them into their map. It is undesirable that children use pictures of alcoholic drinks, superfast cars. This map should reflect the current time.

Feedback

What did you feel while finding out "Who am I?". Did you find out something new about yourself?

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Children may ask their parents about the meaning of their names and why they were named so.

For Activity "Who Am I? "

Time frames

1. 20 minutes

2. 10 minutes

3. 10 minutes

4. 20 minutes

Organization:

Circle, pairs, class, groups

Necessary aids:

book of names, old newspapers and magazines, pens, pencils, glue, pair of scissors

Preparatory work:

Look through meanings of your pupils' names in advance and write them down

Peculiarities:

    - mind that some people do not like their names and they take them hard

    - some children with low self-determinism may illustrate themselves negatively

4.5.2. Activity "We Are Similar - We Are Different"

Objective: to investigate reasons of prejudices and meaning of variety.

Developing lifeskills: tolerance, understanding meaning of variety.

Training Procedure

    1. Discuss with the whole class what prejudice is. It is inexplicable hatred, hostility towards something or somebody. Prejudice may be characteristic feature either of a person or a group.

    2. Pupils move at random along the classroom and tell to everybody they meet on the way two phrases: "You are like me in that…", "I differ from you in that…".

    3. Divide the class into 4 groups. Discuss 4 questions:

    - In what we differ from each other?

    - In what we are similar?

    - What prejudice did they have or about what prejudice did they hear?

    - What distinctive features of people you are difficult to accept?

    4. With the whole class. Write down on the blackboard features which distinguish people as well as features they have in common. Tell whether they have more common features or more distinctive features.

    5. Return to 4 groups, take paper and colour pencils.

· group 1 - using only black pencils draws a picture depicting spring;

· group 2 - using only brown pencils draws a picture depicting summer;

· group 3 - using only violet pencils draws a picture depicting autumn;

· group 4 - using only yellow pencils draws a picture depicting winter.

Feedback

The whole class discusses the task. How would the world look like should everyone look like other people? The essence of beauty is in its variety!

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Both individuals and groups of people suffer from discrimination which is the result of prejudice against them. Children may ask their parents if they ever suffered from discrimination.

For Activity "We Are Similar - We Are Different"

Time frames

1. 5 minutes

2. 10 minutes

3. 10 minutes

4. 15 minutes

Organization:

whole class, 4 groups, whole class, 4 groups

Necessary aids:

colour pens, pencils

Preparatory work:

no

Peculiarities:

great care should be exercised while working with notion "prejudice", especially if the group comprises members from racist families or members who underwent discrimination, do not criticize children for their beliefs

4.5.3. Activity "You Have Right to Express Your Own Opinion"

Objective: to learn children how to express their opinion even if the surrounded people have other opinions.

Developing lifeskills: self-understanding, self-esteem, ability to communicate and hear, self-assertion.

Training Procedure

1. Select somebody who would like to make a speech. He (she) should express his (her) opinion about something (somebody). For example, that his (her) sport team is the best. The class should support this opinion, whereas the teacher should air an opposite opinion and go on insisting on the opinion that the team is very bad. Do not allow children to mock. After that, stop the speaker and ask how he (she) feels. Was it difficult to argue with the teacher? Did he (she) want to change his (her) opinion?

2. Divide children into 4 groups. The groups should comprise children of different sex. Two group members argue about the task. The objective of the task is not to beat the opponent but experience how one feels when somebody does not agree with his point of view. Pay attention to pupils which are not able to prove their point of view. The remaining members of the group watch, than play roles of debaters.

3. Discuss these feelings (see above) with the whole class. What difficulties did you experience while continuing argumentation. Did debaters follow the established rules or used "evil tricks"? Was it difficult to listen to while an answer was thought over? Did they change their opinion in the process of argumentation? Finally, we can make a conclusion: everybody has the right to have his own opinion. However, it is well to bear in mind that everybody may have his own point of view.

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

At home, children should write down arguments which they may put forward themselves or which the heard from other people. What is the result?

For Activity "You Have Right to Express Your Own Opinion"

Time frames

1. 5 minutes

2. 5-10 minutes (depending on number of debating pairs - 1 or 2)

3. 20 minutes

Organization:

teacher and volunteer from class, group of 4 pupils, whole class

Necessary aids:

none

Preparatory work:

no

Peculiarities:

· it is necessary to help children which fail to find necessary arguments;

· it is possible to allow those who refuse not to participate in argumentation

4.5.4. Activity " Puppet-Show"

Objective: to show teenagers the ways of communicating with outer world, to give children the possibility of realizing the state of dependence.

Developing lifeskills: ability to communicate, self-understanding, self-esteem.

Training Procedure

    1. The participants divide into groups of three people. Each group should select "a marionette" and two "puppeteers". The exercise includes playing a short scene from a puppet show where "puppeteers" control all moves of "the marionette". The participants develop a scenario independently, not limiting their imagination.

    2. After rehearsal, subgroups in turn present their variant to other participants which play a role of spectators.

    3. Upon completion of the performance, the participants sit down forming a circle and share their impressions. It would be good if feelings of both "marionette" and "puppeteers", which controlled its movement, are emphasized. The participants may talk about various feelings: discomfort, tension, weakness, or vice versa, feeling of responsibility, comfort, satisfaction. It is important to show that both the state of dependence and extreme care make relations between people distorted and inferior.

Feedback

What desires had the participants in the course of work?

For Activity "Puppet-Show"

Time frames

1. 5 minutes

2. 20 minutes

3. 20 minutes

Organization:

circle, groups of three people, theatre -semi-circle, circle

Necessary aids:

none

Preparatory work:

no

Peculiarities:

pay attention to shy and bound children

4.5.6. Activity: "Are You Good Listener?"

Objective: to learn children how to listen to others and develop these lifeskills.

Developing lifeskills: ability to listen to others, sympathy.

Training Procedure

    1. The teacher (the pupil) reads aloud before the class a story about a hermit (see below).

    2. Ask pupils to write themselves a story about something very intrigue, which took place in real life (this exercise may be done at the lesson of the Russian language).

    3. Work in pairs (narrator/listener). One should tell, whereas another, should listen attentively.

    4. After that, the listener should tell the same story to other pair. The first narrator should stop the listener if he is mistaken. Should the second narrator make three mistakes he leaves the game.

    5. Two pupils from the group which have not represented their story yet tell it to the remaining members of the group. Should time permit, the story may be played. The observer of the game will tell what was played in a wrong way.

    6. Ask groups to discuss the following issues: When do we listen to other people? Why don't we listen to other people? How do we feel when we do not listen to other people? What do we think about when we do not listen to other people?

    7. The whole class. It is necessary to collect information from all groups.

Feedback

Discuss what did you feel when a narrator and when a listener. Which role did you like most? (bear in mind that boys and girls have distinctive features while thinking over this task). How many good listeners were there in the class? How many not that good listeners were there in the class?

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Repeat the exercise at home with the members of your family. There may be different relationship between people (see activity "Different Ways of Communication").

For Activity "Are You Good Listener?"

Time frames

1. 5 minutes

2. 30-40 minutes

3. 5 minutes

4. 10 minutes

5. 10 minutes

6. 15 minutes

7. 10 minutes

Organization:

individual work, pairs, two pairs together, whole class

Necessary aids:

paper

Preparatory work:

no

Peculiarities:

no

Story About Hermit and Birds

A hermit lived in the forest. She had nobody except for two birds. Large, white, with huge wings the birds liked flying in the forest. Three times a day they came back to the hermit and tell her the forest news: where a squirrel hides nuts, where a bear found honey, how many little ones delivered a doe-rabbit. At evenings, the birds had their rest, whereas the hermit sat nearby and sang. Animals also enjoyed her singing. At night, owls left their hollow and also sang together with the woman. The hermit liked being as the best singer all through the neighbourhood.

Once at noon, the birds sat not far from the cave of the hermit. The woman made a trap for rats. The birds fell into a light sleep and did not hear how a hunter with guns approached the cave. He laid on the ground and crawled along hiding himself from the birds. He shouldered arms and while doing so a branch crackled and the hermit heard some noise. She left the cave, saw the hunter and got frightened very much because the birds were in danger. What would she do? She did not have any gun and force to manage the hunter. She wanted to cry, "Danger!" but feared that the hunter would fail to hear her or would not pay attention to her cries. She feared for the birds very much, feared that she will not have enough time to help them.

All of a sudden, it occurred to her to start singing. At first, she sang in a very low voice, than her singing got louder and louder - so, all in the forest could hear her. The melody was very sad because just a few minutes ago the hunter wanted to kill her friends - birds. She sang so beautiful that the hunter forgot about everything. At last, the birds woke up and decided to listen to singing. They saw the hunter and immediately flew up in the sky! Only then the hunter realized that he was going to kill the birds but it was late… The birds were far in the sky.

(You may ask pupils, "What happened next? Did the hunter leave the place? Will he come back? Will he meet the hermit next time?).

4.6. ACTIVITY "FEELINGS"

4.6.1. Activity "Friendship"

Objective: what "friendship" is, to determine its frames and what kind of friend you are.

Developing lifeskills: self-understanding, communication, sympathy, determining frames.

Training Procedure

    1. In the class. Discuss what friendship is, its nature and why people like to have friends. Find the difference between friendship in the class (group) and friendship with more intimate person.

    2. Individual work. Describe on sheets of paper personal characteristics which people expect from their friends (sense of humor, loyalty). Those who wish may read their characteristic before the whole class, the remaining pupils should add new features to the characteristic.

    3. Individual work. Pupils write down on sheets of paper what personal characteristics they possess and whether they meet criteria they have just presented to others. It is necessary to stress features they do not possess, think on how to change oneself, how to develop features they do not have so far. For example, how one should develop the sense of humor?

    4. Is it possible to determine frames of things you would do for your friend? A group of 6 pupils discusses questions "What I am ready to do for my friend?". What would I do should a friend of mine refuse to do something for me?

Feedback

Group work. Discuss with the group a question "What to do if a friend asks to do something unlawful?" or "What to do should a request of my friend is in conflict with my conscience?"

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Relations between friends may be different within a group. People select groups (for example, sports groups) or manifest themselves in groups (at school and at home). Pupils may make a list of social groups they belong to and members of which they would like to become.

For Activity "Friendship"

Time frames

1. 5 minutes

2. 15 minutes

3. 10 minutes

4. 10 minutes

5. 10 minutes

Organization:

class, individual work, pairs, groups of 6 pupils, class

Necessary aids:

none

Preparatory work:

no

Peculiarities:

· it is necessary to know that some pupils do not have friends; this exercise will present difficulty for them;

· exercise care while working with children from regions of military actions and with refugees

4.6.2. Activity "Box with Problems"

Objective: to learn children to tell about their problems, to develop ability to help other people.

Developing lifeskills: sympathy, ability to solve problems.

Training Procedure

    1. Explain to the class that children and teenagers, same as grown-ups, may have difficulties in their life and may need help. Ask pupils to give examples: intimidation, the money, problems with alcohol, drugs. Ask who would help them in this or that case.

    2. Individual work. Write a letter (in which a child tells about his or her trouble), send it to a newspaper and wait for a journalist's answer. Many pupils wanted to change their handwriting for nobody knew about them writing. The teacher tells children that they need to invent a problem since the classroom is not a place for solving real problems. When all pupils completed writing, collect the letters and place them into a special box.

    3. Each group of 4 people selects at random 4 "problems". Children play in a magazine editor who needs to solve each problem. Emphasize that answers should be useful and constructive. Do not forget the main thing - not to express critical attitude! In some cases pupils can give only favourable answer since they are not able to give a constructive answer.

Feedback

Ask who would like to speak before the class and tell about the way he solved his problem. Explain where children may get help should difficulties arise.

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Acquaintance at home with Rights of Children as well as with a list of persons and organizations (with the indication of telephone numbers) whom to address in a critical situation.

For Activity "Box with Problems"

Time frames

1. 5 minutes

2. 15 minutes

3. 15 minutes

4. 10 minutes

5. 10 minutes

Organization:

class, individual work, pairs, groups of 4 pupils, class

Necessary aids:

a middle-sized box for letters

Preparatory work:

to have addresses of organizations (telephone numbers) which render assistance to pupils under age

Peculiarities:

· it is necessary to know that some pupils really need help because of their existing problems;

· bear in mind that some children will really describe problems they are nearly concerned over at present.

4.6.3. Activity "I Like - I Dislike"

Objective: to evaluate one's own positive and negative feelings; to get knowledge about feelings - hatred and preference.

Developing lifeskills: self-understanding, ability to determine feelings.

Training Procedure

    1. Discuss in the class what "love" and "hatred" are (like - dislike). Why do some people prefer things which other people hate? Why are we so different in our affection? Is it good when people are absolutely different?

    2. Individual work. Pupils write down on sheets of paper three things which they do not like to do and three things which the like to do. Below on the sheet of paper they write down reasons why they experience these feelings.

    3. Groups of 6 people. Compare what is written and select similar points (for example, sports and games they like, or television programmes they like). Determine the reasons why they do not like this. Are there topics in common? (a wish to do freely things which other people would never do is meant).

    4. Unite small groups into large ones (normally, 2-3 groups per class). Suggest that pupils identify (determine) topics in common.

    5. Determine with the whole class topics in common (for example, about computer games or about relations between people).

Feedback

What to do should you take a dislike to something? How love and hatred are connected?

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Children prepare themselves for answering the question "What to do if you do not like to do something?". Example: If children do not like that their elder brother teases them what would they do? Ask children to answer this question during the next lesson.

For Activity "I Like - I Dislike"

Time frames

1. 5 minutes

2. 10 minutes

3. 15 minutes

4. 10 minutes

5. 15 minutes

Organization:

class, individual work, groups of 6 pupils, 2 or 3 groups, class

Necessary aids:

none

Preparatory work:

no

Peculiarities:

Advice children to investigate during the lesson things which are more important for them, i.e. things which really touch them. For example, "I do not like to go shopping with my mother since she pulls me up and does not allow to stare at shop windows". Pay special attention to most sensitive children.

4.7. ACTIVITY "THOUGHTS"

4.7.1. Activity "I May Have My Own Opinion"

Objective: to help children to estimate the fact that all the time they decide something for themselves and that one cannot make any decision - it is necessary to make a choice.

Developing lifeskills: critical thinking, decision making.

Training Procedure

    1. The whole class. Think: Which problems do you solve independently? In solving of which of your problems do your parents take part? Why are you allowed to make some decisions independently and why some of your problems should be solved by other people? In some cases we are governed by law - we cannot decide on whether to go to school or not. Sometimes, it is simply dangerous - we cannot be allowed to drive a car. Sometimes, it seems that there is no serious reason for refusal to make a choice of your own. Do they make decisions for any other person? Perhaps, taking care of the younger brother. Or, when we take care of a domestic animal we also give it a choice whether to be in the cage or leave it.

    2. Groups of 3 people. Ask one pupil to be a person who is not allowed to make his own decision and ask another one to be a person who is allowed everything. The third pupil suggests to do something. For example: The third pupil asks the first pupil, "Would you like to stand up?". The first pupil looks at the second one - what the second will do? - and repeats what the second did. After several exercises pupils change roles.

Feedback

Ask the pupils in the class what they think and how they feel after doing these exercises. It is important for children to learn what a person, who is not able to make his own decision even on simple issues, feels. The majority of pupils does not like this dependence, however, there may be people who like it.

Ask the class, "Why it is so important to make your own decision? When a child plays a role of a helpless person does he really wish to do what he is told to do? Who may make him to do things he must not do? Perhaps, elder people? Or friends? Or advertisement?".

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

It is recommended to fill out two sheets of paper: one sheet should bear problems to be solved by pupils independently, and another one should bear problems they are not allowed to solve independently. During the lesson, it is possible to compare notes of all pupils.

For Activity "I May Have My Own Opinion"

Time frames

1. 5 minutes

2. 5 minutes (up to 10 minutes)

3. 20 minutes

Organization:

whole class, groups of 3 pupils, whole class

Necessary aids:

none

Preparatory work:

no

Peculiarities:

While doing exercise 2 do not suggest doing unpleasant and dangerous things. You may joke, "Do not suggest stop breathing".

4.7.2. Activity "What Would I Do?"

Objective: to give children a chance to practise decision making in solving difficult problems.

Developing lifeskills: critical and constructive decision, decision making, conducting discussion, ability to work in large groups.

Training Procedure

Divide the class into 4 groups. Give a card with one problem to each group. The group members consider situations and conclude how to solve the given problem. Remind children that there are no correct and incorrect answers in the group. It is necessary to agree decisions with a group leader who will report to the class. Give time to discuss.

Feedback

· Return reports to the groups and allow to give a report on the topic again (in the class). Let it be someone who had his own opinion.

· Discuss the raised problems. Emphasize that groups made decisions quickly.

· Discussion in the class. How problems should be solved in large groups? Some pupils predominate others, some pupils do not participate in the discussion at all. Why it happened?

· Why a group may be influenced by some people to a great extent? Why other people are able to exert lesser influence over the group?

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

During this and next lesson, the class may be divided into 4 groups. It is possible to invent new scenarios which would include making more difficult decisions. One group writes a card with the name of a scenario and gives it to another group. In this way the scenario exchange takes place. After that, all in the class report.

As homework: children may make notes about making difficult decision (the situation may be either realistic or invented).

For Activity "What Would I Do?"

Time frames

1. 20 minutes

2. 10 minutes

3. 20 minutes

4. 10 minutes

Organization:

4 groups, class (report), class (discussion)

Necessary aids:

cards with definite decision

Preparatory work:

cards (see below)

Peculiarities:

Everybody should have a chance to take part in discussion

Cards with "Scenes"

Scene No. 1

Several young boys smoke during breakfast. You do not smoke, however, you would like to stand nearby. Suddenly, one of the boys tells that the teacher is approaching. The boy puts a box of cigarettes in your pocket. The teacher, having smelled the smoke, asks to show pockets. He finds the box in your pocket, takes it and wants to show it to the director. A smoker whispers that you may not join their company any more should you betray them.

What would you do?

Scene No. 2

A boy from your street smells adhesive. His parents do not know this fact though they often see him with a pack and a tube of adhesive. Some day you find that the boy is absolutely sick and has a wandering look. You discuss the situation and think "What to do?". Perhaps, you will do nothing since he is not a friend of yours. Moreover, he will be angry with you should you make complaints against him. However, there is an assumption that he may die from smelling adhesive.

What would you do?

Scene No. 3

You and your friends are guests. Parents are not at home. One of the boys says to a friend of yours, "Your father has some strong drinks at home. Let's drink a bit". Your friend says (with reluctance), "Okey, but very little, otherwise, the father will take notice of this". A bottle goes round. Two boys have already tasted a bit. Now it is your turn. Everybody looks at you and wait for your decision.

What would you do?

Scene No. 4

You and your friends often visit one place which your parents do not allow you to go. It may be a deserted house, forest or the place under the bridge. You and your friends like to be and communicate at this unattractive place. Once, one of your friends brought a bottle of beer. You were surprised since you have never drunk beer before. You ask your friend why he started drinking. He answers that he will empty the whole bottle since he wants to get drunk.

What would you do?

4.8. ACTIVITY "COMMUNICATION"

4.8.1. Activity "Our Roles"

Objective: to help children to realize themselves and their role in life.

Developing lifeskills: self-knowledge, ability to communicate.

Training Procedure

    1. The whole class. People play various roles. Now you are a teacher, at home you are the mother or the daughter.

    2. Work in pairs. Children discuss what the teacher expects from them and what they expect from the teacher.

    3. The whole class. Several pairs report the results of the discussion. You may ask the additional question: What do pupils expect from pupils?

    4. Groups of 4 people. Write various roles of pupils. For example, at school they are "pupils", at home they are "children", with their domestic animals they are "masters", if they have rest somewhere they are "tourists".

    5. Return the reports to the groups and write down on the blackboard roles which differ from one another. Ask the class, "Who are you in fact?". Imagine that you are in the desert and there are nobody to call to you. Who are you in this situation? Explain children that our roles exist only because we live in the society.

Feedback

Emphasize the fact that each human being plays different roles in his life. Some people do not like their roles. How to get rid of such roles?

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Pupils may ask their parents about their roles in their life and how these roles affect their life.

For Activity "Our Roles"

Time frames

1. 2 minutes

2. 5 minutes

3. 10 minutes

4. 10 minutes

5. 10 minutes

Organization:

class, pairs, groups of 4 people, class

Necessary aids:

none

Preparatory work:

no

Peculiarities:

Remember that some pupils may be burdened with difficult roles. For example, work after studies at school

4.8.2. Activity "I and I of Others"

Objective: to learn how to evaluate one's own positive and negative features and safely use them.

Developing lifeskills: self-understanding, self-esteem, ability to communicate.

Training Procedure

    1. Create a confident environment in the class. This lesson is concerned with our interpersonal relations, with what people think of us, how people take us, what people like in us and what they dislike, what we think about ourselves, what we would like to know about ourselves and what would we like to change in ourselves.

    2. Children take small sheets of paper, divide them by half by a vertical line, put the sign "+" at the upper left-hand part of the sheet and the sign "-", at the upper right-hand of the sheet.

    The first task: in the column marked with "+" write down your strong points which help you to communicate with the surrounded people; in the column marked with "-" write down the features which prevent from communication with other people and complicate relations with other people.

    3. Now take big sheets of paper and attach them to the back of each other. On these sheets the pupils will write down their impressions about you: what kind of person you are while communicating with others, your personal characteristics. You may express your wishes in advance: draw the sun in corners if you wish to receive more positive information about yourself, or put the question-mark if you would like to get more information about your weak points. Should you fail to draw something, the pupils will put both "+" and "-".

Attach small filled out sheets of paper to your breast.

    4. All pupils stand and form one circle. To the accompaniment of music and the voice of a leading person pupils think about what they are going to write.

    5. The work commences. The participants at will approach each other. Look at each other attentively in order to formulate your opinion about each other in a better and more precise way. Write the most important things. Should difficulties arise, read what a person wrote about himself.

Upon completion, all detach big sheets of paper, sit down forming the circle and read in silence what is written about them. After that, pupils share opinions and read each one phrase.

Feedback

What is the news they learned about themselves? What feelings do you experience?

For Activity "I and I of Others"

Time frames

1. 5 minutes

2. 5 minutes

3. 2 minutes

4. 3 minutes

5. 30 minutes

Organization:

Circle, pairs, class, circle

Necessary aids:

Pens for all participants, pins, big and small sheets of paper

Preparatory work:

no

Peculiarities:

Be especially attentive to children with low degree of self-appraisal

4.8.3. Activity "Different Ways of Communication"

Objective: to help pupils to understand different ways of communication with each other.

Developing lifeskills: communication, understanding himself and others.

Training Procedure

    1. Enter the classroom without a word and write down on the blackboard "Ask everybody be silent". Ask a pupil to go to the blackboard, stand facing the class and try to explain to the class (not saying a word) what he is going to do (clean the blackboard, write down something on the blackboard, etc.). Should pupils or somebody try to speak, gesticulate that it is not allowed. Repeat the exercise several times with other pupils and ask them to use more difficult kinds of gesticulation. After that allow pupils to speak. Ask the class what happened. Was it difficult to communicate? Was it difficult to understand? Explain the class that we may communicate with each other using various kinds of communication and that conversation is only one way of communication. Enumerate other kinds of communication and write them down: facial expression, singing, dancing, drawing, touching, writing.

    2. Work in pairs. Divide the pairs. Ask several pairs to communicate in a similar manner (see the list). Give to each pair a card with the task and ask the members of this pair to communicate with another pair in a way the latter understands the task. It is possible to use some very simple task, for example "I got cold" if you are working with a junior class, and a more complex task (for example, ask "Whether we go to the cinema tonight?"). After the partners get the task and make it, give them the new task.

    3. Select several pupils and ask them to demonstrate in the class their ways of communication.

Feedback

Ask children "Which ways of communication are more difficult, which ones are easier?".

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Ask pupils to observe various type of communication in their families.

For Activity "Different Ways of Communication"

Time frames

1. 5 minutes

2. 10 minutes

3. 10 minutes

Organization:

Class, pairs, class

Necessary aids:

none

Preparatory work:

cards with tasks

Peculiarities:

Be attentive to children with problems in communication

4.8.4. Activity "Are You Sure?"

Objective: to teach pupils to convince others of something and how this will help them to make a choice.

Developing skills: critical thinking, self-understanding, ability to communicate.

Training Procedure

    1. Ask the class why we need the ability to convince other people of something. The important aspect of the discussion is making children to understand that the ability to convince teaches them to influence people (i.e. it is to your advantage to have this ability). There are different methods of conviction. How one may convince another to buy something? Use brainstorming - let the whole class write down methods of conviction on the blackboard. Brainstorming may include sex appeal, or "this kind of goods" makes you look more impressive, "This brings you joy and happiness", "This may help you to make your life easier". In order to illustrate the convincing technique, play with children in television and radio advertisement.

    2. Groups of 4 people. Ask pupils to make some advertisement in order to sell some goods. It would be good to demonstrate some published advertisement, etc. While demonstrating this situation, recommend to use the methods described above.

    3. Each group demonstrates its task.

Feedback

Opinion of pupils about advertisement, about conviction. Is it possible to use them in practice? Is advertising some articles (alcohol, cigarettes) dangerous?

Consolidating Knowledge by Doing Homework and Exercises

Children may study advertisement on radio, television, in mass media and make a report. They may prepare "anti-advertisement" which warns against something, for example, warning against the danger of smoking. Children may learn the ways how to resist advertising. Why does advertisement act selectively (not on everybody)?

For Activity "Are You Sure? "

Time frames

20 minutes

Organization:

individual work, pairs, two pairs together, whole class

Necessary aids:

big sheets of paper, colour pens

Preparatory work:

prepare several examples of advertisement

Peculiarities:

it would be better to discuss positive examples of conviction

5. Results expected from training

Upon completion of the Lifeskills training course, the pupils should:

    1. have a general idea about the inward life of a human being, about benefits and importance of knowledge in human life;

    2. be able to get the necessary information about themselves, know ways of obtaining such information;

    3. be able to carry out reflective self-examination and to think critically;

    4. be ready to cooperate with children of the same age and grown-ups;

    5. have skills of self-regulation;

    6. strive for personal growth, self-knowledge, self-development;

    7. be able to freely express their thoughts, feelings and emotional experience;

    8. have skills of effective communication, ability to actively listen to other people, ability to conduct a dialogue and discussion;

    9. have deliberate striving for the sound way of life;

    10. have an idea about consciousness and self-consciousness;

    11. adequately accept the surrounding life, be able to adapt to existing socioeconomic and psychological conditions, be able to make responsible decision at availability of choice;

    12. have an idea about rational ways of organization of free time;

    13. realize their social, sexual and family roles, relations with the surrounding world (nature, things, people);

    14. strive for active and creative self-expression, search, disclosing and strengthening their individuality, search for ways of self-realization.

6. Conditions for implementing programme lifeskills in school

It is our opinion that effective implementation of the system and comprehensive approach towards organization of the process of social education of schoolchildren is possible only under conditions of psychological and pedagogical attendance.

The idea of attending a child during his school life is not new. However, in the last few years, this idea attracted particular attention.

It might be well to point out that at school the child is developing not separately but in the system of relations with grown-ups (teachers, other school workers, parents), children (classmates, friends, etc.) as well as in the process of acquiring skills of school activity, i.e. while interacting and interrelating with school environment. That is why the organization of psychological and pedagogical attendance of all constituents of the educational process (schoolchildren, their parents and teachers) is necessary.

First of all, what we mean under "attendance"? The dictionary of the Russian language gives the following definition of this word: to attend means to go together with somebody either in the capacity of a companion or an accompanying person. That means that attending the child during his walk along his course of Life is moving together with him, near him, sometimes a little ahead of him, and explain him the possible ways of movement, if necessary. The grown-up should look attentively and lend an attentive ear to his young companion, to his wishes and needs. The grown-up should fix achievements and difficulties of the child. He should help, by an advice and by own example, the child to orient himself in the world which surrounds the Road, understand and accept himself. However, in so doing, the grown-up should not try to impose his own ways and reference points. Only when the child loses his way and asks for help the grown-up helps him to find the right way. Neither the child nor the grown-up wise with experience is able to exert significant influence on things and situations which take place along the Road. Also, the grown-up cannot show the way to follow without fail. The choice of the road is the right and obligation of each person. However, lucky is a child who (at furcation and crossroads) has somebody able to facilitate the process of making the choice and to make it more deliberate. It is precisely this attendance of the schoolchild at all stages of school education that is the main objective of the school pedagogical (educational) practice. (Bitianova M.R.)

In its content, this environment may be emotional, intellectual, esthetic, of every-day life, etc. Finding himself in the school world, the child faces the great variety of choices related to all aspects of the school life: how to learn and how to establish relations with teachers, how to communicate with children of same age, how to treat these or those requirements, and many other things. We can say that the school Environment suggests pupils to make their choice out of many ways and roads which one may follow and develop.

Grown-ups which surround the pupil - mainly teachers, parents and psychologists - by virtue of their social, professional or personal position may support the child in many respects.

The role of the teacher in the most general view includes orientating (clearly and consistently) the schoolchild towards specific ways of development (of social development in our case). It is just the teacher who sets the majority of parameters and properties of the school environment by designing and implementing concepts of bringing up and education, norms of assessing discipline and educational success, mode of communication and many other things.

In the given system, a parent plays a role of carrier and translator of specific microcultural values - ethic, emotional, routine, religious, etc. However, this interrelationship bears rather regulating than moulding character. That means that, in our opinion, the parent interferes his child's choice of specific objectives and tasks of the school activity in a lesser degree, however he strives for cutting, closing that ways of his development the movement along which is undesirable, harmful and even dangerous for the child both from the physical and legal points of view and from the point of view of the family, cultural, religious and national traditions.

Our system clear defines the role of a school psychologist. His objective includes creating conditions for productive movement of the child along roads the latter selected for himself according to requirements of his teacher and the family as well as assisting him in making deliberate personal choices in this complicated world, in constructively solving inevitable conflicts, in learning the most individually meaningful and valuable methods of knowing himself, of communication, of understanding himself and other people. That means that the activity of the psychologist in the majority of cases is pre-assigned by the social, family and pedagogical system in which the child finds himself in reality and which is significantly limited by the frames of school environment. In fact, it goes about integrating the pedagogical and psychological tasks. It is no secret, you know, that often the interaction between teachers and psychologists at school looks very much like the situation from the famous Russian fable by Krylov "Swan, Crawfish and Spike". Though the problem is not one of unavailability of professional teachers, psychologists and school administrators; it rather stems from independent actions undertaken by schoolchildren, their parents and pedagogical environment (teachers, psychologists and school administrators).

The idea of the psychological and pedagogical attendance is dictated by both regularities of children development (age crises for psychological innovation), of the pedagogical collective (dynamics of the group crisis), of relations between children and their parents as well as by situational relationship crises. Teachers got their professional education, children are taught by specialists, parents, however, have neither parents education nor even minimum psychological support. Although communication between the parents and children is the determinant for the child's development (V.V. Stolin).

In order to optimize the process of the psychological and pedagogical attendance, integration and coordination of specialists involved in problems of social adaptation of schoolchildren, it is possible to establish the pedagogical group Attendance (see diagram 1). Priority is given to the social education of schoolchildren because the school environment gives rise to many situations which require from a child emotional stability, behavioral adequacy, the ability to communicate, skills of social self-regulating. However, the existing process of education does not have enough room for developing these skills.

6.1. Structural Model of Interaction of Problem Group "Attendance" with School Environment

Diagram 1 (see document in Word Format)

The psychological and pedagogical attendance of the teachers allows them to overcome psychological barriers related to their preparedness for innovation, develop characteristics of communication, establish positive relations with colleagues, administration, parents and children. Along with it, as part of the psychological and pedagogical attendance, two aspects of work are being brought to the fore: the first aspect is the psychological and pedagogical assistance connected with introducing technology of education oriented towards the personality into the realistic process of education (both in the sphere of interaction and in the sphere of interrelation with children); the second aspect includes: preventive orientation which is connected with acquiring by teachers skills of social and emotional self-regulating; ability to preserve and activate compensating, protective and regulating mechanisms in order to preserve one's emotional and professional health as well as professional longevity.

In the process of uninterrupted psychological and pedagogical attending the parents, there exists the possibility to discuss and develop the parents' attitude towards bringing up and educating children, towards peculiarities of work of teachers and school administration. This allows bringing together individual sense contexts of pupils with the purpose of finding options for solving conflicts under educational situations. The positive movement is forecast in the plan of developing the democratic style of relationship between teachers, parents and children. It is expressed in qualitative change of requirements of grown-ups concerning problem solving: from outwardly accusable emotionally destructive reactions of the parents to constructive striving for harmonious relations with oneself, with children and with other people. In other words, the share of independence in solving difficult problems increases.

The psychological and pedagogical attendance ensures the system integral approach towards social education of schoolchildren. This approach is represented in three aspects: the first aspect envisages a system of developing lessons on programme Lifeskills as well as determining the content of educational materials and forms of organization of lessons within frameworks of subjects of main and valeological cycles; the second aspect envisages monitoring of the social "profile" dynamics. It allows rendering quick legal and address help to each pupil who has social problems; the third aspect envisages correction and developing work which would allow solving emotional and social problems in the personal development of schoolchildren.

It should be pointed out that the aspect of the psychological and pedagogical attendance of schoolchildren is being implemented by a teacher-psychologist as well as by the class teacher or by subject-teachers (subjects of main and valeological cycles). The second aspect should be implemented by the teacher-psychologist as part of the educational process and during the out-of-school activity, during observing the lessons (subjects of main and valeological cycles). The third aspect should be implemented partly by a teacher of psychology and by a social teacher as part of the educational process (the developing work, partly correction one, which may be organized as part of the group work and by a psychologist in the individual and correction work with some specific child).

In the whole, all aspects of work on the psychological and pedagogical attendance of schoolchildren, their parents and teachers have similar objectives which are described in main directions of the psychological and pedagogical attendance

6.2. Main Directions (Objectives) of Psychological and Pedagogical Attendance

· Shaping knowledge about the ability to live in association, to cooperate;

· Developing tolerance of other people;

· Developing ability of mutual understanding;

· Developing audio and visual culture;

· Training in solving life and emotional problems;

· Encouraging cognition;

· Improving skills of emotional and social self-regulation:

    - encouraging emotional and social aspiration (emotional receptivity, positive emotional orientation, ability to reason);

    - motivating reflection of thoughts, feelings and actions;

    - developing adequate self-appraisal (through anticipation, social self-control, behavioural correction);

· Developing skills of stress resistance and neutralization of emotional and social problems;

· Encouraging independence in decision making:

    - ability not to shift off solving one's own problems;

    - understanding own tasks in a specific situation;

    - determining an appropriate line of social conduct;

    - making choice basing on reflecting a situation;

    - realizing limitations.

6.3. Comprehensive Organizational Model of Social Education

Child Schoolchildren

Teacher

"Coordinator"

School medical

Parents worker

Psychologist Teachers

1

Courses of developing lessons, optional subjects, class hours for pupils

2

Subjects of main and valeological cycles

3

Programme of psychological and pedagogical attendance of social education in family

4

Programme of psychological and pedagogical attendance of teachers while organizing social education

5

Programme of individual correction and developing work with children

6

Programme of psychological attendance of vital activity of all members of educational process

Pedagogical monitoring of dynamics of children's social "profile"

1

Differentiation of problems of education and social development

2

Detecting individual social "profile" of child

3

Detecting zone and content of inner conflict, problems of social adaptation

4

Collecting expert information about child

Medical, psychological and pedagogical conference of specialists

1.

Making social profile of child

2.

Developing strategy of attendance

1

Educating teachers

Educating schoolchildren

2

General and special developing work

Consulting schoolchildren

Consulting teachers, personnel

Consulting pupils' parents

Social and dispatching activity

Professional and analytical work

stage I; stage II; stage III

Organizational-methodical; Research-analytical; Executive-foresacting

7. Additional information

What is a drug?

Into the definition of a drug we include not only drugs that are illegal but also those that are legal in our country - alcohol and tobacco. In spite alcohol has some positive functions (makes communication easy) it has got many negative consequences (car crashes, liver diseases). Social expenditures, connected with misusage of alcohol (violence, unemployment, broken families), are enormous. Smoking is a reason of millions of untimely deaths. And our purpose is to give children knowledge about harm of smoking. Alcohol and tobacco are highly profitable for producers who advertise these substances. These are often first drugs children use. That is why teachers' task is to tell them about consequences of use of alcohol and tobacco as early as possible. Into the definition of a drug medicines prescribed by a doctor are also included. For example, benzodiasephins. They are often misused, taken in huge doses, might be bought from drug-dealers. Others, belonging to the group of steroids, might be misused while trying to build up muscles. Therefore young people need to know how to use medicines properly. Children must be able to get out of a pain not only with a help of medicines. Some household chemical goods (glue, acetone, gasoline etc.) are also used for stupefying. They are highly toxic and harmful for the human organism.

Signs of drug-use.

It is difficult to give exact signs. For instance, many drug-users are capricious and unpredictable. But those who do not use psychoactive substances might have the same qualities.

We recommend to pay attention to the following things:

1. Discovery of equipment for drug-use (syringe, cotton wool, plates for preparing drugs etc.).

2. Scent (of smoke, glue, gasoline) from the body, cloths or expiration.

3. Intoxicated behavior.

4. Sudden change in the behavior, style of life, appearance of new friends (although it is an ordinary behavior for teenagers).

5. Fluctuations in the mood, loss of appetite, rise of appetite.

6. Request for money without explaining what for.

7. Modesty.

8. Frequent diseases (for instance, flue-like diseases, headache)

What to do in critical situations?

Do not panic!

Remain calm!

Much depends on what has happened!

Below you will be given three most typical situations.

Sometimes it is better to call an ambulance immediately, but anyway it is necessary to "pull yourself together".

1. If a child looks drunk

· Do not put him into bed. It is dangerous because he might throw up and choke with vomit (that is often a reason of death in such situations).

· The organism might be dehydrated, that is why it is necessary to make him sip water slowly. Do not give him coffee, it will make his condition only worse.

· In any situation it is better to call the doctor (ambulance) and to take everything connected with drug (tablets, powders, solvents, spoons, syringes), because it might help to identify the drug.

2. If a child is unconscious or you can not wake him up

      · Put off or weaken his cloths that might be an obstacle for normal breathing.

      · Raise his head a little.

      · Cover him with a blanket, do not allow him to get cool.

      · Call an ambulance immediately! Keep for the examination everything, connected with drug (as stated above).

3. If a child is very anxious and excited

· Speak in a calm, light way.

· Inform him that you are going to take care of him.

· Avoid sources of bright light and noise.

· Help him to regulate breathing.

· Give him water and make him sip it slowly, do not give coffee.

Drug problems in schools

Examples:

· drugs or drug equipment articles are found in school;

· students in the state of intoxication (drunk) during classes;

· drunk students out of classes;

· drunk students from other schools come to your school;

· problems with parents-alcoholics (drunk mother taking a child after school, or drunk father complaining of school);

· other adults' problems in the same local area (shops near school, where alcohol and cigarettes are available);

· problems with the stuff of school (breaking school rules: no smoking, no alcohol);

· problems connected with rock- and pop-stars (difficult to discuss their behavior).

How to teach young people to protect their health and understand the harm of drugs (a few examples)

· Young people are concerned about adults' behavior (who use drugs and alcohol).

· New information on drugs.

· Discussion devoted to risks connected with drugs, why people take risks.

· Discussion devoted to low self-esteem.

· Earning money and spending money on drugs (how much money you need to buy 10 cigarettes a day)

· Discussion devoted to a healthy, beautiful body.

A few examples of regulating school incidents connected with drugs

Incident

Method of regulation

Other possible actions

1

2

3

4

1

You find out that a child has alcohol, cigarettes or any other stupefying substances sold in a shop or drug-store.

Discuss the incident with the student in the presence of school psychologist, teacher or other responsible person. Pay attention (during the discussion) to the kind of drug, do not forget about dependency on household chemical goods.

Decide yourself whether to inform other teachers of the school and parents or not. Define your tactics for the future. Do local organizations working with young people (on drug issues) need this information?

2

You find out that a child has illegal drugs.

Confiscate the drug in the presence of witnesses and destroy it in the presence of witnesses. Write down the information about the incident to the special register (according to school rules). Discuss the incident with students in the presence of school psychologist or other teachers.

See above.

3

You see a student in the state of intoxication or abstinence in the school building or on the territory around it.

First of all create safe environment for him and other students. When he gets sober talk to him and offer him the consultation by the psychologist.

See above.

4

You see a student who sells drugs in the school.

Confiscate the drug and keep it in a safe place. Write a report about the incident.

Inform school staff about the incident. Inform the police. Let the pedagogic council decide whether to inform students about the incident or not.

5

You find drugs, syringes, etc. in school building.

Be careful. Keep everything you have found in a safe place (before the police comes). According to school rules write a report about the incident.

Inform the staff and the police about the incident. Decide yourself whether you will inform students or not.

6

Disclosure of a student about drug use.

Give an advice and moral support. Guarantee confidentiality. Refer him to the appropriate organization (medical, psychological or other).

Find out whether the child got support or not.

7

You know it is easy to buy illegal drugs in school neighborhood.

Be in contact with the police and other services, sharing information available. Inform students and their parents about it.

Inform school staff.

8

Student's parents use alcohol or drugs.

Inform the parents about services available. Give the student support.

Find out whether the student got support or not (after arrangements are made)

9

Parents come to school for support.

Give an advice to go to appropriate services.

Find out whether the child got support or not.

10

Member of the staff has problems with drugs or alcohol.

Encourage him to take your support. Warn him that he does not meet the requirements of the job (if he continues to use psychoactive substances).

Decide how to help the member of the staff. Involve his friends and acquaintances into this "work".

8. Additional reference material for specialists working with children in schools (Teachers, psychologists, medics)

ALCOHOL

Purchase and use

Effect

Problems connected with use

The Law

This drug is used even by children

Often is drunk at home, because it is available

After small doses you start feeling relaxed. When you increase the amount of alcohol you become talkative, co-ordination and articulation are disturbed. Non-motivated aggressiveness and inclination to fighting might appear. The degree of intoxication depends not only on the amount of alcohol drunk but also on the fact whether the person's stomach was empty or not, on how heavy the person is, frequency of alcohol use.

In most cases small quantities of alcohol are not harmful. But many children are put into hospitals with severe alcohol-poisoning every year, even after taking small amounts of it.

Alcohol reduces self-control, breaks "interdictions", that leads to irregular, early sexual relations. Accordingly there is risk of unwanted pregnancy, transmission of HIV, hepatitis and other sexually transmitted infections.

In England it is not allowed to buy and to drink alcohol in pubs and bars under the age of 18. At the age of 14-18 it is allowed to visit bars but it is prohibited to drink alcohol. A child under 18 years old has a right to go to a bar but he will be asked to show his papers confirming his age. At 8pm he will be asked to leave the bar. It is prohibited to offer alcohol to children under 5 years old.

AMPHETAMINE (=speed)

Purchase and use

Effect

Problems connected with use

The Law

Used by young people during parties in discos and clubs for a "surge" of vital energy.

Produced in underground laboratories. Rarely used straight, often mixed with other medicines. Sold as white or grey powder which is sniffed, swallowed or injected into veins. Injecting is most dangerous because it might lead to transmission of AIDS, hepatitis through syringes and needles.

It is a stimulant. Gives a feeling of being full of vitality, energy, excitement, that some young people need in clubs and discos.

Reduces an appetite. Some teenagers use it for loosing weight.

Consequences of use: low spirits, sleep disorders, fatigability, reduction of vitality. When taken during a long period of time, it might lead to depression and delirious behavior.

Belongs to class "B" drugs, to class "A" if injected. Considered to be illegal if not prescribed by a doctor. According to the law punishment for storing and selling - fines and imprisonment.

ANABOLIC

STEROIDS

Purchase and use

Effect

Problems connected with use

The Law

Sometimes are prescribed by medics in cases of anemia, thrombosis, muscle-hypotrophia. Also used by athletes indulged in bodybuilding. Many young people want their body to "make an impression".

Gyms and bodybuilding clubs are places where they are usually sold and bought. Used intravenously, intramuscularly, as tablets.

Increase in energy, aggressiveness, duration of trainings. Makes the strained muscles re-convalescence quick.

Might stop children's and teenagers' growth, lead to liver disorders. Side effect of use for adults are reduction of potency, amount of sperm, size of testes and increase of mammary glands (for men) and masculine-type hair covering, voice changes and reduction of mammary glands (for women). In most cases these effects are irreversible, even if you stop using anabolics. Injecting leads to risk of transmission of AIDS and hepatitis.

Anabolics belong to class "C" drugs. It means, they might be taken only if prescribed by doctor. If steroids (anabolic) are stored in small amounts, it is not considered to be a violation of the law, if spread it is punished by the law.

HASHISH (cannabis)

Purchase and use

Effect

Problems connected with use

The Law

Often used by young people

Is sold as friable resin, in hard blocks, leaves or black sticky substance. In most cases hashish is smoked (with tobacco or without it) in cigarettes (hand-rolled). Also added into food and sweets (candies, sponge-cakes)

Makes you relaxed and talkative. Concentrated forms give a light hallucinogenic effect.

Increases the feeling of anxiety and tension, delirious ideas, absent-mindedness. Makes reactions slower that leads to different accidents. Reduces concentration of attention that causes difficulties in studies, passing exams. Strong psychological dependency: if you stop using hashish you feel low-spirited, impossible to relax, get rid of tension. Long-term smoking causes lung diseases (does not matter whether it is "pure" cannabis or cannabis mixed with tobacco).

Illegal drug belonging to class "B"

COCAINE AND CRACK

Purchase and use

Effect

Problems connected with use

The Law

Is delivered from coca plantations. Crack is the result of chalking of cocaine.

Sold in white powder. Often sniffed, but also injected. Crack in most cases is used for smoking, but also injected.

Gives a feeling of strength and self-reliance. Causes a desire to increase the dose and frequency of use, a desire to make the effect of the drug stronger.

The developing of addiction is possible. People who sell and buy cocaine take the road of crime and violence. Injecting cocaine and crack leads to transmission of AIDS and hepatitis. The result of constant use is quick loss of weight, feeling of anxiety, delirious ideas, restlessness. Use of cocaine is always accompanied by depression and mood changes.

Belong to class "A" drugs.

ECSTASY

Purchase and use

Effect

Problems connected with use

The Law

Produced in underground laboratories.

Often bought in clubs and discos.

Gives a feeling of fresh surge of energy accompanied by feeling of calmness and fellowship.

Feeling of general asthenia, tension in arms and legs, especially in wrists. The consequences of long-term use of ecstasy are not well known, but the research proves the fact of depression. Use of ecstasy is most dangerous for people with hypertonia, heart diseases, convulsions, epilepsy. Ecstasy causes dehydration, that is why users need to drink much water, juices and other liquids. But taking big amounts of liquids and ecstasy simultaneously is highly dangerous for human organism. The reason of most deaths connected with use of ecstasy is heartstone or dehydration.

Class "A" drug. Illegal.

HEROIN

Purchase and use

Effect

Problems connected with use

The Law

Delivered from opium plantations. During the first period of use you feel only weakness. In a few weeks (sometimes in a month) after you start use it regularly you become addicted.

Sold in white, grey or brown powder. Smoked, injected (in most cases intravenously). Before an injection the powder is mixed with lemon juice or citric acid. Sharing syringes and needles leads to high risk of AIDS and hepatitis transmission.

Similar to the effect of morphine and other analgesics (pain-killers).Heroin belongs to analgesics and reduces physical and moral pain. You feel a surge of warmth in the body, satisfaction, forget all problems.

There is a high risk of overdose because you never know the exact amount of pure heroin in the powder (sellers add talc and other substances to heroin to increase the amount of it). A user of heroin does not know exactly the dose he has taken. Overdose leads to coma and death. Long-term use leads to "cancellation syndrome" characterized by flue-like symptoms: muscle pain, epiphora, cold, sneezing, plus diarrhea, vomiting, insomnia, depression, restlessness.

Belongs to class "A" drugs, selling and storing are prohibited.

LSD

Purchase and use

Effect

Problems connected with use

The Law

Liserginic acid of diatilamid. Small amount is enough to achieve the effect.

Produced and sold in small squares (as if made of paper) with drawings from cartoons on them. The effect comes in 30-40 minutes after such square is swallowed. The duration of the effect is up to 12 hours. It is difficult to define the dose precisely, that is why it is difficult to predict the effect and its duration.

Changes acoustic perception. For instance, music seems to become more beautiful. Illusive disorders appear. True hallucinations are rare. Time perception changes. Illusions of stronger physical sensation and insight.

Anxiety appears. You do not control yourself and accidents might happen. Use of LSD makes psychic disorders more severe. Consequences of use might appear even in a month after taking it.

Belongs to class "A". Prohibited to store, sell, offer.

POPPERS

Purchase and use

Effect

Problems connected with use

The Law

Used to create "hilarity", taken by young people.

Chemicals known as alkylnitrites that are used to treat stenocardia (angina pectoris). Possible to buy it in sex-shops, clubs, pubs.

Causes the feeling of ecstasy, increases the pulse frequency, lowers blood pressure, increases sexual activity.

The person becomes sick, gets heart disorders and headaches. The quantity of accidents rises. When tablets (that are supposed to be taken "under tongue") are swallowed, loss of consciousness and fatal out come are highly possible. Tablets might burn mucous membrane because they are often mixed with other medicines. They are dangerous because it is impossible to predict their effect (it is not fully investigated).

They are prescribed by doctor, in this case patients have the right to store them for their own use - treatment. Spreading is illegal.

VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENTS (household chemical goods)

Purchase and use

Effect

Problems connected with use

The Law

Used by children and young people. Dangerous because it might cause death during the first "seance" of sniffing. In England every week one child dies of solvents sniffing.

In most cases you might find household chemical goods at home. According to the law it is not prohibited to sell them, they are available in a shop and in a stall. Children breathe in household chemical goods vapors through nose and mouth (using for it a plastic bag). Some people use aerosol inhalers for injecting vapors into mouth.

Feeling of dizziness, intoxication. Many people have hallucinations (cartoons). Some have asthenia and headaches.

After you sniff household chemical goods vapors you might have asthenia, nausea, vomiting. It is a high risk of accidents because when you have hallucinations you do not control yourself, it is especially risky to sniff near electric wiring, railway lines, trunk roads, in high buildings attics. Sniffing might lead to sudden death of a heartstone. Chronic intoxication (long-term use) might lower intellect and memory, cause kidneys and liver disorders.

Selling is allowed by the law, but vapors sniffing is prohibited. It is also prohibited to sell them to children under 18 years old.

TOBACCO

Purchase and use

Effect

Problems connected with use

The Law

5% of sixteen-year-old children smoke one cigarette a week, 30% of elder teenagers smoke 11-12 cigarettes a day (each). It became prestigious even among girls because cigarettes lower appetite and "improves" figure.

In the families where parents smoke, to get cigarettes is not a problem and there is more temptation to smoke than in non-smoking families. Other reasons of starting to smoke are peers' example, TV programs and magazines, advertising cigarettes. It is prohibited to sell tobacco and cigarettes to children under 16 years old but this rule is often evaded.

After the first cigarette you often feel asthenia and dizziness. 1-2 cigarettes makes blood pressure high. Later on they tone up, reduce stress reactions and tension - during the process of smoking. It does for young people, especially if they are awkward and have problems in communication.

Nicotine is very addictive. Long-term smoking causes heart disease, artery and vein thrombosis, heart attacks, bronchi and lungs diseases, lung cancer. In Great Britain a few thousand people die of smoking every year.

It is prohibited to buy cigarettes if you are under 16 years old. It is also prohibited to sell cigarettes to those who did not achieve the age of 16. Shops must have a notice about a ban on selling cigarettes to children under 16 years old.

TRAN-

QUILIZERS

Purchase and use

Effect

Problems connected with use

The Law

In most cases prescribed by medics.

Spreading tranquilizers is illegal (you can buy them only from chemist by prescription). Usually taken orally in capsules and tablets, sometimes mixed with other drugs. Some tranquilizers are injected.

Reduce anxiety, tension, makes you feel relaxed and calm. Big amounts cause sleepiness, lead to accidents.

Regular use increases tolerance (you need to increase the dose) and leads to addiction. You need bigger amount to achieve the same effect. If you suddenly stop using it you might get "cancellation syndrome": tension, anxiety, fits of panic, headache, nausea. Tranquilizers injecting is highly dangerous - might lead to coma and death, especially if taken together with heroin or alcohol.

Belongs to class "C" drugs. Allowed to use if prescribed by doctor and to store in small amounts. But it is prohibited to spread and offer to others.

9. Some Articles From the UNO Convention on Child’s Rights (1989)

Article 1.

For the purpose of this Convention every human being under 18 years old is a child unless he (she) does not reach legal age earlier in compliance with the law applicable to this child.

Article 2.

1. Participant states respect and provide for all the rights under this Convention for every child within the limits of their jurisdiction, without any discrimination independent of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other convictions, national, ethnic or social origin, property status, health condition and birth of the child, his parents or legal guardians or other members of the family.

Article 3.

1. All actions in relation of a child, whether they are undertaken by governmental or private social provision organizations, courts, administrative or legislative bodies, shall be focused on the best provision of the child’s interests.

Article 12.

1. Participant states shall provide a child able to formulate his own views for the right to free expression of these views on all issues related to the child; at that these views shall be considered with due attention according to the child’s age and maturity.

Article 13.

1. A child has a right to free expression of his opinion; this right includes freedom of looking for, getting and transferring any kind of information and ideas independent of borders, oral, written or printed, in form of pieces of art or using other means chosen by the child.

Article 15.

1. Participant states recognize the right of a child for freedom of associations and freedom of peaceful gatherings.

2. No limitations can be applied in relation of this right apart from those which are applied in compliance with law and which are necessary in a democratic society for the purposes of state security or public security, public order, protection of health and morals of population or protection of rights and freedoms of other persons.

Article 17.

Participant states recognize the important role of mass media and provide access of a child to information and materials from various national and international sources, in particular to information and materials directed to development of social, spiritual and moral well-being as well as sound physical and psychic development of a child. For this purpose participant states:

a) encourage mass media to disseminate the information and materials that are useful for a child in relation of social life and culture and in the framework of Article 29;

b) encourage international cooperation in the field of development, exchange and dissemination of such information and materials from various cultural, national and international sources;

c) encourage publishing and distribution of children’s literature;

d) encourage mass media to paying special attention towards the language needs of a child belonging to some minority group or aboriginal population;

e) encourage the development of due principles of child protection from the information and materials damaging his (her) well-being taking into account the provisions of Articles 13 and 18.

Article 28.

1. Participant states recognize the right of a child for education, and to gradually achieve the realization of this right based on equal opportunities, they in particular:

a) introduce free of charge obligatory primary education;

b) encourage development of various forms of secondary education, both general and professional, and provide its accessibility to all children and take the necessary measures like introduction of free of charge education and provision of financial support when necessary;

c) use all necessary means to provide accessibility of higher education for all on basis of individual abilities;

d) provide accessibility of information and materials in the field of education and professional training for all children;

e) take measures to assist regular school attendance and decrease the amount of schoolchildren leaving school.

Article 29.

1. Participant states agree that the education of a child must be focused on:

a) development of personality, talents and mental and physical abilities of a child to their full capacity;

d) preparing a child to conscientious life in free society in accordance with principles of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of men and women and friendship between all nations, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons representing aboriginal population;

e) development of respect towards natural environment.

Article 30.

In the countries with ethnic, religious or language minorities or persons representing aboriginal population, a child belonging to these minority groups or aboriginal population may not be refused a right to use his (her) culture together with other members of the group, to belong to his (her) own confession and to practice it as well as to speak his (her) own language.

Article 31.

1. Participant states recognize the right of a child for leisure, the right to play games and take part in entertainment events corresponding to his (her) age and freedom of participation in social life and engaging oneself in arts.

Article 33.

Participant states take all possible measures, including legislative, administrative and social measures as well as measures in the field of education, to protect children from illegal use of drugs and psychotropic substances in accordance with their definition in relevant international agreements and to keep children from being used in illegal production and selling such substances.



 Top