Strasbourg, 25 April 2008
Housing Rights: The Duty to Ensure Housing for All
2. Background to housing rights
3. Legal protection of housing
rights in international law
4. Conclusions – implementing
housing rights at national level
This Issue Paper follows from the expert workshop “Housing rights: positive duties
and enforceable rights” which the Commissioner for Human Rights organised in Budapest
on 24-25 September 2007. The Commissioner would like to express his gratitude to
Dr. Padraic Kenna, external consultant, for his assistance in preparing this paper.
Commissioner’s Issue Papers
Issue Papers are commissioned and published by the Commissioner for Human
Rights for the purpose of contributing to debate or further reflection on a
current and important human rights matter. All opinions in these expert papers
do not necessarily reflect the position of the Commissioner. The Issue Papers
are available on the Commissioner’s web-site:
Across Europe, many people are experiencing great housing need. Significant numbers
of people cannot access housing in the market, either to rent or buy. Some have
nowhere to live or are afraid to live in their homes. Increasing numbers of people
sleep in doorways, squats, abandoned buildings and other places unfit for human
habitation. On another level, housing has become a marketable and valuable asset,
as well as a home. At the same time, the provision of social and State housing has
diminished. In this context, housing rights are gaining a growing relevance. These
rights can inspire and develop meaningful and effective responses, and promote equality
and non-discrimination in housing systems.
This paper examines the housing crisis facing groups of people in Europe. It
outlines the housing rights which have been accepted by countries within the Council
of Europe (CoE), arising from United Nations (UN), CoE and European Union (EU) instruments.
Obstacles to the effective enjoyment of housing rights are considered. But the paper
draws attention to significant initiatives, including legislation in Scotland and
France, CoE and EU endorsements of rights, and projects where people define and
assert their housing rights. Finally, a set of recommendations for the promotion
of housing rights, as a key element of the enjoyment of all other human rights,
is offered. The challenge is to make housing rights, which often originate in international
law, meaningful and useful to those in housing need at local level.
2. Background to housing rights
2.1 Obstacles to accessing housing
Growing numbers of people across Europe are experiencing a housing crisis. Those
denied access to the housing market face poor prospects. Some groups of people are
particularly affected and often permanently excluded. These include Roma/Travellers,
victims of domestic violence, many people with disabilities, refugees, many migrants,
tenants without security, some national minorities and other discriminated groups,
as well as people on the lowest parts of the labour market.
Financial markets and corporations are forcing States to act in new ways. Across
Europe, States have retreated from direct provision of housing.1
They have moved from being large-scale housing providers to a new “enabling” role,
supporting housing markets. This has coincided with the continued expansion of owner-occupation
as a visible sign of economic and social success, both for the traditional household
and for society as a whole. States are increasingly driven to using public finances
to bridge the “affordability gap” for households unable to access the market due
to low incomes, thus “enabling” people to buy homes at historically high costs.
They are required to spend to sustain the housing market, which is constantly in
a state of disequilibrium requiring State support.
Of course, in this market access to housing finance corresponds with access to
housing, even if repayments form a large part of disposable income. As increasing
numbers of people are forced to rely on this market, high interest ‘sub-prime’ lending,
targeting those with poor credit ratings in low paid or insecure employment, is
common. Repossessions for non-payment can easily result in homelessness and those
minorities who are most vulnerable and excluded face the greatest risks. Sub-prime
lending targets those who in previous times would have received State housing. It
also raises questions in relation to improvident lending and respect for housing
rights by European lending corporations.
One consequence of this shift to ownership has been the concept of social mix,
with restrictions in certain areas of social housing. While policy obstacles to
the ghettoisation of poor people are desirable, concepts of social mix, combating
undue segregation between different social groups and social diversity can be unclear
and actually lead to poor people being denied social housing because they live in
the wrong area.
FEANTSA, the federation of European homeless organisations, describes the growing
risks of homelessness in contemporary Europe. “For very poor people
the terrible pressure of the housing market increasingly leads to social exclusion
and, in some cases, to a situation of social emergency, where people find themselves
without resources, reduced to sleeping in the street.”2
Migrants face overcrowding, poor facilities and hygiene, while undocumented foreign
migrants often live in undesirable areas that can be detrimental to their health
and well-being.3 Irregular migrants
and undocumented migrants are often forced to live as nomads due to the uncertainty
of their income and the illegality of their presence.4
There are estimates of 4.5 million irregular migrants in the EU area and between
10 and 12 million in Russia, with one million migrants moving from less developed
countries to Europe each year.5
Persistent difficulties are faced by Roma, Travellers, migrants, refugees and
asylum seekers securing adequate basic housing. For example, one study in rural
Spain found that Roma were concentrated in shanty towns with 30 per cent of households
living in sub-standard housing, exacerbated by poor facilities, overcrowding and
poor local environments. Exclusion of Roma from housing neighbourhoods and new developments
of social housing is widely recounted across Europe. In Slovenia, around 300 inhabitants
of a village in the Dolenjska region, gathered at a protest meeting to demand that
the municipality permanently remove a Roma family (around 30 persons, among them
some 14 children aged between three months and 15 years) from the settlement within
a week. Endangered by serious threats, the Roma fled to a nearby forest the same
night, and stayed there for several days. As a consequence, the Roma family abandoned
their land. The Commissioner carried out a special visit to Slovenia in November
2006 in order to facilitate finding a solution to the situation which has subsequently
been resolved.6 The separate
district of Luník IX in Košice, Slovakia, is almost 100 per cent inhabited by socially
excluded Roma and comprises 666 flats that should officially be inhabited by 4,000
tenants, but is inhabited by some 7,000 and 8,000. There is an unemployment rate
of nearly 100 per cent.7
Regular evictions, inhuman living conditions and non-recognition of their needs
can result in persecution for Roma and other minorities, as shown in the Moldovan
case at the European Court of Human Rights. “Following this incident, having
been hounded from their village and homes, the applicants had to live, and some
of them still live, in crowded and improper conditions – cellars, hen-houses, stables,
etc. - and frequently changed address, moving in with friends or family in extremely
One study in 2005 showed that some 75 per cent of Moroccan migrants in one European
country area had no hot water, 57 per cent suffered extensive dampness, 49 per cent
had no toilet, 45 per cent had no kitchen and 40 per cent had no running water.9
In 2005 also, three separate fires in overcrowded sub-standard buildings in Paris,
killed a total of 48 people and injured many more. The residents who died were all
either immigrants from Africa or French citizens of African origin.10
People with disabilities are largely excluded from the housing market and, despite
programmes in many States, adequate and accessible housing is not available. Significant
numbers remain within institutions where their personal and social development is
Discrimination in access to housing is poorly recorded across Europe. Reports
show that the small number of complaints contrasts with the evidence from research
and surveys, which describe widespread experiences of discrimination in the housing
field, suggesting that a large share of discrimination cases remains unreported.
12 This situation is true for
gay men and lesbians, who often face discrimination in access to housing and inheritance.13
There is a continuing problem of hidden homelessness, such as overcrowded, substandard
and insecure housing. Increasing numbers of people sleep in doorways, squats, abandoned
buildings and other places unfit for human living. Nowadays, it is frequently women,
families with children, migrants and young people who find themselves homeless,
or in a situation of social and housing emergency. The trigger of their plight is
usually housing affordability, leading to a spiral of exclusion, affecting health,
employment options, and education of children. Quite simply, there is no housing
available for the limited financial resources that poor and vulnerable groups have
at their disposal.
There are many hidden tragedies of older people who cannot afford to stay in
their old but privatized former State owned flats due to increased rents and tax
charges. Equally, the despair of those sitting tenants of former publicly owned
or managed housing, estimated at seven million people in central and eastern European
countries, where the State has abandoned their protection from insecurity of tenure,
arbitrary eviction or massive rent increases.14
2.2 Gaps in housing rights protection
Housing rights derive from international law instruments, based on agreements
between States to guarantee these rights to their citizens and others. Indeed, all
European States have accepted UN housing rights obligations and most have adopted
the European Social Charter in its original or revised version. These do not always
grant individual enforceable rights unless incorporated into national law.15
Yet, they provide both inspiration and the international development of clearly
defined legal standards and norms for these rights. However, their legal effectiveness,
definition and precision at national level often remain problematic. Nor do these
rights always address the housing system in a fully explicit manner, since legal
systems and housing systems have different, frameworks, perspectives and terms.
While supporting housing rights at international level, many States fail to address
these rights obligations within national legislation, administration systems, monitoring
and policies. Some have difficulties in defining and enforcing a minimum standard
of housing rights protection, or in securing the resources for effective State action.
Indeed, where they exist, many programmatic approaches preclude any remedies for
violations, while some rights approaches ignore the role of housing markets. Growing
‘soft law’ and ‘regulatory’ measures fail to engage with the existence of enforceable
rights to housing.
Information on housing rights for the general population is poor. Language and
cultural issues can prevent awareness of these rights. Low self-esteem, lack of
information and knowledge, economic resources and social skills, psychological and
socio-cultural issues and limited social contacts (including with NGOs), must be
addressed in developing access to housing rights. Within the unequal distribution
of resources within States, access to rights for those without resources is of crucial
importance. Of course, the fear of retribution can deter many people in vulnerable
or powerless positions from exercising their rights. The irregular status of many
homeless people can deter them asserting their housing rights.
The violation of the right to adequate housing may have different meanings for
women and men. This has been one of the themes taken up the UN Special Rapporteur
on Adequate Housing, Mr. Miloon Kothari. Women usually bear the primary responsibility
for sustaining and maintaining homes, and it is vital that this critical role is
recognized and their rights advanced. Any understanding of adequate housing in relation
to women must take into account the context and housing and living conditions of
the community and the family in which they live. The impact of inadequate living
conditions and homelessness on children therefore becomes equally important for
their mothers. The lives of many women are intrinsically linked to those of their
families and their children. Homelessness for women carries great dangers. Accordingly,
national Governments and the international community need to ensure that women are
accorded substantive rather than illusory housing rights. Equal access to credit
and finance, equal rights in respect of inheritance of land and property and the
elimination of gender-biased customs and traditions that deny women their rights
to their natal and marital homes are critical issues. Moreover, laws and policies
must be articulated and implemented in ways that recognize the specific constraints
and vulnerabilities of women in relation to the right to adequate housing. The attainment
of legal security of tenure is of critical importance to a large number of women.16
Support for victims of housing rights violations in defining and asserting their
rights at a personal and group level is critical. Access to decent housing is a
precondition for the exercise of other fundamental rights and for full participation
3. Legal protection of housing rights in international
3.1 UN Treaties, conventions, conclusions and recommendations
Housing rights are now viewed as an integral part of economic, social, and cultural
rights within the international human rights instruments, on a similar footing to
civil and political rights. The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
and the European Committee on Social Rights (CSR) have clarified the contents, standards
and obligations within housing rights. These include the concepts of minimum core
obligations and progressive realisation of rights according to available resources
in the context of the right to an adequate standard of living. Any retrogression
in housing rights would constitute a human rights violation.17
§ The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) states: “Everyone
has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being
of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical
care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of
unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood
in circumstances beyond his control”.
§ The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
Discrimination (1965 – Article 5) obliges States “to prohibit and eliminate
racial discrimination in all of its forms and to guarantee the right of everyone,
without distinction as to race, colour , or national or ethnic origin, to equality
before the law, notably in the enjoyment of … (e) … (iii) the right to
§ The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
(1966) states: “The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the
right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family,
including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement
of living conditions. The States Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure
the realization of this right, recognizing to this effect the essential importance
of international co-operation based on free consent.” Article
2(1) of this Covenant states: “Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes
to take steps… to the maximum of its available resources, with a view to achieving
progressively the full realisation of the rights recognised in the present covenant”.
§ General Comment No. 4. on the Right to Adequate Housing sets out
the minimum core guarantees which, under public international law, are legally
vested in all persons. These are legal security of
tenure, availability of services, materials and infrastructure, affordable housing,
habitable housing, accessible housing, housing in a suitable location, housing
constructed and sited in a way which as culturally adequate. General Comment
No. 7 on The Rights to Adequate Housing – forced eviction seeks to
prohibit forced evictions which result in individuals being rendered homeless
or vulnerable to the violation of other human rights. Other UN General Comments
refer to housing rights in the context of people with disabilities, older people,
health rights and other areas.18
§ The UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women (CEDAW) promotes women’s rights to enjoy adequate living conditions,
particularly in relation to housing, sanitation, electricity and water supply,
transport and communications.
§ Further relevant UN instruments include the International Convention
on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their
Families, Convention on the Rights of the Child, the UN Global
Strategy for Shelter to the Year 200019
and the UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951) and its
Protocol. Many other international instruments setting out rights to housing
have been ratified by countries around the world.20
§ The Limburg Principles (1986) and the Maastricht Guidelines
(1997) have defined further the requirements of effective implementation
of socio-economic rights, such as housing rights, and the nature and appropriate
remedies for violations.21
The Limburg Principles emphasize that the obligation under the International
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights “to achieve progressively
the full realization of the rights” requires States Parties to move as expeditiously
as possible towards the realization of these rights. Article 11 of the Maastricht
Guidelines states that a violation of economic, social and cultural rights
occurs when a State pursues, by action or omission, a policy or practice which
deliberately contravenes or ignores obligations of the Covenant, or fails to
achieve the required standard of conduct or result. Furthermore, any discrimination
on grounds of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion,
national or social origin, property, birth or other status with the purpose
or effect of nullifying or impairing the equal enjoyment or exercise of economic,
social and cultural rights constitutes a violation of the Covenant. Violations
of these rights can occur through the direct action of States, or other entities
insufficiently regulated by States, or through the omission or failure of States
to take necessary measures stemming from legal obligations. Any person or group
who is a victim of a violation of an economic, social or cultural right should
have access to effective judicial or other appropriate remedies at both national
and international levels, as well as adequate reparation
§ The World Conference on Human Rights in 1993 adopted the Vienna Declaration
accepting the principle, by States across the world, that both socio-economic
rights (which include housing rights) and civil and political rights are “universal,
indivisible, interdependent and interrelated”.22
This means that socio-economic rights should enjoy the same protection by States
as that accorded to civil and political rights, such as the right to vote or
3.2 Jurisprudence and decisions of the European
Social Charter and European Court of Human Rights
At Council of Europe level the European Social Charter and Revised
Charter (RESC), and in an indirect way the European Convention for the Protection
of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) contain important housing
and housing-related rights.
The Charter grants rights to social and medical assistance for those without adequate
resources, establishing housing obligations in relation to physically and mentally
disabled persons, children and young persons, migrant workers, elderly persons and
rights to social, legal and economic protection for families, including a State
obligation to provide family housing.23
Part V of Article E of the Charter states: “The enjoyment of the rights set forth
in this Charter shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as race,
colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national extraction
or social origin, health, association with a national minority, birth or other status.”
Article 30 (RESC) on the right to protection against poverty and social exclusion
includes an obligation to promote effective access to a range of services, including
housing. Article 31 establishes a right to housing, with Contracting States undertaking
to take measures designed to promote access to housing of an adequate standard,
to prevent and reduce homelessness with a view to its gradual elimination, and to
make the price of housing accessible to those without adequate resources.24
The specific right to housing was examined for Italy, France, Slovenia and Sweden
in Conclusions 2003. The European Committee on Social Rights (CSR) interpreted
Article 31, defining fundamental notions, such as adequate housing, homeless persons,
forced eviction and housing affordability. It also established what action States
are required to carry out to ensure the effectiveness of the right to housing: These
include, among others, the control of adequacy, construction policy, social housing,
housing benefits, judicial remedies, and emergency housing for homeless people.
These Conclusions of the CSR in monitoring States obligations under Article 31 have
demonstrated the application of a new set of benchmarks to national housing law
The jurisprudence of the Charter is also being developed through the Collective
Complaints Protocol.26 This
allows approved NGOs to lodge a complaint to the CSR where there appears to be a
violation of any provision of the Social Charter by any State which has accepted
it.27 In European Roma
Rights Centre v. Bulgaria (Complaint No. 31/2005) the CSR held that the situation
concerning the inadequate housing of Roma families, lack of legal security of tenure,
non-respect of the conditions accompanying eviction of Roma families from dwellings
unlawfully occupied by them, and the lack of proper amenities, constituted a violation
of Article 16 of the Revised European Social Charter taken together with Article
The ECHR contains many civil and political rights provisions which are being
indirectly interpreted in the development of housing rights across Europe, especially
within Articles 3, 6, 8, 13 and 14. These can also be applied in national courts
where the Convention has been incorporated into national law.28
Positive obligations on States are being established in the European Court of Human
Rights (ECtHR) especially in relation to vulnerable persons who cannot assert rights
themselves, although many cases fail to reach the court,29
or are limited by the inadequacy of State resources.30
In Moldovan and Others v. Romania31
(2005), the ECtHR concluded that the applicants living conditions, and the racially
discriminatory manner in which their grievances were handled by the public authorities,
constituted an interference with their human dignity, amounting to ‘degrading treatment’
within the meaning of Article 3. Article 8(1) protects the right of individuals
to “respect” for their private life, family life and “home,” although this does
not amount to a right to housing.
However, the combination of obligations under Articles 3 and 8 can lead to positive
obligations in this area. The ECtHR considered in Marzari v. Italy that,
“although Article 8 does not guarantee the right to have one's housing problem solved
by the authorities, a refusal of the authorities to provide assistance in this respect
to an individual suffering from a severe disease might in certain circumstances
raise an issue under Article 8 of the Convention because of the impact of such refusal
on the private life of the individual…, this provision does not merely compel the
state to abstain from such interference: in addition, to this negative undertaking,
there may be positive obligations inherent in effective respect for private life.
A State has obligations of this type where there is a direct and immediate link
between the measures sought by the applicant and the latter's private life.”32
Positive obligations on States to protect people’s homes have been found under Article
8 in relation to protection from smells and nuisance from a waste treatment plant,
toxic emissions emanating from a chemical factory, environmental pollution
from a steel plant, and noise from bars and nightclubs which made it impossible
for local residents to sleep in their homes.33
All proceedings for possession of a home engage Article 8, but the justification
for such lawful interference can be made on the grounds that it is in accordance
with the law, necessary in a democratic society and proportionate to the aim sought
to be achieved.34 In Stanková
v. Slovakia (Application no. 7205/02, Judgment 9 October 2007) the ECtHR found
that an eviction by a public authority, which met the above requirements, but without
providing any alternative accommodation, produced effects which were incompatible
with the right to respect for private and family life and home.
3.3 European Union (EU) Law
European Union Regulations in the 1960s and 1970s ensured that migrating non-national
workers and their dependents were entitled to the same social benefits, including
access to housing, as nationals of Member States, on the principle of non-discrimination
in freedom of movement.35
However, the accession of new States has led to revised conditions for housing rights
for citizens of these EU States. At another level, there are legally
defined EU steps to harmonise the conditions of asylum-seekers across Europe, including
housing conditions,36 to
recognise the rights and status of third-country nationals,37
and to develop a common policy on illegal immigrants.38
Yet, there are wide variations in the treatment of asylum-seekers and refugees.
A major development has been the ‘Race Directive’ (2000) promoting the implementation
of the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic
origin (but excluding non-citizens of EU States). This applies in “relation to:…(h)
access to and supply of goods and services which are available to the public, including
2004, the ‘Gender Directive’ was adopted, implementing the principle of equal treatment
between women and men in the access to and supply of goods and services, including
housing.40 The Unfair
Contract Terms Directive (1993) is leading to a classification of unfair contract
terms in housing rental and purchase contracts.41
European Parliament resolutions such as The Resolution on the Social Aspects
of Housing (1997) expressed the desire for the development of a housing policy
at European level, based on efforts to provide adequate housing for all.42
The Opinion of the Committee of the Regions on “Housing and the homeless”
(1999), called upon the European institutions to give further consideration to the
principle of the right to adequate housing.43
In 2006, an all-party group of members of the European Parliament, ‘Urban Logement’
published proposals for a European Charter for housing that would make 'healthy,
decent and affordable accommodation' a fundamental right of all European Union citizens’.44
The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights was “jointly and solemnly proclaimed”
at Nice by the Presidents of the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission
in December 2000. While the Charter does not include a specific right to housing,
Article 34 states that “[I]n order to combat social exclusion and poverty, the
Union recognises and respects the right to social and housing assistance so as to
ensure a decent existence for all those who lack sufficient resources, in accordance
with the procedures laid down by Community law and national laws and practices.”
In 2005, the Commission issued a proposal on Compliance with the Charter of Fundamental
Rights in Commission legislative proposals, to allow Commission departments
to check systematically and thoroughly that all the fundamental rights concerned
have been respected in all draft EU proposals.45
The European Parliament approved the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European
Union in November 2007, and it is now an integral part of the Lisbon/Reform Treaty
which is in the process of being ratified by EU Member States.46
Measures at EU level should ensure that international housing rights obligations
and Article 34(3) of the Charter of Fundamental Rights are observed in the implementation
of EU law at European and national level.
There are many EU approaches to social inclusion which refer to housing and homelessness,
although these have no legally binding effect in EU or national law.47
The EU is addressing the issue through its Social Protection Social Inclusion Strategy
and with a special emphasis on the elaboration of common definitions and indicators.
However, at EU level consumer rights for people buying or renting housing, or borrowing
finance, are poorly developed, in contrast to the efforts expended in the harmonization
of finance and other markets. There is now a need to create a legally backed European-wide
harmonized consumer protection system for people who are renting or purchasing homes
and who are borrowing loans in the housing market system, to mirror the increasing
harmonization of mortgage markets. This would entail binding regulations on mortgage
lenders protecting housing rights, consumer rights and responsible lending.
3.4 On-going international and national initiatives
§ The Homelessness (Scotland) Act 2003 obliges local authorities, by 2012,
to secure adequate accommodation for all persons who become homeless, as part
of a legally binding obligation to provide housing for all. The questions of
intentional homelessness and local connection which limited eligibility in the
past will be removed. This represents a major development in universal and enforceable
housing rights for a European country.
§ The recently adopted law on the justiciable right to housing in France
aims to give people the right to seek legal redress before an administrative
tribunal, where their right to housing has been avoided by public authorities.
It can require the State to offer the claimant adequate housing, within certain
categories of need.
§ Several Autonomous Regions in Spain are currently discussing ways to enforce
housing rights for vulnerable groups. In Andalusia, a new law aims to ensure
access to housing for three different priority groups; people with an income
that is below the minimum wage, socially disadvantaged people and young people.
It will be enshrined in Article 25 of the Regional Constitution of Andalusia
(Estatuto de autonomía). In Catalonia, the National Pact for Housing
aims to ensure that nobody experiences housing exclusion due to economic reasons.
The Catalan Government will use elements of the Scottish and the French law
in the prevention of homelessness, prevention of eviction and support for tenants.
§ In the EU Parliament, a cross-party written declaration on ending street
homelessness in the EU by 2015 has been registered in December 2007 and is open
for MEPs signature until March 2007. It calls on the Commission to develop a
European framework definition of homelessness, gather comparable and reliable
statistical data, and provide annual updates on action taken and progress made
in EU Member States towards ending homelessness. It urges Member States to devise
‘winter emergency plans’ as part of a wider homelessness strategy, and instructs
its President to forward this declaration, together with the names of the signatories,
to the Council, Commission and the Member States.48
§ FEANTSA has proposed the establishment of an independent agency - Housing
Rights Watch, to monitor developments, implementation and violations of
housing rights, with correspondents in every country across Europe, and drawing
on the Fundamental Rights Agency and Council of Europe institutions, linking
with Ombudspersons, Human Rights Institutions, NGOs and Advocacy Networks, and
producing an annual report on the situation on housing rights across Europe.
This would seek to develop Europe-wide measures, ensuring that States and non-State
actors, such as international institutions, comply with international housing
rights obligations in the facilitation and regulation of their housing systems,
both market and non-market, including planning and land use, competition policy,
licensing of lenders, standards, taxation and policy measures.
One very valuable NGO initiative, the Participation and Practice of Rights
Project, involved an “Evidence Hearing on the Right to Housing” before
a panel of international housing rights advocates. Residents of a housing estate
in Northern Ireland translated international housing rights norms to their living
conditions. Through a process of action research
involving surveys, the residents established a quantifiable human rights ‘baseline’
of outstanding housing rights issues. Uniquely, the residents had developed
organic human rights indicators and benchmarks which would enable the measurement
of the duty bearers’ (State) progressive realization of housing rights over
a twelve month period. These showed that there were, in fact, violations of
their right to housing, as outlined in the International Covenant for Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and clarified in subsequent UN General Comments.
In addition to verbal testimonies, the panel of housing rights advocates was
provided with documents of supplementary evidence on the day of the hearing,
which were taken into account in their recommendations and subsequent report.49
4. Conclusions – implementing housing rights at national
4.1 Recommendations by the Council of Europe
§ In 2000, the Committee of Ministers adopted a Recommendation to Member
States on the Right to the Satisfaction of Basic Material Needs of Persons
in Situations of Extreme Hardship. This acknowledged that
“the satisfaction of basic human material needs (as a minimum: food, clothing,
shelter and basic medical care) is a requirement intrinsic to the dignity of
every human being and constitutes the condition for the existence of all human
beings and their well-being.”50
§ The Committee of Ministers adopted a Recommendation in 2005 to member states
on improving the housing conditions of Roma and Travellers in Europe, making
52 recommendations relating to general principles, legal frameworks, preventing
and combating discrimination, protection and improvement of existing housing,
frameworks for housing policies, financing of housing and housing standards.51
§ The Parliamentary Assembly adopted “A dynamic housing policy as an element
of European social cohesion,” in May 2006. This recommended that the Committee
of Ministers pursue the ratification of the Revised Social Charter so as to
extend recognition of the right to housing as a fundamental social right to
all member countries. It should strengthen the supervisory machinery relating
to the right to housing by treating its genuine enforcement as a priority, particularly
in cases of discrimination, eviction and continuing existence of substandard
housing. It should also develop knowledge of housing situations as reflected
by statistical indicators in the member countries. The Committee of Ministers
should promote exchange of best practice and conduct of integrated projects
on the effective realisation of the right to housing and its enforceability
and, among other things, arrange for intensified co-operation with the European
Union on the effective exercise of everyone’s right to be housed and have access
a decent dwelling, bearing in mind the shared goals of the Council of Europe
and the European Union concerning the preservation of European social cohesion,
and the specific role of housing which has been unanimously acknowledged by
the Lisbon Council and the European Parliament.
§ The Parliamentary Assembly in 2006 proposed that adequate housing and shelter
guaranteeing human dignity should be afforded to irregular migrants and women
victims of domestic violence.53
§ The Group of Specialists on Access to Housing (CS-LO) of the Council of
Europe adopted in 2001 Policy Guidelines on Access to Housing for Vulnerable
Categories of People (CS-LO (2001) 25). These recommendations include
advice on how to develop a comprehensive legal framework on access to housing
for vulnerable categories of persons, taking account of market constraints and
opportunities, and respecting international standards, to support national housing
policies. The Group have recommended that all Council of Europe Member States
should sign, ratify and implement the European Social Charter and Revised Charter,
including in particular Article 31, as well as the Collective Complaints Protocol,
and consider the possibility of an additional protocol providing for a system
of individual complaints.54
4.2 National strategy for implementing housing
A national strategy for implementing housing rights in accordance with international
human rights instruments and recommendations should include the following elements.
§ States at national level should adopt and effectively implement the range
of housing rights instruments without discrimination, and the right to adequate,
affordable and accessible housing should be made justiciable before the courts.
Minimum standards in all areas of private and public sector provision should
be established. The CSR has established that adequate housing within the meaning
of Article 31(1) of the RESC means a dwelling which is safe from a sanitary
and health point of view, that is, possesses all basic amenities, such as water,
heating, waste disposal, sanitation facilities and electricity; is structurally
secure; not overcrowded; and with secure tenure supported by law.55
§ Adequate and full provision should be made for effective remedies for violations
of housing rights at national and local level in line with the Limburg Principles
and Maastricht Guidelines (see above). States should establish institutional
support and assistance for victims of violations to assert these rights and
secure remedies at personal and group levels, as well as enabling them to participate
in defining the content and scope of their housing rights. This should be allied
with more involvement of NGOs at all levels in the monitoring and supervisory
§ Undocumented migrants, minorities (including ethnic and language minorities)
and those with special needs (especially those with comprehension difficulties)
should be informed on their housing rights, with information adapted to levels
of education or language capacity and visual disability.56
Measures should be taken to prevent the exploitation of irregular migrants in
the housing market. Disseminating housing rights information through media other
than written formats should be developed by human rights institutions.
§ Sufficient, accessible, affordable and appropriate social housing should
be provided across Europe for those excluded from the housing market. This would
prevent those on low incomes and unemployed from being forced into high cost
rents and penal housing loans, with the risks of homelessness and evictions
on default of payments. Housing costs, including management and utility costs,
must not reduce the resources available for the enjoyment of a minimum standard
of living defined by the society in which the household is located, or prevent
the enjoyment of other rights and full participation in society.
§ The implementation of housing rights should include positive measures for
vulnerable and excluded people through provision of adequate supported and sheltered
housing and the promotion of independent living, especially for people with
disabilities. Women who are victims of domestic violence should not be the ones
who have to move from their homes in order to put an end to abuse.
§ The realization of housing rights should be regularly monitored. Ombudspersons
and national human rights institutions have a role in this process.
1 MacLennan, Stephens & Kemp.
(1997) Housing Policy in the Member States. European Parliament Social Affairs
Series W-14.PE 166.328.
2 FEANTSA Press Release 2.9.2005.
has created a holistic definition of homelessness, - the ETHOS definition, containing
four domains of rooflessness, houselessness, insecure and inadequate housing.
3 Medecins du Monde European
Observatory on Access to Health Care. (2007) European Survey on migrants’ access
to health care. p. 19.
4 This term has been recognised
by the UN and others to denote people who have some irregularity in their status
whether through their fault or the fault or negligence of the authorities in not
regularising their status. See Cholewinski, R. (2005) Irregular migrants: access
to minimum social rights. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing. p. 9.
5 See Commissioner for Human
Rights, The Human Rights of Irregular Migrants in Europe .CommDH/Issue Paper
(2007) 1; International Migration 2006. UN Population Division, New York.
6 See Statement by Thomas
Hammarberg, Commissioner for Human Rights, at press conference in Ljubljana, Slovenia,
on 16 November 2006 (CommDH/Speech (2006)24); and EU Fundamental Rights Agency,
Report on Racism and Xenophobia 2007, p. 79.
7 Ibid. p. 89.
8 Moldovan and Others v.
Romania Judgement 12 July 2005 (Applications 41138/98 and 64320/01).
9 Harrison, M., Law, I.
& Phillips, D. (2005) Migrants, Minorities and Housing. Exclusion, Discrimination
and Anti-Discrimination in 15 Member States of the European Union. European
Monitoring Centre for Racism and Xenophobia. p. 62.
10 Ibid. p. 13.
11 See International Disability
Rights Monitor 2007. Regional Report of Europe.
12 EU Fundamental Rights
Agency. Report on Racism and Xenophobia 2007. p. 11.
13 See Stonewall Housing
Association at: http://www.stonewall.org.uk/information_bank/housing__homelessness/1293.asp
14 See Paper on Sitting
Tenants in Central and Eastern Europe, presented by Jure Debevec at Council
Europe, Expert Workshop: Housing rights: positive duties and enforceable rights.
Budapest, September 2007.
15 Monist national legal
systems ensure that States incorporate international treaties into national law
automatically, while dualist legal systems require specific legislation to give
effect to these.
16 UN Doc. E/CN.4/2003/55.
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Women and adequate housing. Miloon
Kothari. p. 8.
17 See UNCESCR Conclusions
and Reports at website:
ICESCR Covenant Art 2. See also Alston, P. & Quinn, G. ‘The Nature and Scope of
States Parties Obligations under ICESCR,’ 9 HRQ 156-229 (1987).
18 See for instance,
General Comment No. 5, on persons with disabilities - UN Doc. E/1995/22;
General Comment No. 6, on the economic, social and cultural rights of older
people - UN Doc. E/1996/22; General Comment No. 14, on the right to the highest
attainable standard of health - UN Doc. E/C.12/2000/4.
19 Adopted by the UN General
Assembly in resolution 43/181 on 20 December 1988.
20 See Leckie, S. (2000)
Legal Resources for Housing Rights. Geneva: COHRE - website:
http://www.cohre.org; See also Habitat Agenda adopted by 171 countries,
21 UN Doc. E/CN.4/1987/19.
The Limburg Principles on the Implementation of the ICESCR. HRQ 16
(1987) 37-40; Maastricht Guidelines on Violations of Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights. 20 HRQ 20 (1998) 691-704.
22 UN Doc. A/CONF 157/24
(1993) Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, World Conference on Human
23 Articles 13, 15, 16,
17, 19 and 23.
24 States which had accepted
Article 31 in full or in part at October 2007 were Andorra, Finland, France, Italy,
Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, Sweden, Turkey and
Ukraine. See website: http://www.coe.int/t/e/human_rights/esc/1_general_presentation/Provisions_en.pdf
25 See Conclusions of
the Committee on Social Rights available at:
26 See also the Collective
Complaints in relation to housing rights, at http://www.coe.int/t/e/human_rights/esc/4_collective_complaints/List_of_collective_complaints/default.
27 See website:
were 44 complaints as at November 2007. The States which have ratified the Collective
Complaints Protocol of 1995 (at 26 October 2007) were Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus,
Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and Sweden.
Bulgaria and Slovenia have made a declaration to be bound by the Protocol under
Article D of the RESC.
28 See Regina v. Secretary
of State for the Home Department (Appellant) ex parte Adam (FC) (Respondent) and
others. (Conjoined Appeals)  UKHL 66.
29 See Mowbray, A. (2004)
Human Rights Law in Perspective: The Development of Positive Obligations under
the European Convention on Human Rights. London: Sweet & Maxwell.
30 See Codona v. UK
(Application No. 484/05) Decision February 7 2006.
31 Judgement 12 July 2005
(Applications 41138/98 and 64320/01).
32 Marzari v. Italy
(1999) 28 EHRR CD 175. at 179. See also Botta v. Italy (1998) 26 EHRR 241.
33 Geurra v Italy
(1998) EHRR 357 Lopez-Ostra v Spain (1991) 14 EHRR 319; Moreno-Gomez v
Spain (Application No 4143/02) judgment 16 November 2004; Fadeyeva v Russia
(Application No. 55723/00) judgment of 9 June 2005;
34 See Case of Connors
v. UK. ECtHR Judgement 27 May 2004. (Application no. 66746/01); Chapman v.
UK (2001) 33 EHRR 413; Beard v. UK (2001) 33 EHRR 442.
35 Regulation 1612/68.
OJ L 257, 19.10.1968. Regulation (EEC) No. 1612/68 of the Council of 15th
October 1968 on freedom of movement for workers within the Community (as amended).
36 Council Directive
2003/9/EC of 27 January 2003 laying down minimum standards for the reception of
asylum seekers. OJ L031, 06.2.2003. See also Communication from the
Commission of 3 June 2003 Towards more accessible, equitable and managed asylum
systems. COM(2003) 315 final OJ C76/21, 25.03.2004; Communication from the
Commission of 26 March 2003 on the common asylum policy and the Agenda for
protection COM(2003) 152 final OJ C76/2, 25.03.2004; See also website:
37 See Directive 2003/109/EC.
OJ L16/44, 23.1.2004.
38 See Communication
from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on a common policy
on illegal immigration. COM (2001) 672 final Brussels, 15.11.2001.
39 Council Directive
2000/43/EC of June 2000 on the implementation of the principle of equal treatment
between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin. Article 3 (1).
40 Council Directive
2004/113/EC of 13 December 2004 implementing the principle of equal treatment
between men and women in the access to and supply of services and goods.
41 Unfair Contract
Terms Directive 1993/93/13/EEC.
42 A4-0088/97, 
OJ C182/70, 16 June 1997.
43  OJ C293/07,
13 October 1999. See also Report on housing and regional policy. FINAL A6-0090/2007.
28.3.2007. Rapporteur: Alfonso Andria.
44 See website: http://www.iut.nu/EU/Housing%20Charter/Charter_ENG_060406.doc
45 See Communication from
the Commission, Compliance with the Charter of Fundamental rights in Commission
legislative proposals – Methodology for systematic and rigorous monitoring,
COM(2005) 172 final, 27.5.2005.
46 See http://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/FindByProcnum.do?lang=2&procnum=ACI/2007/2218
Kenna, P. (2005) Housing Rights and Human Rights. Brussels: FEANTSA.
49 PPPR, Evidence Hearing
on the Right to Housing, (2007) available at: http://www.pprproject.org/documents/evidencehearing.pdf
50 Council of Europe,
Recommendation No. R (2000) 3 of the Committee of Ministers to the member states
on the Right to the Satisfaction of Basic Material Needs of Persons in Situations
of Extreme Hardship. Adopted 19 January 2000.
51 Recommendation Rec(2005)4.
See also Recommendation Rec(2004)14 on the movement and encampment of Travellers
52 Council of Europe Parliamentary
Assembly, Doc. 10833.
53 See Council of Europe
Parliamentary Assembly. Resolution 1509 (2006) Human rights of irregular
migrants; Resolution 1512 (2006) Parliaments united in combating domestic
violence against women. See Protecting Women against Violence. Analytical study
on the effective implementation of Recommendation Rec(2002)5 on the protection of
women against violence in Council of Europe member states. Available at:
Recommendation 1755 (2006) Human rights of irregular migrants.
54 Available at:
http://www.coe.int/t/dg3/socialpolicies/socialrights/. See also
Report on Access to Housing for Disadvantaged Categories of Persons and
Guidelines on supply of housing, financing and housing allowance (2006).
55 See Conclusions 2003,
Article 31(1), France.
56 See Platform for Cooperation
on Undocumented Migrants. (PICUM) Report on the Housing Situation of Undocumented
Migrants in Six European Countries: Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands
and Spain. PICUM, March 2004. p. 44-46.