Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats - Standing Committee

Recommendation No. 82 (2000) of the Standing Committee on urgent measures concerning the implementation of action plans for large carnivores in Europe, adopted by the Standing Committee on 1 December 2000

The Standing Committee of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, acting under Article 14 of the Convention,

Having regard to the aims of the convention to conserve wild fauna and its natural habitats;

Recalling its Recommendation No. 59 (1997) on the drafting and implementation of action plans of wild fauna species;

Recalling its Recommendation No. 74 (1999) on the conservation of large carnivores;

Desirous to avoid a further loss of biological diversity in Europe and wishing to promote co-existence of viable populations of large carnivores with sustained development of rural areas in appropriate regions;

Referring to the Action Plans on large carnivores presented by the Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe sponsored by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) [Nature and Environment Series Nos. 111, 112, 113, 114 and 115];

Taking note of the information presented by the different states regarding the implementation of its Recommendation No. 74;

Expressing its regret and concern over the decline of the Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus) in Portugal and Spain;

Conscious of the conflicts that may be caused by large carnivores - and specially wolf - when they recolonise areas where from they had disappeared in the past, and appreciating in particular the efforts of some Contracting Parties aimed at the establishment in their territories of permanent populations of those carnivores;

Acknowledging the transboundary character of conservation measures for large carnivores in neighbouring countries;

Recommends Contracting Parties and invites observer states to:

Wolf in the south of Fennoscandia

Norway and Sweden:

– continue their present policy aimed at the maintenance in the south of the peninsula, of a viable population of wolf shared between the two states, while at the same time minimising conflicts with sheep farming and traditional reindeer herding.

Bear and lynx populations in the Eastern Alps

Austria, Italy and Slovenia:

– co-ordinate the technical and political aspects of management of large carnivores in the region, so as to recognise the critical importance of Slovenian populations;

– establish a framework of transboundary co-operation, including a technical group on the management of large carnivores population shared by the three states.


– adapt, through the most appropriate methods, existing roads to crossing by large carnivores, so as to maintain the connection between the populations of large carnivores at the south and north-west of Slovenia, thus facilitating its passage to other Alpine states;

– manage bear and lynx habitats in the corridor areas so as to enhance their natural dispersal.

Wolf in Western Alps
France, Italy, Switzerland:

– recognise, for management purposes, the Alpine wolf population as a distinct unit, different from other neighbouring populations;

– collaborate for the joint management of the Alpine wolf population, establishing appropriate political and technical contacts and structures;

– endeavour to maintain the Alpine wolf population in a favourable conservation status in a framework of sustainable development of rural areas;

– take account, in that context, the work developed in the framework of the Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe.

Lynx in Switzerland and the Alps

– carry on the proposed re-introduction of lynx in the east of Switzerland, so as to permit the species to occupy its potential habitat in the east of Switzerland and in the Eastern Alps, permitting a possible recolonisation of Austria and Italy;

– contact Austria, Italy and Liechtenstein to establish with them a possible framework for the management of lynx in the Eastern Alps, taking into account Recommendation No. 74 of the Standing Committee and the LCIE action plan for lynx in Europe.

    Austria, Italy, Liechtenstein:

– prepare for a possible migration of lynx from Switzerland.

Bear, lynx and wolf in the Baltic region
Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia:

– establish a framework for co-operation on large carnivores in the region and that may facilitate the co-ordinated management of those species;

– take account, in that context, of Recommendation No. 74 of the Standing Committee of the action plans on bear, lynx and wolf mentioned.

Bear, lynx and wolf in the Carpathian

Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine:

– establish a framework for technical and political co-operation on large carnivores in the Carpathian that may lead to a co-ordinated management of transboundary populations and to their maintenance in a favourable conservation status.

Wolf in the south of Spain


– urgently takes measures to recover the species in the south of Spain, approving and implementing the necessary recovery plans, enforcing protection laws and measures against poaching reinforcing.

Iberian lynx

    Portugal and Spain:

– protect in the Natura 2000 Network areas of potential interest for the species, in particular those where lynx was still present a few years ago and may be recolonised, and also corridors facilitating connectivity among populations;

– identify and promote incentives for actions which may improve the restoration of mosaic habitats appropriate for lynx through an adequate use of economic incentives, removing incentives which have a negative impact on conservation and promoting management agreements where relevant;

– make particular efforts to reduce the human-induced mortality , in particular by strengthening the control on poaching and avoiding road kills by establishing alternatives for construction of new roads in lynx areas and by building efficient passages on identified high-risk crossing sites roads.

– promote research of the different populations of lynx, paying special attention to small populations and areas of unstable occurrence of the species preventing their extinction;

– monitor results of research and conservation projects developed in the last years, to see whether they have actually helped improve the conservation of status of any of the subpopulations of the species.

– carry out bilateral and multilateral programmes/actions of lynx conservation involving several states and entities, to enhance cooperation, exchange of experiences and awareness of a shared responsibility;

– promote contacts between lynx experts from others disciplines (genetics, computer modeling, GIS technology, etc.).

– Endorse and implement the captive breeding program which has been prepared by the Spanish authorities, in order to ensure the availability of stock for future reintroduction and restocking.


– urgently approve and effectively implement a national action plan on Iberian Lynx, taking into consideration Recommendation No 74 (1999) of the Standing Committee and the LCIE Iberian Lynx Action Plan.


– urgently approve and implement Iberian lynx recovery plans in the regions of Madrid, Castilla-la-Mancha, Andalusia, Extremadura and Castilla y León taking into account the national strategy, Recommendation No. 74 of the Standing Committee and the LCIE Iberian lynx action plan mentioned.