CM/Inf(99)1

    Communication on the activities of the Committee of Ministers
    Statutory report, Consolidated edition 1998

    CONTENTS

    1 Political Developments
    1.1 Sessions of the Committee of Ministers 5
    1.2 Follow-up to the Second Summit 8
    1.3. Compliance with commitments accepted by member States 8
    1.4 Relations with Central and Eastern European States
    1.4.1 Albania 12
    1.4.2. Belarus 12
    1.4.3 Bosnia and Herzegovina 13
    1.4.4 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and crisis in Kosovo 13
    1.4.5 Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia 16
    1.5 Political dialogue 16
    1.6 Relations with the Holy See 16
    1.7 Relations with the Principality of Monaco 16
    1.8 Relations with other international bodies
    1.8.1 European Union 17
    1.8.2 United Nations 18
    1.8.3 OSCE 18
    1.9 Global Solidarity Campaign
    1.10 Renewal of the term of office of the Secretary General 19

    2 Protection of Human Rights - the Conventions
    2.1 European Convention on Human Rights 20
    2.2 European Social Charter 22
    2.3 European Convention for the Prevention of Torture
    and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment 27
    2.4 Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities 30

    3 Implementation of the Intergovernmental Programme of Activities

    3.1 Democratic cohesion
    3.1.1 Pluralist democracy
    Equality 33
    Media 35
    Local democracy 38
    3.1.2 Human rights 39
    3.1.3 Rule of Law 43

    3.2 Social cohesion and quality of life
    3.2.1 Social policies 53
    3.2.2 Health 61
    3.2.3 Environment and sustainable development 63

    3.3 Cultural cohesion and cultural pluralism
    3.3.1 Education, higher education, culture and heritage
    Education 72
    Higher education 81
    Culture 84
    Heritage 89
    3.3.2 Sport 91
    3.3.3 Youth 94

    4 Multilateral activities for the consolidation
    and development of democratic stability

    4.1 Human rights 99
    4.2 Legal co-operation 105
    4.3 Transfrontier co-operation 107
    4.4 Media 107

    5 Partial Agreements
    5.1 Social Development Fund 110
    5.2 Partial Agreement in the Social and Public Health Field 116
    5.3 European Department for the Quality of Medicines 120
    5.4 Pompidou Group 122
    5.5 EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement 124
    5.6 EURIMAGES 125
    5.7 North-South Centre 127
    5.8 European Commission for Democracy through Law 129
    5.9 Partial Agreement on the Youth Card 134
    5.10 European Audiovisual Observatory 134
    5.11 European Centre for Modern Languages 136

    6 Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE) 142

    7 Conferences of Specialised Ministers 152

    Appendix 1 Action taken on texts adopted by the Assembly 153

    Appendix 2 Texts adopted by the Committee of Ministers 159

    Index 180

    1 Political Developments

    1.1 Sessions of the Committee of Ministers
    1.1.1 102nd Session, Strasbourg, 4-5 May
    See Appendix 2 for full text of the Final communiqué
    The Committee of Ministers held its 102nd Session on 5 May under the Chairmanship of Mr Klaus Kinkel, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Germany.
    In connection with the first item of their agenda, follow-up to the Second Summit (Strasbourg, 10-11 October 1997), the Ministers (see also chapters 1.12 and 1.2 below),
    - took note of the interim report on the reform of structures and working methods of the Organisation, presented by Mario Soares, the former President of the Portuguese Republic, in his capacity as Chairman of the Committee of Wise Persons. The Ministers expressed satisfaction with the progress achieved and thanked the Committee for its work so far; and
    - examined the first report of the Follow-up Committee on the Second Summit, presented by its Chairman, Ambassador Jacques Warin of France. They took note of progress made and instructed their Deputies to continue active pursuit of the implementation of decisions adopted at the Summit.
    In the same context, where human rights are concerned, the Ministers
    - welcomed the deposit by Mr Evgeny Primakov, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, of the instruments of ratification of major European Conventions, notably the European Convention on Human Rights and the Protocol No. 11 thereto, which had now become binding on all forty member States;
    - expressed satisfaction at the support by all member States to the Resolution on the abolition of the death penalty, presented to the Human Rights Commission of the United Nations, and stressed their conviction that priority should be given to obtaining and maintaining a moratorium on executions, to be consolidated as soon as possible by complete abolition of the death penalty; and
    - took note of the progress made in preparing the mandate for a Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, and instructed their Deputies to conclude this work as soon as possible.
    Regarding the fight against corruption, the Ministers adopted Resolution (98) 7 authorising the adoption of the Partial and Enlarged Agreement establishing the “Group of States against corruption (GRECO)”.
    They also welcomed progress made in developing a new strategy for “Social Cohesion”, and the increased investment effort of the Social Development Fund, in particular with regard to job creation, noting with satisfaction the good prospects that the Fund could participate with its resources and expertise in the Council of Europe's activity in this field, in accordance with its statutory aims and its modalities of operation.
    Moreover, the Ministers decided to launch a programme for children, which will aim to advance the interests of children, to promote their participation in society and to protect them from all forms of exploitation.
    In connection with the second item, the situation in South-East Europe, in connection with activities of the Council of Europe, the Ministers paid particular attention to the deteriorating situation in Kosovo and urged the parties concerned to desist from any form of violence and to enter into a constructive dialogue with third-party participation.
    At an informal meeting on 4 May, the Ministers discussed the recently concluded Belfast Agreement. The discussion was introduced by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Ireland, Mr David Andrews, and the Minister of State for Northern Ireland in the Government of the United Kingdom, Mr Paul Murphy. In a third introduction, Mr Bronislaw Geremek, the Foreign Minister of Poland and Chairman-in-Office of the OSCE, had commented on possible lessons to be drawn for other European areas, where there are deep-seated tensions.
    On 5 May Alternate Minister for Foreign Affairs Giorgos Papandreou presented to the Deputies the programme of the Greek Chairmanship in the course of an exchange of views. Among the priorities mentioned were close cooperation with the Assembly and prompt replies to recommendations (see Appendix 1 for full list of replies adopted).

    1.1.2 103rd Session, Strasbourg, 3-4 November
    See Appendix 2 for full text of the Final communiqué
    The Committee of Ministers held its 103rd Session on 4 November, with Mr Giorgos Papandreou, Alternate Minister for Foreign Affairs of Greece, and Deputy Foreign Minister Yannos Kranidiotis, in the Chair.
    The Ministers welcomed the formal inauguration of the new European Court of Human Rights on 3 November, which considerably strengthens the structures of the Council of Europe and its control mechanisms in the field of human rights.
    In connection with the first item of their agenda, “Follow-up to the Second Summit (Strasbourg, 10-11 October 1997)”, the Ministers
    - held a first exchange of views on the final report on the reform of structures and working methods of the Organisation, presented by Mario Soares, the former President of the Portuguese Republic, in his capacity as Chairman of the Committee of Wise Persons. They congratulated the Wise Persons on their work and instructed their Deputies to examine the proposals contained in the report, with a view to the adoption of structural reforms at the 104th  Session of the Committee of Ministers in May 1999 in Budapest;
    - in the light of the second report of the Follow-up Committee on the Second Summit, took note of progress made and instructed their Deputies to continue active pursuit of the implementation of decisions at the Summit. (The Ministers will receive a final report at the 104th Session);
    - took note of the fact that the new European Committee for Social Cohesion was holding its first meeting in Strasbourg during the same week. In this context, they welcomed the readiness of the Social Development Fund to be actively involved in the Council of Europe's activities in the field of social cohesion;
    - adopted the criminal law Convention on corruption. This constitutes a further step following the creation in May 1998 of the “Group of States against corruption (GRECO)”, responsible for monitoring observance of the guiding principles in this field. They agreed that the Convention should be opened for signature, on the occasion of the January 1999 Session of the Parliamentary Assembly, and authorised publication of the explanatory report;
    - noted with satisfaction progress made in the ongoing preparations for celebration, in spring 1999, of the 50th Anniversary in Strasbourg, London and Budapest. They welcomed the initiatives already taken by member States, at national, regional and local level, with a view to participating actively in the commemoration of the 50th Anniversary throughout 1999. They encouraged all member States to follow these examples by setting up a national committee or by any other appropriate action. They invited their Deputies to prepare a draft Political Declaration to mark the occasion for adoption at their 104th Session.
    In connection with the second item, “Regional cooperation and settlement of conflicts in south-east Europe: the Council of Europe's role”, the Ministers, having devoted a Colloquy, chaired by the President of the Parliamentary Assembly, to the subject “The role of the Council of Europe in conflict resolution in South-East Europe”, confirmed the Organisation's increasing contribution to the efforts of the different international institutions, on this subject,
    - expressed concern about the situation in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, in particular, Kosovo. They encouraged their Chairman and the Secretary General to pursue contacts with the OSCE to discuss ways in which the Council of Europe might participate in the international monitoring of human rights and in contributing to democratisation in general, as well as with other relevant international organisations and countries of the region;
    - recalling their activities in the field of assistance and solidarity with a view to guaranteeing democratic development in Albania (the constitutional process, the legal and administrative systems and the judiciary), referred to the initiative of their Chairman and of the Secretary General to hold a dialogue on 19 September in Tirana with the country's leadership and with their OSCE counterparts, a visit which was followed by the Declaration of the four Chairmen (CE, EU, OSCE and WEU). They welcomed the intense efforts of the Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE) and – for the process leading to a new constitution – of the Venice Commission for Democracy through Law. The Ministers called for the widest possible participation in the referendum on the Constitution to be held on 22 November 1998 to finalise this process in the interests of the country. The Ministers also welcomed the holding of the international Conference on Albania on 30 October 1998 in Tirana;
    - reaffirmed their determination to continue close co-operation with the OSCE and the European Union. In this context they recalled that the 12th Quadripartite meeting with the leadership of the latter, held in Strasbourg on 7 October 1998, at the invitation of the Chairman of the Committee of Ministers, expressed support for the Council of Europe's specific role, within the multi-institutional “Friends of Albania” Group, created on 30 September. The Ministers noted with satisfaction the active role of the Special Representative of the Secretary General in Tirana, in contributing to efforts to achieve stability in Albania.
    At an informal meeting on 3 November the Ministers held an exchange of views with Mr Vartan Oskanian and Mr Tofik Zulfugarov, Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Armenia and Azerbaijan, candidate countries for membership of the Council of Europe.
    On 4 November, the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Hungary, Mr János Martonyi, presented the programme of the Hungarian Chairmanship in the course of an exchange of views.

    1.2 Follow-up to the Second Summit
    In January (614/1.4), the Deputies:
    - approved more detailed guidelines concerning the implementation of the Action Plan;
    - adopted a reply by the Committee of Ministers to the Parliamentary Assembly Recommendations 1324 (1997) and 1342 (1997);
    - approved arrangements for participation by the Parliamentary Assembly (and the CLRAE) in the activities of the GT-SUIVI.

    The “Follow-up Committee on the Second Summit (GT-SUIVI)” held several meetings, notably to prepare the item “Follow-up to the Second Summit” on the agenda of the meeting of the Joint Committee, held on 23 April 1998, and to prepare the draft reports on implementation of the Action Plan and follow-up to the Final Declaration, with a view to their presentation to the 102nd and 103rd Sessions of the Committee of Ministers (Strasbourg, 5 May and 4 November 1998 (see above)).

    At their April meeting (628/1.8), the Deputies adopted a reply to Assembly Recommendation 1352 (1998) on the Second Summit.
    At their October meeting (646/1.4), the Deputies decided that, after the 103rd Session of the Committee of Ministers, the final report of the Committee of Wise Persons and the 2nd report of the “Follow-up Committee to the Second Summit” would be transmitted to the Parliamentary Assembly and to the CLRAE, and made available to the public.
    At their November meeting (648/1.4), the Deputies:
    - invited the Parliamentary Assembly to formulate an opinion on the recommendations of the Committee of Wise Persons;
    - also invited the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe to formulate an opinion on questions within its field of competence.

    1.3 Compliance with commitments accepted by member States
    of the Council of Europe

    The Deputies devoted their 619th (in camera) meeting on 10 and 11 February to evaluation of the Committee of Ministers' monitoring procedure (also in the light of the discussion in the Joint Committee on 29 January), and resumed discussion of two topics previously chosen for monitoring, namely functioning and protection of democratic institutions, including matters relating to political parties and free elections and freedom of expression and information. Follow-up to texts adopted by the Assembly was also discussed.

    Subsequently the Deputies adopted replies to
    - Recommendation 1326 (1997) on the honouring of obligations and commitments by Romania at their meeting in March (622/2.1b);
    - Recommendation 1338 (1997) on the obligations and commitments of the Czech Republic as a member State;
    - Recommendation 1339 (1997) on the obligations and commitments of Lithuania as a member State, at their meeting at the end of March (625/3.3 and 3.4).
    Moreover, at their 622nd meeting (622/2.1c), the Deputies, having held an exchange of views on the situation with regard to Croatia's compliance with commitments, authorised their Chairman to issue a press statement reflecting their discussion (ref. 157(98)).
    At their 630th meeting (29-30 April), the Deputies, having conducted an evaluation of their monitoring procedure, decided to re-adjust and streamline it, among other things, by supplementing the Chairman's confidential summing-up by a set of Conclusions agreed upon by the Deputies, including, where appropriate, reference to the intergovernmental programme and/or the Rapporteur Group GR-EDS, responsible for cooperation and assistance programmes.
    They also decided that the Parliamentary Assembly will be informed of any follow-up action decided upon.
    Where dialogue with the Parliamentary Assembly is concerned, they decided that annual consultation in the Joint Committee will be supplemented by informal contacts between the Chairman-in-Office and the Assembly's Monitoring Committee (a first meeting between the Chairman-in-Office and the Chairman and Vice-Chairperson of the Assembly's Committee took place on 21 April). Exchange of information on a confidential basis is envisaged, with due regard being taken of the essentially different but complementary nature of the two monitoring procedures.
    At the same meeting, the Deputies opened their discussion of an additional theme selected for their monitoring, namely “functioning of the judicial system”.
    At their 629th meeting, in April (629/2.4), the Deputies adopted a reply to Assembly Recommendation 1298 (1996) on Turkey's respect of commitments to constitutional and legislative reforms (follow-up to Recommendation 1266 (1995)), and at their 634th meeting, in June (634/2.1), they adopted a reply to Assembly Recommendation 1312 (1997) on honouring of obligations and commitments by Albania.
    At their 639th meeting (639/2.3), the Deputies adopted decisions, having the character of conclusions to their April 1998 in camera meeting, as follows:
    - invited the European Committee on Legal Cooperation (CDCJ), in consultation with the Bureau of the European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC), to present proposals to amend the terms of reference of the Committee of Experts on the Efficiency of Justice (CJ-EJ) as from 1999 and to enlarge the membership of that Committee to include all 40 member States of the Council of Europe, so as to entrust the CJ-EJ with identifying concrete ways to enable member States to improve the functioning of their judicial systems, especially as regards access to justice, independence and impartiality of the judiciary and effectiveness of judicial remedies;
    - instructed the CJ-EJ to organise a Colloquy on European Law on the profession of lawyer with special emphasis on the access to lawyers and the organisation of the legal profession;
    - invited the CDCJ and the CDPC to present proposals concerning the follow-up to be given to Recommendation No. (94) 12 on the independence, efficiency and role of judges and the 1999 Conference of European Ministers of Justice on the independence and impartiality of judges;
    - invited the Steering Committee for Human Rights (CDDH) to examine the experience acquired by member States in applying the principles outlined in Recommendation No. R (93) 1 of the Committee of Ministers on effective access to the law and to justice for the very poor and, where appropriate, to identify reasons for difficulty to abide by these principles;
    - invited national delegations to the Consultation and Planning Meeting for the Activities for the Development and Consolidation of Democratic Stability (ADACS) programme (14 to 16 October 1998) and the bilateral meetings taking place in this connection, to take into account, when it comes to selecting activities for 1999, the (former) Chairman's summing-up of discussions at their 630th (in camera) meeting (whilst maintaining the confidentiality of the document), as well as their subsequent discussions on the functioning of the judicial system, also taking account of ongoing intergovernmental activities in the field of the efficiency of justice;
    They also decided to review the results of these activities at a future date.
    At the same meeting (639/2.6), the Deputies adopted a reply to Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1366 (1998) on progress of the Assembly's Monitoring procedures (April 1997 – April 1998).
    At their November meeting (650/2.4), the Deputies adopted decisions, having the character of conclusions to their October 1998 (644th) in camera meeting, as follows:
    On the basis of the seven “basic issues” which they had approved on 7 July 1997 and around which discussions at the 644th meeting (13-14 October 1998) were structured,
    - noted that in certain member States there were:
    - shortcomings in legislation (constitutions/national legislation that made no reference to the general principles of local democracy and/or did not provide legal guarantees for local and regional self-government; lack of specific legislation and/or laws on the status of local and regional authorities);
    - shortcomings in the training of local and regional elected representatives and local and regional authority staff and a lack of experts capable of drafting legislation that complied with Council of Europe standards in this area;
    - problems regarding the operation of the institutions of local and regional democracy;
    - invited those member States which had not signed/ratified the legal instruments drawn up at the Council of Europe in the field of local democracy, in particular, the European Charter of Local Self-Government, to sign/ratify these instruments and to bring their national systems into line with the principles they set out;
    - invited those member States which had ratified the above-mentioned instruments to reconsider any reservations/declarations they had made upon acceding to the texts and to withdraw them wherever possible;
    - agreed to assist Governments to resolve the problems mentioned in paragraph 1 above through intergovernmental co-operation activities and through “local authorities” activities under the ADACS programme;
    - invited the Steering Committee on Local and Regional Democracy (CDLR), in the context of the implementation of the “Local and regional democracy” section of the intergovernmental programme of activities, to further develop the activities aimed at:
    - achieving the right balance in the relationship between central government, sub-national levels of government (regional and local authorities) and local population, so that first all tiers of government have proper regard to the needs and wishes of local population, and that secondly each tier of government discharges its powers and responsibilities in a co-ordinated and co-operative manner;
    - promoting sound and stable financial arrangements for regional and local authorities, which not only support the efficient and effective operation of those authorities, but also contribute to the effective working of the economy as a whole;
    - improving the structures and operation of regional and local authorities in order to increase the transparency and value for money of their actions and to help them respond to the needs and wishes of the local population, including the provision of high quality local services at a price which they can afford;
    - promoting active involvement in public life at local and regional level through appropriate machinery for representative and direct democracy;
    - agreed that future activities organised under the aegis of the ADACS programme will take account of the results of the monitoring conducted by the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE) in addition to the results of monitoring undertaken by the Committee of Ministers which is of a confidential nature;
    - invited the CLRAE, in view of its Resolution 31 (1996), to continue its work on the preparation of country-by-country reports on the situation of local and regional democracy in all the member States;
    - urged the CLRAE to step up its efforts to ensure that the principles of the European Charter of Local Self-Government are observed effectively by all the member States;
    - expressed the wish that the local and regional democracy dimension be reinforced or, where necessary, included in the joint programmes between the European Union and the Council of Europe;
    - decided to resume consideration of the question of local democracy at a later date in order to examine the progress made in this area in the member States following increased co-operation with the Council of Europe bodies mentioned above.
    At the same November meeting, the Deputies approved indicative outlines of basic issues for the subjects “capital punishment” and “police and security forces” as well as time-tables for dealing with these subjects.

    1.4 Relations with Central and Eastern European States
    To mark a new emphasis, and evolution in the activities concerned, the competent Rapporteur Group (formerly GREL) became, by decision of the 614th meeting, in January (614/2.1), “Rapporteur Group for Democratic Stability (GR-EDS)”.

    1.4.1 Albania

    Following the high-level visit to Tirana (which took place from 18-20 January) by their Chairman, Chairman of the GR-EDS and the Secretariat to examine with the competent Albanian authorities and the representatives of the international community in Tirana, the various aspects of the planning, implementation and evaluation of the Council of Europe cooperation programmes with Albania, the Deputies, at their February meeting (617/2.1a), decided to launch an appeal to all member States to consider the possibilities for additional voluntary contributions (including secondment of staff, in particular, for the Council of Europe Secretariat Office in Tirana) with a view to increasing the Council of Europe's contribution to the consolidation and stabilisation of democratic institutions and the rule of law in Albania.

    They also, at their meeting at the end of March (625/3.2), adopted a reply to Recommendation 1328 (1997) on the state of emergency in Albania. And, in October (646/2.1c), they adopted a reply to Recommendation 1386 (1998) on the latest developments in Albania.
    On 19 September the Greek Chairman-in-Office took the initiative of visiting Tirana for dialogue with the political leadership, in the company of the Chairman-in-Office of the OSCE and the Secretaries General of both organisations.
    At their November (650th) meeting, the Deputies noted the communiqué on the referendum on the Albanian Constitution (see Communiqué No. 765b98 of 20.11.98) issued by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Hungary, as Chairman-in-Office.

    1.4.2. Belarus
    At their 614th meeting, in January (614/2.1), the Deputies authorised the Secretariat to co-operate with the OSCE Advisory and Monitoring Group (AMG) in Minsk, by the appointment of a Liaison Officer for Belarus within the Secretariat and by providing experts (or members of the Secretariat) on an ad hoc basis to take part in activities for which Council of Europe expertise would be required.
    At their October meeting (646/2.1a), the Deputies agreed with the proposal to extend the Higher Education Legislative Reform Programme (LRP) to the benefit of Belarus, in its capacity as Contracting Party to the European Cultural Convention.

    1.4.3 Bosnia and Herzegovina
    In January (614/2.1), the Deputies also decided to reply positively to the request of the UN Secretary General to intensify cooperation in the fields of law enforcement agencies and the functioning of the judicial system in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    In March (624/2.1a), the Deputies invited their Chairman to address a letter to the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina with a view to seeking assurances that the eventual establishment of the Human Rights Court of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina with the nomination of foreign judges by the Committee of Ministers would in no way prejudice or diminish the jurisdiction of the Human Rights Commission of Bosnia and Herzegovina under Annex 6 of the Dayton Agreement, and would not entail financial consequences for the Council of Europe.

    Following the Deputies' invitation, at their 632nd meeting, in May (632/2.1a), to their Chairman, the latter addressed a letter to the authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina seeking assurances concerning the full implementation of the decisions of the Human Rights Commission of this country (Chamber and Office of the Ombudsperson), both by the State of Bosnia and Herzegovina and by the two Entities, in accordance with commitments resulting from the Washington and Dayton/Paris Agreements. (An exchange of views with the President of the Chamber and the Ombudsperson had taken place on 15 May in the framework of the Rapporteur Group GR-EDS for democratic stability).
    At the same meeting, they authorised the extension of the mandate of the Council of Europe Secretariat Office in Sarajevo until 31 December 1998, under the same conditions as previously, including for temporary staff (international and local).
    On 8 June, an exchange of views was held, in the framework of the Rapporteur Group GR-EDS, with Ms Elisabeth Rehn, Under-Secretary General of the United Nations and Special Representative of the Secretary General for Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 2 November, in the same framework, an exchange of views took place with Mr Jadranko Prlić, Minister for Foreign Affairs.

    1.4.4 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and crisis in Kosovo
    The Deputies, having held an exchange of views in March (622/2.1c) on the violence in Kosovo, authorised their Chairman to issue a press statement reflecting their discussion, in which the Committee of Ministers gave its full support to the top-level delegation from the Assembly, led by President Leni Fischer (ref. 160(98)).
    Subsequently (624/2.5), they
    - took note of the application for membership of the Council of Europe contained in the letter addressed to the Secretary General by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, dated 18 March;
    - decided to inform the Parliamentary Assembly about this application and to propose including this question for an exchange of views on the Agenda of the Joint Committee to be held on 23 April 1998;
    - invited the Secretary General to reply to the letter of the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by formally acknowledging receipt of the application and recalling the procedure, which applies equally to all new applicant States, to be followed and the criteria to be taken into consideration i.e. the principles enshrined in the Statute of the Council of Europe and developed in the major instruments of the Organisation and invited their Chairman to issue the following press communiqué:
    “The Committee of Ministers, meeting at Deputies' level, noted today the formal application of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to join the 40-nation Council of Europe. The Committee considered this application as a signal implying a wish to respect the Organisation's values - democracy, human rights, rule of law - throughout the territory of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
    The Ministers' Deputies will inform the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly about the application. They agreed to resume consideration of this application at a later meeting.
    At the same time, the Committee noted that several aspects of the present situation in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in particular in Kosovo, are a cause for great concern.”
    In April (628/2.4, 2.5), the Deputies continued their exchange of views on the request for accession and adopted a reply to Recommendation 1288 (1996) on Albanian asylum-seekers from Kosovo and Recommendation 1360 (1998) on the crisis in Kosovo.
    Following proposals made before the Parliamentary Assembly on 24 June 1998 by the Chairman of the Committee of Ministers, Mr Giorgos Papandreou, Alternate Minister for Foreign Affairs of Greece, the Committee continued to follow developments closely.
    Thus, the Deputies, at their 639th meeting (639/2.4):
    - took note, in the context of cooperation activities limited to structures and representatives of civil society, that Minister Papandreou, in his capacity as Chairman of the Committee of Ministers, would open the “International Conference on Broadcasting for a Democratic Europe: the case of the Association of Independent Electronic Media – ANEM” organised under the auspices of the Secretary General of the Council of Europe (2-3 October 1998, Belgrade);
    - took note of work being conducted jointly by the Venice Commission and the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE) on an outline of main elements for a constitutional status for Kosovo;
    - instructed the Secretariat to prepare:
    - a fact-sheet of action taken by the international community to monitor the situation in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Kosovo in particular and suggestions for a possible mandate and modalities of monitoring human rights and democracy in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, including by the Council of Europe itself as appropriate;
    - a list of measures to be taken by the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia concerning the situation in the country and in Kosovo in particular, in the light of the principles of the Council of Europe and taking into consideration the relevant recommendations of the Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE);
    - instructed the Secretariat to bring a memorandum circulated by the German delegation concerning freedom of information in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to the attention of the Parliamentary Assembly and to contact the OSCE and its Representative on Freedom of the Media on that matter; and
    - adopted a reply to Parliamentary Assembly Recommendations 1368 (1998) on the latest developments in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the situation in Kosovo and 1376 (1998) on the crisis in Kosovo and the situation in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia indicating, inter alia, that the lack of seriousness and credibility of the Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia's application for membership of the Organisation has led to suspension of discussion of this issue. A radical change of policy by Belgrade would be needed before the application can be seriously considered.
    At the same meeting (639/3.2) the Deputies decided to propose that an item “Federal Republic of Yugoslavia – Request for accession to the Council of Europe in the light of events in this country and in particular in Kosovo” should be added to the agenda of the meeting of the Joint Committee to be held in Santorini (Greece) on 28 September 1998.
    At their October meeting (646/2.1b), the Deputies adopted a joint reply to Assembly Recommendations 1384 (1998) on the crisis in Kosovo and the situation in the FRY (including a proposal to organise an international conference on the future status of Kosovo) and 1385 (1998) on the situation of the Kosovo refugees, asylum seekers and displaced persons.
    The 103rd Session of the Committee of Ministers having on 4 November discussed the role of the Council of Europe in conflict resolution in South-East Europe, the Deputies, at their November meeting (648/2.1a) :
    - On the basis of the understanding reached by the Secretariat with Ambassador Walker, Head of the OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission (KVM), at the Target Oriented Meeting on Kosovo held in Warsaw on 5 November 1998 on Council of Europe participation in the KVM, instructed the Secretariat:
    i. to arrange Council of Europe representation in the “Principals' Group” within the OSCE KVM;
    ii. to contribute to the drafting of a field manual on human dimension issues;
    iii. to provide experts to participate in the training of KVM members on human dimension issues;
    iv. to participate later this month, with an expert - nominated by the Venice Commission - in an inter-agency needs assessment mission in the field of elections to the region.
    They took note that these arrangements will be financed, in 1998, up to a maximum amount of 400,000 FF from resources available under Vote IX of the general Budget, by way of internal transfers within that Vote if necessary;
    - reiterated their support for further contribution by the Venice Commission for Democracy through Law to the work on the status of Kosovo.

    1.4.5 Relations with Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia
    The Deputies took note, at their 639th meeting (639/2.7), of a report of the Chairmanship and the Secretary General on their visit to Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia on 30 and 31 August, which, they agreed, would also be included on the agenda of the Joint Committee in Santorini (28 September).
    They also authorised the Secretariat to consult non-member States parties to the European Convention on Information on Foreign Law (ETS No. 62) concerning Georgia's request to be invited to accede to this Convention as well as the non-member State party to the European Convention on mutual assistance in criminal matters (ETS No. 30), following the same country's request to accede to the convention in question.
    In December (653/10.1a), they also invited, pursuant to Paragraph 1 of Article 30 of the European Convention on the Punishment of Road Traffic offences (ETS No. 52), Georgia to accede to the said Convention.

    1.5 Political dialogue

    Among matters dealt with by the Deputies in the framework of their political dialogue was the situation in Algeria. Following the Deputies' discussion in February (621/3.1), a reply was adopted to Recommendation 1358 (1998) on this subject.
    At their 632nd meeting, in May (632/2.1b), the Deputies, having discussed the shooting on 12 May of Akin Birdal, Chairman of the Human Rights Association, invited the Secretary General to issue a press release on this subject.

    1.6 Relations with the Holy See
    At their 632nd meeting, in May (632/1.6), the Deputies, bearing in mind the status enjoyed by the Holy See with the Council of Europe since 1970, as well as a request made by the Secretary of State of the Holy See to attend meetings of the subsidiary groups of the Deputies, invited the Holy See to be represented by its permanent observer at such meetings, including those devoted to the planning and programming of the activities of the Council of Europe aiming at promoting human rights, establishing the rule of law and strengthening democratic institutions.

    1.7 Relations with the Principality of Monaco
    At their November 1998 meeting (648/2.4), the Deputies adopted Resolution (98) 30 inviting the Parliamentary Assembly to express its opinion on the wish expressed by the Government of the Principality to be invited to accede to the Council of Europe.

    1.8 Relations with other international bodies

    1.8.1 Relations with the European Union
    The 11th Quadripartite meeting took place in Strasbourg on 1 April, bringing together Minister of State, Mr Helmut Schäfer, for the Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers, with the Secretary General, and Mr Doug Henderson, President-in-Office of the Council of the European Union, Minister for Europe of the United Kingdom, and Mr Hans van den Broek, Member of the European Commission.
    The agenda, of which the Deputies took note in March (622/2.4), included:
    - an exchange of views on topical issues:
    - process of enlargement of the European Union
    - “platform for cooperative security” in the framework of OSCE
    - cooperation between the European Union and the Council of Europe in areas of common interest:
    - follow-up to the Council of Europe Summit
    - joint cooperation programmes.
    A press communiqué (ref. 226(98)) was issued after the meeting and follow-up was discussed at the Deputies' April meeting (628/2.3), which also adopted a reply to Recommendation 1347 (1997) on the enlargement of the European Union.
    The Deputies held an exchange of views on 13 May with Mr Carlo Trojan, Secretary General of the European Commission.
    At their 638th meeting (638/2.5), the Deputies adopted a reply to Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1365 (1998) on relations with the European Union (follow-up to the European Union's Amsterdam Summit).
    At their 639th meeting (639/2.5), they took note of the draft agenda for the 12th Quadripartite meeting (Strasbourg, 7 October 1998), as follows:
    1. Exchange of information and views on enlargement processes of the European Union and the Council of Europe.
    2. Cooperation programmes between the Council of Europe and the European Union in areas of mutual interest (legal frames, topics and objectives, financing):
    - programmes in follow-up to the Second Summit of the Council of Europe
    - assistance programmes for central and eastern European countries
    - North-South Centre

    3. Current political questions:
    - Kosovo and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (request for accession to the Council of Europe)
    - Caucasus.
    The 12th European Union / Council of Europe Quadripartite meeting was held in Strasbourg on 7 October 1998, at the invitation of the Chairman of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, Mr Giorgos Papandreou, Alternate Minister for Foreign Affairs of Greece, with the Secretary General and Mrs Benita Ferrero-Waldner, President of the Council of the European Union and State Secretary for Foreign Affairs of Austria, and Mr Hans van den Broek, member of the European Commission.
    A press release (ref. 672(98)) was issued after the meeting which was discussed at the Deputies' November meeting (646/2.3).

    1.8.2 Relations with the United Nations
    On 19 February (621/4.1), the annual exchange of views on questions relating to human rights within the UN framework, in advance of the opening of the meeting of the UN Human Rights Commission in Geneva, took place, with the participation of experts from capitals.

    1.8.3 Relations with the OSCE
    On 23 January 1998, the Secretary General participated in the High-Level Tripartite Meeting with the OSCE and United Nations' institutions and agencies (as well as with the CICR) in Geneva, at the invitation of the Secretary General of the OSCE. The Chairman of the Ministers' Deputies and the Chairman of the competent Rapporteur Group also took part in that meeting.

    An exchange of views took place in February (617/2.3) between the Deputies and Mr Giancarlo Aragona, Secretary General of the OSCE. Subsequently, on 12 March in London, the Chairman of the Committee of Ministers, Mr Klaus Kinkel, together with the Secretary General, took part, with their opposite numbers from the OSCE, in the 5th high-level “2+2” meeting, the agenda for which, prepared by the Deputies (621/2.3), included:

    - regional issues, including Kosovo;
    - cooperation between the Council of Europe and the OSCE in the elaboration of a Platform for Cooperative Security;
    - follow-up to the Netherlands' initiative to promote close cooperation between the Council of Europe and the OSCE.
    A press communiqué containing a joint declaration (ref. 166(98)) was issued after the meeting.
    The Chairman of the Deputies took part in the OSCE-Council of Europe Seminar on “Alliance for Human Rights and Democracy” held in The Hague on 5 June, at the invitation of the Government of the Netherlands, under the joint auspices of both Organisations.
    At the October meeting (646/2.6) the Deputies adopted a reply to Assembly Recommendation 1381 (1998) on General Policy: Council of Europe and OSCE, and at their November meeting (648/2.6), they took note of the contribution prepared by the Secretariat to the Platform for Co-operative Security of the OSCE.

    1.9 Global Solidarity Campaign
    In January (615/2.1), the Deputies adopted a reply to Recommendation 1319 (1997) of the Parliamentary Assembly on the organisation by the Council of Europe of a second European campaign on North-South interdependence and solidarity in 1998.
    The Deputies considered that the 1998 Universal Exposition in Lisbon would offer an appropriate occasion to launch the campaign which could be concluded in connection with the celebrations of the Council of Europe's 50th anniversary in 1999.
    The Campaign, "Europe in the World - the World in Europe: for Solidarity and Human Dignity" was launched in Lisbon on September 10.
    The main aim of the Campaign is to alert public opinion to the need for greater solidarity in an increasingly interdependent world. This aim is in line with the follow-up to the Final Declaration adopted by the Second Council of Europe Summit, in which the Heads of State and Government declared that they "encourage understanding between the citizens of the North and the South, in particular through information and civic education for young people, as well as initiatives aimed at promoting mutual respect and solidarity among peoples".

    1.10 Renewal of the term of office of the Secretary General
    At their 639th meeting (639/1.7), the Deputies agreed on a timetable for the procedure of the election of the new Secretary General, and also adopted Resolution (98) 12 on the renewal of the term of office of Mr Daniel Tarschys as Secretary General for a period from 20 June 1999 to 31 August 1999, referring to consultation of the Parliamentary Assembly which took place in the Joint Committee on 25 June 1998. The Enlarged Joint Committee / Colloquy (Strasbourg, 4 November 1998) took note that approval of this measure by the Assembly, at the opening of its 1999 Session, would not constitute a precedent for the future or imply any change in the regulations governing this question.

    2 Protection of Human Rights - the Conventions

    2.1 European Convention on Human Rights

    Signatures and ratifications

    The Convention and its Protocols
    (ETS 5, 9 ,44, 45, 46, 55, 114, 117, 118, 140, 146, 155)

    The Russian Federation ratified the Convention and its Protocols nos. 1, 4, 7, 9, 10 and 11 on 5 May.
    Protocol no. 6
    Signature by Latvia, 26 June
    Ratification by :
    - Estonia, 17 April
    - Greece, 8 September
    - Belgium, 10 December

    European Agreement relating to persons participating in proceedings of the Court (1996) - ETS.161. Entry into force : 1 January 1999
    Signature by :
    - Andorra without reservation as to ratification, 24 November
    - Croatia, 26 January
    - Finland, 19 June
    - Ireland, 3 June
    - Malta, 3 November
    - Moldova, 4 May
    - Romania, 28 May
    - San Marino, 7 September
    - Switzerland without reservation as to ratification, 27 August
    Ratification by :
    - Czech Republic, 24 June
    - Denmark, 28 August
    - Finland, 23 December
    - France, 17 November
    - Hungary, 1 April
    - Iceland, 4 November
    - Italy, 6 March
    - Sweden, 30 September

    Protocol no. 6 to the General Agreement on Privileges and Immunities (1996) ETS.162 Entry into force : 1 November 1998
    . Signature by :
    - Albania without reservation as to ratification, 4 June
    - Andorra, 24 November
    - Austria, 25 February
    - Belgium, 1 April
    - Estonia, 29 May
    - Finland, 19 June
    - France, 31 March
    - Ireland, 3 June
    - Latvia without reservation as to ratification, 15 January
    - Lithuania, 19 October
    - Malta, 3 November
    - Moldova, 4 May
    - Norway without reservation as to ratification, 30 October
    - Romania, 28 May
    - San Marino, 7 September
    - Switzerland without reservation as to ratification, 27 August
    - Ukraine, 3 November

    Ratification by :
    - Andorra, 24 November
    - Austria, 15 July
    - Czech Republic, 24 June
    - Denmark, 28 August
    - Estonia, 16 December
    - Finland, 19 June
    - France, 17 November
    - Hungary, 1 April
    - Iceland, 4 November
    - Ireland, 28 October
    - Luxembourg, 5 August
    - Sweden, 2 July

    Implementation of Protocol no. 11
    At their meetings in February (617/4.2), March (622/4.2), May (632/4.3) and November (650/4.4), the Ministers' Deputies :
    - took note of the candidatures for election of the judges of the European Court of Human Rights, presented in respect of Bulgaria, Liechtenstein, Portugal, the Russian Federation, San Marino and Slovenia;
    - agreed to transmit these lists of candidates to the President of the Parliamentary Assembly.

    Applications of articles 32 and 54 of the Convention
    A list of resolutions adopted by the Committee of Ministers under the application of Articles 32 and 54 of the Convention appears in Appendix 2 of the present report. The texts of the resolutions are available from the Directorate of Human Rights.

    2.2 European Social Charter

    Signatures and ratifications

    European Social Charter (1961) - ETS.35
    Signature by "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", 5 May
    Ratification by Slovak Republic, 22 June

    Additional Protocol (1988) - ETS.128
    Signature by "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", 5 May
    Ratification by :
    - Greece, 18 June
    - Slovak Republic, 22 June

    Amending Protocol (1991) - ETS.142
    Signature by "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", 5 May
    Ratification by Slovak Republic, 22 June

    Protocol providing for a system of collective complaints (1995) - ETS.158
    Seven States have now ratified this protocol. The Protocol entered into force on 1 July.
    Ratification by :
    - Finland, 17 July
    - Greece, 18 June
    - Portugal, 20 March
    - Sweden, 29 May

    Revised Charter (1996) - ETS.163
    Signature by :
    - Albania, 21 September
    - Bulgaria, 21 September
    - Estonia, 4 May
    - Iceland, 4 November
    - Luxembourg, 11 February
    - Moldova, 3 November
    Ratification by Sweden, 29 May.

    Committee of Ministers
    In December (653/4.6a and 653/4.6b), the Deputies :
    - decided to invite signatory States of the European Social Charter or the Revised European Social Charter to take part as observers in the meetings of the Governmental Committee of the European Social Charter;
    - adopted the Rules of Procedure for adopting Recommendations concerning the application of the European Social Charter.
    Having taken note of the final report of the Governmental Committee on Conclusions XIII-4, the Committee of Ministers adopted Resolution ChS (98)1 on the application of the European Social Charter during the reference period 1993-1994 at the 617th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies, in February (617/4.1).
    The Committee also adopted four recommendations on the implementation of the European Social Charter :
    France has been asked to fully comply with Article 17 of the Charter (the right of mothers and children to social and economic protection) by eliminating the differences which still exist between the inheritance rights of children born in and out of marriage;
    Germany has been asked to fully comply with Article 6 para. 4 (the right to collective action) by eliminating restrictions of the right to strike which prohibit any strikes not aimed at achieving a collective agreement and not called or endorsed (Übernahme) by a trade union;
    Italy has been asked to fully comply with Article 7 para. 2 (higher minimum age in certain occupations) by setting the minimum age required for carrying out tasks involving exposure to benzene at eighteen years;
    Turkey has been asked to fully comply on the one hand with Article 11 (right to health) by taking adequate measures taken to reduce the particularly high rate of perinatal and infant mortality; and on the other with article 16 (the right of the family to social, legal and economic protection) by extending eligibility for family benefits and eliminating provisions which cause inequalities within couples both as spouses and as parents from the Civil Code.
    Having taken note of the final report of the Governmental Committee on Conclusions XIII-5, the Committee of Ministers adopted Resolution ChS (98)2 on the application of the European Social Charter during the reference period 1994-1995 at the 638th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies, in July (638/4.1).
    It also adopted Recommendation No. R ChS (98) 5 on the application of the European Social Charter by Portugal. This recommendation concerns Article 7 para. 1 (minimum age of admission to employment). On the basis of the conclusion of the Committee of Independent Experts and the proposal of the Governmental Committee, the Committee of Ministers has invited Portugal to take measures to ensure that the legislation relevant to this provision of the Charter is respected in practice.

    Committee of Independent Experts
    At its 151st session (12-16 January) the Committee examined the reports submitted by all Contracting Parties to the Charter concerning the supervision cycle XIV-1 which focussed on the "hard core" provisions of the Charter:
    - Article 1 (right to work)
    - Article 5 (right to organise)
    - Article 6 (right to bargain collectively)
    - Article 12 (right to social security)
    - Article 13 (right to social assistance)
    - Article 16 (right of the family to social, legal and economic protection)
    - Article 19 (right of migrant workers and their families to protection and assistance).
    During its 152nd session (16-20 February), the Committee continued its examination of the reports submitted by all Contracting Parties to the Charter for cycle XIV-1. The volume of conclusions was adopted at the 153rd session (30 March-3 April).
    During its 154th session (24-29 May), the Committee published its volume of Conclusions XIV-1.
    Furthermore, the Committee began the examination of the reports submitted by all Contracting Parties to the Charter concerning the supervision cycle XIV-2 which concerned the following provisions of the Charter:
    - Article 2 (right to just conditions of work),
    - Article 3 (right to safe and healthy working conditions),
    - Article 4 (right to a fair remuneration),
    - Article 9 (right to vocational guidance),
    - Article 10 (right to vocational training)
    - Article 15 (right of physically or mentally disabled persons to vocational training, rehabilitation and social resettlement).
    In addition, the Committee examined reports submitted by the Contracting Parties concerned on Articles 2 (right of workers to information and consultation) and 3 (right of workers to take part in the determination and improvement of the working conditions and working environment) of the Additional Protocol.
    At its 155th session (22-26 June), the Committee adopted the Sixth report on certain provisions of the Charter which have not been accepted (Article 22). It should be recalled that under Article 22, the Committee of Ministers may request reports from Contracting Parties on provisions of the Charter they have not accepted. The Sixth report examines Articles 5 (the right to organise) and 6 (the right to bargain collectively) of the Charter in relation to the situations in Greece and Turkey concerning these provisions, and those in Austria and Luxembourg concerning Article 6 para. 4 (the right to collective action).
    In addition, the Committee continued its examination of the reports submitted by all the Contracting Parties to the Charter for cycle XIV-2.
    The examination of these reports was continued during the 156th session (14-18 September).
    At the 157th session (19-23 October), the Committee elected a new Bureau whose membership includes the President, the two Vice-Presidents and the General Rapporteur. It also continued with its examination of the reports submitted by all Contracting Parties to the Charter for cycle XIV-2.
    At the 158th session (16-20 November) the Committee adopted the volume of Conclusions XIV-2 and made them public.

    Governmental Committee
    During its 86th meeting (26-29 January), the Committee examined the national situations relating to Finland, Luxembourg and Portugal contained in Conclusions XIII-5.
    It also examined the draft modifications proposed by the working group set up to prepare the revision of the Form for reports to be presented pursuant to Article 21 of the Charter.
    At the 88th session (7-11 September) and the 89th session (30 November-4 December) the Committee examined Conclusions XIV-1 which concerned hard core provisions of the Charter (Articles 1, 5, 6, 12, 13, 16 and 19). It also adopted a new list of international NGOs entitled to bring collective complaints.

    Conferences, seminars, workshops, training courses
    Within the Activities for Developing and Consolidating Democratic Stability (ADACS), several seminars were held in anticipation of the ratification of the Social Charter or the revised Social Charter:
    - in Zagreb (Croatia) on 6-7 May
    - in Tirana (Albania) on 3-4 September
    - in Riga (Latvia) on 1-2 October
    - in Vilnius (Lithuania) on 8-9 October
    - Moscow (Russia) on 2-4 November
    - in Kyiv (Ukraine) on 9-10 November
    - in Chisinau (Moldova) on 14-15 December
    - in Bucharest (Romania) on 16-18 December.
    A seminar took place in Bratislava (Slovakia) on 24-25 November in order to assist the Slovak authorities in drafting the first report on the Social Charter.

    In order to improve the NGOs' awareness of the Social Charter, in particular following the entry into force of the Protocol providing for a system of collective complaints, a multilateral seminar was organised in conjunction with the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) held for NGOs on the European Social Charter in Kyiv (Ukraine) on 24-25 August. A second multilateral seminar was held in Ljubljana (Slovenia) on 7-8 December

    Other events organised with respect to the European Social Charter included:
    - a regional seminar held in Bucharest (Romania) on 7-8 April in conjunction with the Romanian Parliament, the Parliamentary Assembly and the Directorate of Human Rights;
    - participation in summer courses of the International University of Human Rights (organised by the Romanian Institute for Human Rights), held in Costinesti (Romania) on 24-25 August;
    - participation in the European Law Week (organised by the Directorate of Political Affairs), held in Bratislava (Slovakia) on 16-20 November.

    Study visits on the Charter were carried out:
    - to France for the Ukrainian Vice-Minister of Labour and Social Policy, and an official of the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice (22-26 June)
    - to Austria for an official of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of the "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (13-17 July)
    - to Ireland for an official of the Lithuanian Ministry of Social Security and Labour (26-30 October)
    - to Finland and to the Netherlands for an official of the Slovak Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family (5-6 November and 14-16 December)
    - to France for a Moldovan Vice Minister of Labour, Social Protection and Family and four Moldovan officials from the Ministries of Labour, Social Protection and Family, Foreign Affairs and Justice (7-11 December).

    Publications
    - European Social Charter : collected texts. - ISBN 92-871-3366-2
    Committee of Independent Experts:
    - Conclusions XIII-5. - ISBN 92-871-3463-4
    - Conclusions XIV-1.- ISBN 92-871-3633-5
    - Conclusions XIV-2
    - Sixth report on certain provisions of the Charter which have not been accepted
    (Article 22). - ISBN 92-871-3732-3

    Governmental Committee :
    - 13th report (IV) and 13th report (V). - ISBN 92-871-3701-3
    - Cahier de la Charte sociale n° 2 Egalité entre les femmes et les hommes dans la Charte sociale européenne (new edition)
    - The Social Charter of the 21st Century : Colloquy organised by the Secretariat of the Council of Europe. - ISBN 92-871-3411-1
    - Social rights = Human rights (newsletter of the European Social Charter), nos. 6, 7 and 8
    - German, Russian and Turkish versions of the leaflet on the European Social Charter.

    2.3 European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
    http://www.cpt.coe.fr

    Signatures, ratifications and entry into force
    The Convention (1987) - ETS.126
    Ratification by :
    - Latvia, 10 February
    - Lithuania, 26 November
    - Russian Federation, 5 May

    Entry into force :
    - Croatia, 1 February
    - Moldova, 1 February
    - Latvia, 1 June
    - Russian Federation, 1 September.

    Protocol 1 of the Convention (1993) - ETS.151
    Signature by Ukraine, 26 January

    Ratification by :
    - France, 19 August
    - Latvia, 10 February
    - Lithuania, 26 November
    - Portugal, 20 March
    - Russian Federation, 5 May

    Protocol 2 of the Convention (1993) - ETS.152
    Signature by Ukraine, 26 January

    Ratification by :
    - Latvia, 10 February
    - Lithuania, 26 November
    - Russian Federation, 5 May

    Activities
    The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) carried out visits to the following States:
    - Ukraine (8 - 24 February)
    - Sweden (15 - 25 February)
    - Iceland (29 March - 6 April)
    - "The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (17 to 27 May)
    - Germany (Frankfurt am Main Airport) (25 to 27 May)
    - Andorra (27 to 29 May)
    - Finland (7 to 17 June)
    - Ireland (31 August to 9 September)
    - Croatia (20 to 30 September)
    - Moldova (11 to 21 October)
    - Russia (16 to 30 November)
    - Spain (22 November to 4 December)
    - Albania (13 to 17 December)

    Information seminars
    Information seminars on the CPT's activities were held in :
    - Skopje ("The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"), from 6 to 7 April;
    - Chişinău (Moldova), from 21 to 22 May;
    - Zagreb (Croatia) from 9 to 10 July;
    - Moscow (Russia) from 6 to 7 October.

    Publications
    - Yearbook of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Volume I (1989-1992) [ISSN 1369-9865]
    - 8th General Report on the CPT's Activities (1997) [CPT/Inf (98) 12 - EN and CPT/Inf (98) 12 - FR]

    Reports of visits and responses from governments :
    Belgium
    - Report on the CPT's visit to Belgium (1997) [CPT/Inf (98) 11 - FR]
    Denmark
    - Follow-up report of the Danish Government in response to the CPT's report on its visit to Denmark (1996) [CPT/Inf (98) 6 - EN]
    France
    - Report on the CPT's visit to France (1996) [CPT/Inf (98) 7 - FR] and the responses of the French Government [CPT/Inf (98) 8 - FR]
    Luxembourg
    - Report on the CPT's visit to Luxembourg (1997) and response of the Government of Luxembourg [CPT/Inf (98) 16 - FR]
    Netherlands
    - Report on the CPT's visit to the Netherlands (1997) [CPT/Inf (98) 15 - EN]
    - Report on the CPT's visit to the Netherlands Antilles (1997) and response of the Government of the Netherlands Antilles [CPT/Inf (98) 17 - EN]
    Norway
    - Response of the Norwegian authorities to the CPT's report on its visit to Norway (1997) [CPT/Inf (98) 3 - EN]
    Poland
    - Report on the CPT's visit to Poland (1996) [CPT/Inf (98) 13 - EN] and the responses of the Polish Government [CPT/Inf (98) 14 - EN]

    Portugal
    - Report on the CPT's visit to Portugal (1996) [CPT/Inf (98) 1 - EN] and the response of the Portuguese authorities [CPT/Inf (98) 2 - FR]
    Romania
    - Report on the CPT's visit to Romania (1995) and the responses of the Romanian authorities [CPT/Inf (98) 5 - FR]
    Spain
    - Report on the CPT's visit to Spain (April 1997) [CPT/Inf (98) 9 - EN] and the response of the Spanish Government [CPT/Inf (98) 10 - EN]
    Switzerland
    - Follow-up report of the Swiss authorities in response to the CPT's report on its visit to Switzerland (1996) [CPT/Inf (98) 4 - FR]

    2.4 Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities

    Signatures, ratifications and entry into force of the Convention (1995) - ETS.158
    Ratification by :
    - Armenia, 20 July
    - Austria, 31 March
    - Malta, 10 February
    - Russian Federation, 21 August
    - Slovenia, 25 March
    - Switzerland, 21 October
    - Ukraine, 26 January
    - United Kingdom, 15 January

    Entry into force :
    - Armenia, 1 November
    - Austria, 1 July
    - Croatia, 1 February
    - Cyprus, 1 February
    - Czech Republic, 1 April
    - Denmark, 1 February
    - Estonia, 1 February
    - Finland, 1 February
    - Germany, 1 February
    - Hungary, 1 February
    - Italy, 1 March
    - Liechtenstein, 1 March
    - Malta, 1 June
    - Moldova, 1 February
    - Romania, 1 February
    - Russian Federation, 1 December
    - San Marino, 1 February
    - Slovakia, 1 February
    - Slovenia, 1 July
    - Spain, 1 February
    - "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", 1 February
    - Ukraine, 1 May
    - United Kingdom, 1 May

    In application of Rules 9 and 14 of Resolution (97) 10 ("Rules adopted by the Committee of Ministers on the monitoring arrangements under Articles 24 to 26 of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities"), the Ministers' Deputies held elections for and made appointments of ordinary members of the Advisory Committee of the Convention :
    - in March (624/4.1), in respect of :
    - Cyprus (Mr JACOVIDES)
    - Denmark (Ms SMITH)
    - Estonia (Ms LAURISTIN)
    - Finland (Mr LÅNG)
    - Germany (Mr HOFMANN)
    - Hungary (Mr BÍRÓ)
    - Italy (Mr BARTOLE)
    - Romania (Ms MOTOC)
    - Slovakia (Mr SIVÁK)
    - Spain (Mr HERNANDEZ-RUIGOMEZ)

    - in May (632/4.1), in respect of :
    - Croatia (Ms DOMINI)
    - Czech Republic (Mr JÍLEK)
    - Ukraine (Mr MITSIK)
    - United Kingdom (Mr PHILLIPS)

    - and in October (643/4.1), in respect of :
    - Austria (Mr MARKO)
    - Slovenia (Mr HAJÓS).

    In April (628/4.4), the Deputies invited the Advisory Committee to consider the draft outline for the reports to be submitted pursuant to Article 25 of the Framework Convention.
    In September (639/4.1), the Deputies decided to declassify the working documents of the CAHMIN related to the drafting of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.
    The Deputies also (642/4.1) adopted and declassified the outline for the state reports to be submitted pursuant to Article 25 of the Framework Convention.
    In December (653/4.3), the Ministers' Deputies approved and declassified the Rules of Procedure of the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention.

    3 Implementation of the Intergovernmental Programme of Activities

    3.1 Democratic cohesion

    3.1.1 Pluralist democracy

    Equality

    In April (628/4.5), the Ministers' Deputies approved a message to Steering Committees on gender mainstreaming and invited the Secretary General to transmit the Final report of activities of the Group of Specialists on mainstreaming, under cover of this message, to the committees concerned.

    In May (632/4.2), the Ministers' Deputies:
    - decided to transmit the “Declaration on equality between women and men as a fundamental criterion of democracy”, adopted at the 4th European Ministerial Conference on equality between women and men (Istanbul, 13-14 November 1997), to the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) and to the International Labour Organisation;
    - decided to transmit the conclusions of the Information Forum on national policies in the field of equality between women and men (Tallinn, 27-29 November 1997) to the World Health Organisation and the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women.

    In October (643/4.2) the Ministers' Deputies adopted Recommendation No. R (98) 14 to member States on gender mainstreaming, recommending that the governments of member States:
    - disseminate widely the CDEG's report on gender mainstreaming and encourage its use as a tool for implementing this strategy in the public and private sectors;
    - encourage decision-makers to take inspiration from the report in order to create an enabling environment and facilitate conditions for the implementation of gender mainstreaming in the public sector.
    In December (653/4.1), the Deputies:
    - approved the terms of reference of the Group of Specialists on the impact of the use of new information technologies on trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation (EG-S-NT);
    - took note of the comments and observations of the CDEG on the 7th report of the Secretary General on equality between women and men in the Council of Europe.

    Steering Committee for Equality between Women and Men (CDEG)
    16th meeting, 25 - 27 March

    At this meeting the Committee:
    - decided to declassify and publish the Final Report of Activities of the Group of Specialists on Mainstreaming (EG-S-MS);
    - decided to declassify and publish the summary of the Plan of Action to combat violence against women, drawn up by a consultant;
    - held an exchange of views with Ms Yvette Roudy, Chair of the newly constituted Committee on equal opportunities for women and men of the Parliamentary Assembly.

    17th meeting 13-16 October
    The Committee took note of the final report of activities of the Group of specialists on the right to free choice in matters of reproduction and lifestyles (EG-S-RP), examined the text of a draft recommendation on the right to free choice in matters of sexuality and reproduction and decided to transmit the latter to other Steering Committees for opinion.

    Conferences, seminars, workshops, training courses
    International Seminar on action against traffic in human beings for the purpose of
    sexual exploitation: the role of NGOs, Strasbourg, 29-30 June

    The seminar brought together more than 80 NGOs from across Europe to share grassroots experience, along with experts from the Council of Europe and other international organisations. It focused on the problem of women (often from central and eastern Europe or Asia) who are trapped into the cross-border sex trade after being promised jobs abroad; a trade often linked to organised crime. The participants pointed out that trafficking for sexual exploitation was a human rights issue and urged governments to tackle it without delay. It was also stressed that governments, international organisations and NGOs must join forces to find inventive ways of using national and international laws against the sex trade.

    Workshop on “good” and “bad” practices regarding the image of women in the media: the case of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of sexual exploitation
    Strasbourg, 28-29 September

    The workshop tackled such issues as the portrayal of women in the media and its impact on trafficking, raising awareness among media professionals and the possibilities for self-regulation, the use of new information technologies for trafficking and prostitution.

    Information Forum on national policies in the field of equality between women and men, Bucharest, Romania, 26-28 November
    The conclusions of this Forum, entitled Ending domestic violence: action and measures highlighted
    - the need to adopt an attitude of zero tolerance vis-à-vis domestic violence and treat it as a serious criminal offence,
    - the important role of national and local authorities, as well as NGOs, in providing assistance and support for victims,
    - the need to target the perpetrators of violence and ensure that they assume responsibility for their actions,
    - the importance of education and awareness-raising at all levels of society.

    Publications
    - Gender mainstreaming: conceptual framework, methodology and presentation of good practices
    (EG-S-MS (98) 2)

    - Summary of the Plan of Action to combat violence against women (EG-S-VL (98) 1)
    - Final Report of Activities of the Group of Specialists on Intolerance, Racism and Equality between Women and Men (CDEG/ECRI (98) 1)
    - Council of Europe action in the field of equality between women and men
    (EG (97) 3 rev.)

    - Women in politics in the Council of Europe member States (EG (97) 6 rev.)
    - National machinery to promote equality between women and men in central and eastern European countries - Proceedings of an international workshop held in Ljubljana (Slovenia), 30 November - 2 December 1994. - ISBN 92-871-3582-7
    - Promoting equality: a common issue for men and women - Proceedings of an international seminar held in Strasbourg, 17-18 June 1997. - ISBN 92-871-3662-9

    Media

    In March (624/5.1), the Ministers Deputies discussed the follow-up to the 5th European Ministerial Conference on Mass Media Policy (Thessaloniki, 11-12 December 1997). The Deputies instructed the Steering Committee on the Mass Media (CDMM) to give particular attention to the following issues highlighted in the Declaration:
    - the ways of promoting access by the public to new communications and information services, in particular by developing further the principle of "universal community service" agreed upon at the Conference;
    - the ways of promoting the adoption of self-regulatory measures, at the pan-European level, by providers and operators of new communications services, in order to ensure respect for human rights;
    - the advisability of preparing a legal instrument or other measures which might be necessary in order to promote freedom of expression and information, as well as to ensure the protection of human rights and democratic values within the framework of the new communications services;
    - specific action to be taken in the field of violence and intolerance;
    With regard to Resolution No. 1 and No. 2 on "The impact of new communications technologies on human rights and democratic values" and "Rethinking the regulatory framework for the media", the Deputies instructed the CDMM :
    - to follow the implementation of these Resolutions in the domestic law and practice of the member States;
    - to give due consideration to the content of these Resolutions at all relevant stages of its work programme;
    The Deputies also agreed to monitor with particular attention developments in Belarus in the field of freedom of expression and freedom of the media in the framework of examination of the relationship between the Council of Europe and Belarus.
    In September (639/5.1), the Ministers' Deputies adopted the Protocol amending the European Convention on Transfrontier Television and decided to open it for acceptance by the Parties to the Convention on 1 October 1998. In so doing, the Ministers' Deputies took note of the consolidated version of the Convention as amended by the Protocol and authorised the publication of the Explanatory reports to both the amending Protocol and the amended Convention.
    The Deputies also (641/5.1), approved the terms of reference of a number of subordinate bodies of the Steering Committee on the Mass Media (CDMM):
    - Group of Specialists on Media Pluralism (MM-S-PL)
    - Group of Specialists on the Impact of New Communications Technologies on Human Rights and Democratic Values (MM-S-NT)
    - Group of Specialists on Media Law and Human Rights (MM-S-HR)
    - Group of Specialists on the Assessment of Digital Developments in the Media Field
    (MM-S-AD)

    - Group of Specialists on the Legal Protection of Services Based on, or Consisting of, Conditional Access (MM-S-CA).
    The terms of reference of the Group of Specialists on the impact of new communications technologies on human rights and democratic values (MM-S-NT) and the Group of Specialists on media law and human rights (MM-S-HR) had been redefined by the CDMM in June in order to implement the Action Plans of the 2nd Summit and the Thessaloniki Ministerial Conference with regard to the new information technologies.
    As from 1999, the MM-S-HR will also examine the subject of possible restrictions to the expression of opinions or the disclosure of information about politicians or civil servants, and within which limitations, as a follow-up to the Committee of Ministers' monitoring exercise on freedom of expression.

    Steering Committee on the Mass Media (CDMM), 48th meeting, 9-12 June
    The CDMM defined orientations for implementing the decisions of the 2nd Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe and the Thessaloniki Ministerial Conference concerning new communications technologies.

    European policy for the application of new information technologies
    In the framework of the follow-up to the 2nd Summit, a draft Declaration of the Committee of Ministers on a European policy for the application of new information technologies is currently being drafted in close co-ordination with the steering committees and/or committees of experts concerned in the human rights, culture and legal fields. This political text will be submitted to the Committee of Ministers for adoption at its 104th Session (Budapest, May 1999), on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Council of Europe. At its 49th meeting on 1-4 December, the CDMM examined a preliminary draft Declaration and provided orientations for the further preparation of the text.

    Standing Committee on Transfrontier Television (T-TT), 18th meeting, 16-17 April
    The Committee finalised its work on the revision of the European Convention on Transfrontier Television and the Explanatory Report thereto for the purpose of ensuring compatibility between the Convention and the European Union's revised “Television without Frontiers” Directive.

    Information seminar on self-regulation by the media
    Strasbourg, 7-8 October
    The seminar provided an opportunity to exchange information, ideas and experience among the participants with the aim of clarifying the concept of self-regulation, debating its value and highlighting its complementarity to legislation.

    Publications
    - Case-law concerning Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights. - DH-MM (98) 6 [updated to 15 January 1998]
    - Media and democracy. - ISBN 92-871-3413-8 (English only)
    - European Ministerial Conferences on Mass Media Policy: texts adopted
    (DH-MM (98) 4)

    - Recommendations and Declarations adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe in the media field (DH-MM (98) 2)
    - The revised European Convention on Transfrontier Television and its explanatory report (DH-MM (98) 8)
    - The identification of rights holders and works in the digital era : a guide to the various initiatives and existing techniques (DH-MM (98) 9)

    Local democracy

    In March (623/9.1), the Ministers' Deputies:
    - decided to change the name of the CDLR to "Steering Committee on Local and Regional Democracy";
    - adopted Protocol No. 2 to the European Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation between Territorial Communities or Authorities concerning interterritorial co-operation and decided to open it for signature by States which have signed the European Outline convention on the occasion of the 102nd Session of the Committee of Ministers, on 5 May 1998;
    - adopted ad hoc terms of reference instructing the CDLR to identify elements of a possible legal instrument on regional self-government on which sufficiently wide agreement can be reached and to indicate the kind of legal instrument which may prove possible and desirable;
    - adopted ad hoc terms of reference to the CDLR instructing it: to study the proposal to modify the European Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation between Territorial Communities or Authorities so as to allow the accession of non-European States to this legal instrument and, subsequently, to its Protocols Nos 1 and 2; to examine the question of preparing an arbitration system to settle any disputes on the interpretation of the implementation of transfrontier or inter-territorial co-operation agreements; and, if appropriate, to draft an additional protocol to the Outline Convention on this subject.

    In September (641/9.4) the Ministers' Deputies:
    - adopted Recommendation No. R (98) 12 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on the supervision of local authorities' action;
    - authorised appending the Model interstate agreement on transfrontier Co-operation groupings having legal personality and model statutes of a grouping for transfrontier co-operation having legal personality to the European Outline Convention on transfrontier co-operation in conformity with Article 3 of the said text;
    - authorised the publication of the two models, together with an explanatory note;
    - adopted the revised specific terms of reference to the CDLR to take account of the guidelines provided by the two Summits and the coming into force of the Convention on the participation of foreigners in public life at local level.

    Steering Committee on Local and Regional Democracy (CDLR)
    Meeting of 2-5 June
    During this meeting, the CDLR examined:
    - the question of preparing a legal instrument on regional self-government;
    - a draft European Convention on Mountain Regions and a draft European Convention on Rural Areas;

    In addition, the CDLR adopted reports on:
    - Liability of local elected representatives
    - Structure and operation of local and regional democracy in :
    - Cyprus
    - Germany
    - “ The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”
    - Netherlands
    - Romania

    Meeting of 1-4 December
    During this meeting, the CDLR examined the question of preparing a document on regional self-government. In addition it adopted draft reports on:
    - Electoral systems and voting procedures at local level
    - Management of municipal property
    - Management and funding of urban public transport.
    - Structure and operation of local and regional democracy in :
    - Croatia
    - Latvia
    - Slovak Republic
    - Turkey
    The CDLR also adopted a draft Recommendation on “Financial liability of local elected representatives for acts or omissions in the course of their duties”.

    Publications
    Study series "Local and regional authorities in Europe”
    - no. 64 : Regionalisation and its effects on Local Self-Government. - ISBN 92-871-3544-4
    - no. 65 : Limitations of local taxation, financial equalisation and methods for calculating general grants
    - Control and auditing of local authorities' action
    Structure and operation of local and regional democracy in :
    - Belgium
    - the Czech Republic
    - Denmark
    - Finland
    - France
    - Iceland
    - Malta
    - Norway
    - Portugal
    - Slovenia
    - Switzerland

    3.1.2 Human rights

    On 10 December (651bis/4.1) the Deputies adopted a Declaration on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
    See Appendix 2 for the text of the Declaration

    Human rights
    In April (628/4.6), the Ministers' Deputies adopted a reply to Assembly Recommendations 1246 (1994) and 1302 (1996) on abolition of the death penalty in Europe.
    In September (639/4.6), the Deputies decided to transmit the text of the draft terms of reference of the proposed Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights to the Parliamentary Assembly for an opinion and decided to transmit the opinion of the Steering Committee for Human Rights (CDDH) concerning the draft terms of reference to the Parliamentary Assembly for information.

    Steering Committee for Human Rights (CDDH)
    In March (622/4.1), the Ministers' Deputies adopted ad hoc terms of reference entrusting the Steering Committee for Human Rights (CDDH) with the task of drafting an additional protocol or protocols to the European Convention on Human Rights broadening, in a general fashion, the field of application of Article 14, which would contain a non-exhaustive list of discrimination grounds.
    The precise nature and scope of the undertakings of the Parties to such a protocol will be clarified through the preparation of a draft explanatory report. The CDDH has been asked to associate, using appropriate means, the Steering Committee for Equality between Women and Men (CDEG) and the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) with its work, which shall be finalised before 31 December 1999.
    In December (653/4.2), the Deputies instructed the CDDH to consider a possible revision of the Committee of Ministers' rules relating to its supervision of the execution of judgments of the European Court of Human Rights.

    Steering Committee for Human Rights (CDDH)
    44th meeting, 8-12 June
    The CDDH :

    - adopted an opinion concerning the draft terms of reference that the Rapporteur Group on Human Rights of the Committee of Ministers had drawn up for the future Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights (CHR);
    - adopted an opinion on the Draft Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers on the principles concerning the legal protection of incapable adults, being drawn up by the European Committee on Legal Co-operation (CDJC);
    - adopted an opinion on the Draft Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers on a European policy on access to archives, being drawn up by the Culture Committee (CC-Cult) of the Council for Cultural Co-operation (CDCC);
    - held an in-depth exchange of views on rights of persons deprived of their liberty with representatives from several interested organisations.

    45th meeting, 3 - 6 November
    The CDDH discussed and gave guidelines for, the work being done by its committees of experts and groups of specialists. In this connection, the following should be mentioned:
    - the CDDH authorised the Committee of Experts for the Improvement of Procedures for the Protection of Human Rights (DH-PR) to initiate work on a recommendation on the re-examination of certain cases at national level following a judgment by the European Court of Human Rights.
    - The Working Group of the Committee of Experts for the Development of Human Rights (DH-DEV-GT) held its 1st meeting from 23 to 25 September. The meeting was devoted to drafting a number of alternative texts with a view to an Additional Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights geared to generally broadening the scope of Article 14 ECHR, and comprising a non-exhaustive list of grounds of discrimination.

    Committee of Experts for the Development of Human Rights (DH-DEV)
    Following the ad hoc terms of reference given by the Ministers' Deputies to the CDDH on 11 March 1998, the 23rd meeting of the Committee of Experts for the Development of Human Rights was mainly devoted to drafting an additional Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights which generally broadens the scope of Article 14 of the ECHR and contains a non-exhaustive list of grounds of discrimination. The DH-DEV concentrated, at this stage, on drafting one sole instrument which would broaden the scope of the present Article 14 of the Convention, and would cover both the questions of racism and intolerance and that of equality between women and men.

    European Regional Colloquy on Human Rights, Strasbourg, 2-4 September
    The European Regional Colloquy “In our hands - The effectiveness of human rights protection 50 years after the Universal Declaration” was organised by the Council of Europe as its contribution to the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the evaluation in 1998 of the application of the Vienna Declaration and Plan of Action.
    The three sessions planned in the programme were respectively devoted to:
    - the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;
    - a debate on topical issues (structural or large-scale human rights violations; prevention and responses (theme 1); social rights; the challenge of indivisibility and interdependence (theme 2); effective implementation of women's rights (theme 3);
    - effective protection and promotion of human rights (protection; effective work at national level (theme 4); protection: effective work at international level (theme 5); promoting human rights: information, education and training (theme 6).

    Minorities
    Pursuant to the Decision of the Committee of Ministers in December 1997, in 1998 the Committee of Experts on Issues Relating to the Protection of National Minorities (DH-MIN) was constituted as a sub-Committee of the Steering Committee for Human rights (CDDH) and met twice.
    At its first meeting (17-20 March), the Committee, following a general discussion of its terms of reference, prepared draft opinions of the Steering Committee for Human Rights on the following Recommendations of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe:
    - Recommendation 1291 (1996) on Yiddish Culture
    - Recommendation 1333 (1997) on the Aromanian Culture and Language
    - Recommendation 1345 (1997) on the protection of National Minorities.

    The second meeting was held from 20 –23 October. At this meeting the Committee
    - held an exchange of views on the question to which groups the Framework Convention will be applied;
    - held consultations with non-governmental organisations with expertise in the field of protection of national minorities;
    - started consideration of the question of participation of minorities in decision-making processes, in light of the responses given to a questionnaire on that issue;
    - commenced preparation of a draft opinion of the Steering Committee for Human Rights on Recommendation 43 of the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe on territorial autonomy and national minorities.
    Under the Intergovernmental Programme of Activities for 1998, Information meetings on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities were organised and /or participated in by the Secretariat in Sofia (Bulgaria), Stockholm (Sweden), Opava (Czech Republic) and Vilnius (Lithuania). Furthermore legislative counselling missions were carried out at the request of the national authorities in Slovakia and Latvia.

    Racism and intolerance
    In March (625/4.1), The Ministers' Deputies held a first exchange of views on the proposals of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) concerning the strengthening of its activities in the framework of the follow-up to the Second Summit of Heads of State and Government of the member States of the Council of Europe. They agreed to resume consideration of these proposals on the occasion of the exchange of views they will hold on 4 June 1998 with the Chair and Vice-Chairs of ECRI.
    In April (628/4.1), the Ministers' Deputies transmitted ECRI's country-by-country reports on Bulgaria, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Slovakia to the governments in question. They also took note of ECRI's general policy recommendations Nos. 3 and 4 on combating racism and intolerance against Roma/Gypsies and national surveys on victims' experience and perception of racism and discrimination respectively. The Deputies decided to transmit these texts to the governments of the member States and to authorise their publication.
    At their following meeting (629/4.1), the Deputies considered a document on the contribution of the Council of Europe to the World Conference on racism and Racial discrimination which will be organised by the United Nations not later than the year 2001. They instructed the Secretariat to begin the preparatory work concerning the Council of Europe's contribution, which will take the form of a European Conference to be held in 1999/2000.
    At their 634th meeting, in June, on the occasion of the presentation of ECRI's 1997 report of activities, the Deputies held an exchange of views with the Chair and Vice-Chairs of ECRI on strengthening its activities in the framework of the implementation of the decisions taken at the Second Summit.
    In November (650/4.1) the Ministers' Deputies transmitted ECRI's country-by-country-by-country reports on Denmark, Estonia, the Russian Federation, Spain and the United Kingdom to the governments in question. These reports will be made public two months after their transmission to these governments, unless the latter are expressly against making the texts public.
    The Deputies also took note of the practical aspects of the implementation of ECRI's intensified programme of activities, which includes three main areas of work: country-by-country approach; work on general themes; relations with civil society.

    European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI)
    15th meeting, 16-19 June

    At this meeting, ECRI:
    - held a general discussion on the practical implementation of the three-fold action plan containing its proposals for an intensified programme of activities;
    - prepared, for transmission to the national liaison officers to be nominated by the relevant governments, the draft country-by-country texts concerning Austria, Latvia, the Russian Federation and Ukraine;
    - pursued its general country-by-country work, its work relating to its co-operation programme with NGOs and its work relating to the collection and dissemination of examples of good practices in the field of combating racism and intolerance;
    - set up an ad hoc group entrusted with the task to make concrete proposals to ECRI on the work that the latter might carry out with regard to the problem of dissemination of racist material via the Internet.

    Publications
    - ECRI's country-by-country approach : volume III (Document CRI(98)54)
    (reports on Bulgaria, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Slovakia)

    - Legal measures to combat racism and intolerance in the member States of the Council of Europe
    3rd edition

    3.1.3 Rule of law

    Protocol on Human cloning
    The Protocol to the Council of Europe's Convention on Human Rights and Bio-Medicine (The Oviedo Convention) was opened for signature in Paris on 12 January and signed by 19 States. The Protocol prohibits "any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead". It rules out any exception to this ban , even in the case of a completely sterile couple.

    Convention on the Protection of the Environment through Criminal Law
    In September (639/10.1), the Deputies:
    - adopted the text of the Convention on the Protection of the Environment through Criminal Law;
    - agreed to open the Convention for signature by the member States of the Council of Europe and non member States which have participated in its elaboration;
    - agreed that the opening for signature would take place on the occasion of the 103rd Session of the Committee of Ministers, on 4 November 1998;
    - authorised the publication of the explanatory report.

    Criminal Law Convention on Corruption
    At their 103rd Ministerial Session on 4 November (see above 1.1), the Committee of Ministers :
    - adopted the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption;
    - authorised the publication of the Explanatory Report thereto;
    - decided to open the Convention for signature on 27 January 1999
    The Convention will enter in force once it is ratified by 14 States.
    The "Group of States Against Corruption - GRECO" (c.f. Resolution (98)7 of the Committee of Ministers) is responsible for monitoring compliance with the undertakings set out by this Convention.

    Trilingual edition of "European treaties"
    On 5 May, on the occasion of the 102nd session of the Committee of Ministers, the Chairman in Office of the Committee Mr Klaus Kinkel presented the publication "European Treaties", in which the Conventions and Agreements of the Council of Europe are reproduced in German, English and French. This publication, issued by the Council of Europe with the support of the German Government, is designed to supply practitioners and researchers with a convenient working instrument, containing all the texts of treaties resulting from intergovernmental cooperation within the Organisation.

    Decisions of the Committee of Ministers
    (see also below, under specific committees)

    In February (620/10.2) the Deputies adopted the Protocol of Amendment to the European Convention for the protection of vertebrate animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes (ETS 123) and decided to open it for signature on 22 June 1998. It aimed at introducing a simplified procedure for future amendments to the technical appendices of the Convention.

    In March (623/10.1), the Deputies adopted a complementary reply to Recommendation 1213 of the Parliamentary Assembly on the developments of biotechnology and the consequences for agriculture (1993). This complementary reply aimed at informing the Parliamentary Assembly about the measures taken by the Committee of Ministers in the 1998 Budget to support the organisation of a conference dealing with the developments in biotechnology and the consequences in agriculture, including environmental and health aspects; and presenting the objectives of the latter. The final reply to Recommendation 1213 will be made after thorough examination of the results of this conference.
    In April (627/10.1), the Deputies adopted Recommendation No. R (98) 7 concerning the ethical and organisational aspects of health care in prison. The recommendation lays down the following basic principles: access to a doctor, equivalence of care, the patient's consent, confidentiality and professional medical independence. The second part of the recommendation deals with the specific role of the prison doctor and other health care staff in prisons, and lays down rules on informing prisoners about health care and availability of medical treatment as well as on health education, prevention of violence towards prisoners, and professional training for prison health care staff.
    In May (631/10.4), the Deputies declassified the Council of Europe's draft Guidelines for the protection of privacy on the Internet. This text has been published on the Council of Europe's Internet site and opened to wide public consultation.
    In June (635/106), the Deputies adopted a reply to Assembly Recommendation 1356 on the Activities of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 1994-97.

    European Committee on Legal Co-operation (CDCJ),
    In January (616/10.1a and 616/10.1b) the Ministers' Deputies
    -. approved the revised terms of reference of the Committee of Experts on Family Law
    (CJ-FA);

    - adopted a reply to Recommendation 1331 (1997) of the Parliamentary Assembly on establishing international standards for assessing the environmental impact of industrial enterprises;
    - adopted Recommendation No. R (98) 1 on family mediation.

    In November (649/10.2), the Ministers' Deputies:
    - took note of the CDCJ's reflections concerning new structures and working methods for its activities, addressed to the Committee of Wise Persons;
    - took note of the CDCJ's views concerning the priority nature of its work and the need to ensure, in the Intergovernmental Programme for 1999, sufficient resources to enable it to carry out as rapidly as possible its programme of activities;
    - took note of the CDCJ's opinion that the Committee of Ministers should not act on the draft Recommendation on a European Policy on Access to Archives until the CDCJ and the CDDH have had a proper opportunity to consider it;

    CDCJ, 69th meeting, 16 - 18 March
    The CDCJ made proposals concerning new structures and working methods for its activities, as well as proposals for new activities. Furthermore, the CDCJ adopted its Opinion on the draft Agreement establishing the Commission for the prevention of corruption, for the attention of the Multidisciplinary Group on Corruption (GMC).


    CDCJ, 70th meeting, 30 November - 4 December

    At this meeting, the CDCJ :
    - held a preliminary exchange of views on the draft Recommendation on the freedom of the exercise of the profession of lawyer and the draft explanatory memorandum thereto;
    - adopted an opinion on the draft Recommendation on the right to free choice in matters of sexuality and reproduction;
    - approved the text of the draft Recommendation on principles concerning the legal protection of incapable adults and of its draft explanatory memorandum;
    - approved the text of the draft Recommendation on protection of privacy on Internet.

    Multidisciplinary Group on Corruption (GMC)
    In April (628/10.2), the Ministers' Deputies examined the report of the 13th meeting of the Multidisciplinary Group on Corruption (GMC) and :
    - invited the Parliamentary Assembly to give an opinion on the draft Criminal Law Convention on corruption, if possible within three months from the date of transmission of the draft;
    - instructed the GMC to examine, at its next meeting in September 1998, the opinion expressed by the Parliamentary Assembly;
    - invited the GMC, having taken into account the opinions expressed by the European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC) and by the Parliamentary Assembly, to submit the draft Criminal Law Convention on corruption to the Committee of Ministers.

    GMC, 13th meeting, 23 - 27 March
    The GMC approved the draft Partial and Enlarged Agreement setting up the "Group of States against Corruption - GRECO" and decided to transmit it to the Committee of Ministers for adoption.

    GMC, 14th meeting, 7-11 September
    During this meeting the GMC finalised the draft Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (see above).

    Steering Committee for Bioethics (CDBI)
    In February (620/10.1), the Ministers' Deputies :
    - invited States, which had not yet done so, to consider the expediency of signing and/or ratifying both the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, and also its additional Protocol on the prohibition of cloning human beings;
    - took note of the recommendation of the Steering Committee on Bioethics (CDBI) not, as things stood, to declassify, the "travaux préparatoires" for the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine;
    - agreed to increase the number of members of the CDBI's Bureau from 7 to 9;
    - authorised the Biotechnology Conference to be held in Oviedo (Spain), at a date fitting with one of the forthcoming meetings of the CDBI.

    In September (641/10.4), the Ministers' Deputies
    - invited the European Health Committee (CDSP) to take note of the request made by the CDBI to remove from the draft Recommendation on medical examinations preceding employment and private insurance, currently in preparation by the CDSP, the provisions relating to genetic testing and agreed to resume consideration of this question when the draft Recommendation would be submitted to them by the CDSP;

    - took note of the position adopted by the CDBI, in agreement with the Spanish authorities, that the Oviedo (Spain) Biotechnology Conference, scheduled for 1998, should be postponed to May 1999.

    CDBI, 14th meeting, 9-12 June
    At this meeting, the CDBI :
    - examined the draft Protocol on organ transplantation and on biomedical research;
    - determined items to be included in the draft protocol on the protection of the human embryo and foetus and in the draft protocol on human genetics;
    - examined the draft Recommendation on the harmonisation of medico-legal autopsy rules;
    - examined the guidelines to be incorporated in a preliminary draft Recommendation to ensure the protection and dignity of persons suffering from mental disorder, especially those placed as involuntary patients in a psychiatric establishment.

    CDBI, 15th meeting, 7-10 December
    During this meeting, the CDBI:
    - adopted a draft Recommendation on the Harmonisation of Medico-legal Autopsy Rules in view of its adoption and agreed on the draft explanatory memorandum in view of deciding on a final text;
    - examined the draft Protocol on Transplantation of Organs and Tissues of Human Origin in view of its publication for consultation and the draft explanatory report of the Protocol in view of deciding on a final text;
    - adopted the draft terms of reference of the Working Party on Xenotransplantation which would be under the joint authority of the CDBI and the CDSP;
    - examined the draft Protocol on Biomedical Research;
    - defined certain items which should be dealt with in the draft Protocol on the Protection of the Human Embryo and Foetus and the draft Protocol on Human Genetics;
    - examined the modified draft Guidelines to be incorporated in a preliminary draft Recommendation to ensure the Protection of the Human Rights and Dignity of People Suffering from Mental Disorder, especially those placed as Involuntary Patients in a Psychiatric Establishment;
    - authorised in principle the Working Party on Psychiatry and Human Rights to produce a "white paper", based on these guidelines for the purpose of consultation;
    - examined the request for observer status with the Working Party on Psychiatry and Human Rights (CDBI-PH) by the European Regional Council of the World Federation for Mental Health (Mental Health Europe);

    European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC)
    In December (653/10.2) the Deputies instructed the CDPC :
    - to develop a fast and effective mechanism designed to facilitate the friendly settlement of any difficulty, including conflicts of jurisdiction, which may arise out of the application of any Council of Europe Convention in criminal matters, in particular the European Convention on Extradition and the European Convention on the suppression of Terrorism and to examine the efficiency of mechanisms for the settlement of disputes already contained in these Conventions;
    - to examine, in close co-operation with the Parties to the European Convention on the Transfer of Proceedings in Criminal Matters, the possibility of effectively using that Convention with reference in particular to its Article 44;
    - to examine the possibility of resuming consideration of the draft European Comprehensive Convention on International Co-operation in Criminal Matters as well as the review mechanism that it provides for.

    European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC), 47th plenary session, 8-12 June
    At the plenary session, the CDPC :
    - examined its future programme as concerns the fight against commercial sexual exploitation of children;
    - expressed an opinion on the draft Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, prepared by the Multidisciplinary Group on Corruption (GMC);
    - formulated observations with a view to facilitating a friendly settlement of difficulties which had arisen between Italy and the United States of America out of the application of the Convention on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons (Baraldini case).

    Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law (CAHDI)
    15th meeting, 3 - 4 March

    The CAHDI unanimously accepted the request by the United States of Mexico for the status of observer in the CAHDI "for the whole duration of the Committee".

    16th meeting, Paris, 17-18 September
    The European Communities were represented by the Directorate General for External Relations, DGI, of the European Commission.
    Prior to this meeting, the Group of Specialists on Reservations to International Treaties (DI-S-RIT) held its second meeting in Paris, 14-16 September. This meeting was partly devoted to considering the functioning of the CAHDI as a European observatory of reservations to international treaties. In this context, the Secretariat of the CAHDI has contacted the Secretariat of the Council of the European Union's Working Party on Public international Law (COJUR) with a view to informally co-operating in this respect.

    Ad Hoc Committee of experts on the legal Aspects of Territorial Asylum, refugees and Stateless Persons (CAHAR)
    In September (641/10.2a) the Deputies adopted Recommendation No. R (98) 13 on the right of rejected asylum-seekers to an effective remedy against decisions on expulsion in the context of Article 3 of the European Convention of Human Rights.
    In December (652/10.2b and 652/10.2c) the Deputies adopted :
    - Recommendation No. R (98) 15 on the training of officials who first come into contact with asylum-seekers, in particular at border points;
    - a reply to Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1309 (1996) on the training of officials receiving asylum-seekers at border points.

    Ad Hoc Committee of experts on the legal Aspects of Territorial Asylum, refugees and Stateless Persons (CAHAR)
    45th meeting, 25-27 March
    At this meeting, the Committee adopted and submitted, for the attention of the Committee of Ministers an opinion on the legal implications on the decisions taken by the European Council meeting in Amsterdam concerning European Union citizens' access to asylum, having regard to relevant European and international conventions, in particular the 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.

    46th meeting, 14 - 16 October
    The CAHAR held a discussion on the return of rejected asylum-seekers on the basis of a preliminary document, prepared by a Working Party.
    The Committee also held an exchange of views on the issue of family reunion for refugees and for other persons in need of protection and on the temporary protection of persons forced to flee their country, within the scope of Recommendation 1348 (1997) of the Parliamentary Assembly.

    Project Group on Data Protection (CJ-PD)
    The Consultative Committee of the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (T-PD), meeting from 2 to 4 September:
    - continued its analysis of the standards of Convention 108 in the light of new developments;
    - examined a draft additional protocol to the Convention on transborder flows of data and on supervisory authorities;
    - examined a preliminary draft recommendation on improving and simplifying application of the convention;
    - discussed, with a view to its adoption, a draft amendment to the Convention allowing the accession of the European Communities;
    - examined, with a view to its possible revision, the model contract on transborder data flows;
    - elected the new Council of Europe Data Protection Commissioner.

    CJ-PD, 28 - 30 October
    The CJ-PD examined and approved :
    - the draft Recommendation and Guidelines on protection of privacy on the Internet which were prepared in close co-operation with the European Union
    - the final activity report on evaluation of the relevance of Recommendation No. R (87) 15 (on the use of personal data in the police sector).

    Multilateral Committee of the European Agreement on the Transmission of Applications for Legal Aid (T-TA), 4th meeting, 10 - 11 September
    During this meeting, the T-TA dealt with the following matters:
    - implementation of the European Agreement on the Transmission of Applications for Legal Aid (ETS 92), as well as of Recommendation No. R(97)6 aiming at improving the practical application of this Agreement;
    - update of the Guide to procedure concerning the transmission of applications for legal aid;
    - consideration of the possibility of setting up a databank of successful and unsuccessful applications;
    - information by other international institutions on their activity in the field of legal aid.

    Committee of Experts on Information Technology and Law (CJ-IT)
    (former Committee of Experts on Legal Data Processing (CJ-IJ)

    22nd meeting, 4 - 6 November

    The Committee drew up its new terms of reference which, in 1999 and 2000, concentrate on the following subjects:
    - Access of citizens via IT to courts and legal information
    - Redesigning of court systems and legal information systems
    - Authenticity of data and electronic/digital signatures in the legal sector
    The Committee held its first exchange of views on the 14th Colloquy on legal data processing in Europe (or Colloquy on information technology and law in Europe), to be held in 1999, which will have as theme: "Information technology and law : linking systems and their users - modern communication techniques in the legal field.

    Conferences, seminars, meetings, workshops, training courses

    4th meeting of the European Standing Conference of National Ethics Committees Paris, 12 - 13 January
    This meeting was organised in co-operation with the French National Advisory Ethics Committee for Life and Health Sciences and its general theme was "Ethical aspects of health collective choices".

    Second expert meeting for the drafting of the Law on citizenship of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Strasbourg, 1-3 April
    Following the entry into force of the Law on Citizenship of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 1 January 1998, the Council of Europe organised this meeting in co-operation with the Office of the High Representative (OHR), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and with the participation of five experts appointed by the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Interior of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (the first meeting took place from 17 to 19 December 1997).

    13th Colloquy on legal data processing in Europe (CJ-IJ), Vienna, 15-17 April
    The theme of the Colloquy was the "Design of court systems and legal information systems -methods for setting up, managing and re-designing in a cost-effective manner".
    The first sub-theme "Making the judicial system cost-effective, speedy and transparent" concerned the organisation and in particular the re-organisation of information technology (IT) systems in the administration of justice (courts, prosecution and connected institutions).
    The second sub-theme "Computerised legal information systems - making the law speedily and easily available to the professional lawyer and the citizen" concerned the organisation or reorganisation of existing legal documentation systems (computerised systems for legislation and jurisprudence) in the light of recent political decisions aiming at better access of the citizen and the professional lawyer to legal texts.

    Commercial sexual exploitation of children – follow-up Conference
    Strasbourg, 28-29 April

    At the initiative and with the active support of the German Presidency of the Committee of Ministers, a European Follow-up Conference to the 1996 World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children was held.
    The Conference had three main objectives :
    - to take stock of the measures taken at national level ;
    - to identify the problems encountered by Governments in implementing the Stockholm Agenda for Action, taking into account European legal instruments, in particular Recommendation (91)11 on sexual exploitation, pornography and prostitution of, and trafficking in, children and young adults ;
    - to present examples of good practice in combating sexual exploitation and abuse of children.

    4th European Conference on family law: “Family mediation in Europe”
    Strasbourg, 1 - 2 October

    This Conference had been proposed by the CJ-FA as a follow-up to its work on Recommendation No. R (98) 1 on family mediation and in order to provide an “after-sales service” for this text.
    As regards the follow-up to the Conference, it was considered that assistance could be given to member Sates, in the implementation of Recommendation No. R (98) 1 on family mediation through pilot projects. It was also considered that it might be useful to promote specific training in mediation at international level, which could also take transfrontier mediation into account.

    4th European Conference of National Ethics Committees
    Porto (Portugal), 9-10 November

    The first day was devoted to the subject "Controversial ethical issues in the field of international biomedical research". During the second day, a debate was organised with the 70 participants on the functioning of national ethics committees.

    3.2 Social cohesion and quality of life

    3.2.1 Social policies

    Social policy
    In June (634/6.3), the Ministers' Deputies approved the Council of Europe Programme for Children and instructed the Secretary General to implement it.
    In the same month (636/6.1), the Ministers' Deputies adopted the terms of reference of a new European Committee for Social Cohesion (CDCS). The first task of the Committee is to prepare a strategy for the development of social cohesion activities within the Council of Europe for consideration by the Committee of Ministers.
    The Deputies agreed to maintain the European Social Security Committee (CDSS), the Steering Committee on Social Policy (CDPS) and the Steering Committee for Employment and Labour (CDEM) for a period ending 31 December 1998 upon which date these three Steering Committees ceased to exist.
    In December (652/6.5) the Deputies adopted a reply to the Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1355 (1998) on fighting social exclusion and strengthening social cohesion in Europe.

    European Committee for Social Cohesion (CDCS)
    In December (653/6.1) the Deputies took note of the report of the first meeting of the CDCS and approved the terms of reference of the following committees and groups :
    - Committee of Experts on Standard-Setting Instruments in the Field of Social Security (CS-SO);
    - Committee for Co-ordination in the Social Security Field (CS-CR);
    - Group of Specialists on Access to Social Protection (CS-PS);
    - Specialist Group on Access to Housing (CS-LO);
    - Group of Specialists on Innovatory Social Policies in the City (PS-S-INNO);
    - Forum for children;
    - Focus group on "Social support systems for children at risk of, or who have been victims of, abuse, violence and exploitation";
    - Focus group on "Children and child day care";
    - Focus group on "Children and their environment".

    European Committee for Social Cohesion (CDCS)
    1st meeting, Strasbourg, 3-5 November

    The CDCS adopted its preliminary proposals for a strategy for social cohesion which recognise the important role of the Parliamentary Assembly and its many recommendations in this field in providing the political inspiration for the development of a strategy for social cohesion. These preliminary proposals provide the framework for the series of activities approved by the CDCS for the 1999 intergovernmental programme of activities in some of which the Parliamentary Assembly has been invited to participate.
    The CDCS was also able to examine the resources made available for implementing the social cohesion strategy, and, through an exchange of views with the Secretary General, comment, on the one hand, on the creation of the Specialised Unit and, on the other hand, on co-operation with the Social Development Fund.

    Conference on Human Dignity and Social Exclusion
    Helsinki, 18 - 20 May

    The Conference, the result of a 3-year Council of Europe project, adopted an action plan for combating social exclusion through a multidisciplinary, partnership-based approach, focusing on :

    - Health : stressing prevention and ensuring universal cover;

    - Housing : building more homes, setting up better emergency responses and taking alternative lifestyles into account;
    - Jobs : ensuring equal opportunities, workable job creation schemes and a fair share-out of existing work;
    - Social protection : changing social security systems to fit the times and turning social workers into "human rights mediators"
    - Education : combating school failure by acknowledging psychological and social hurdles and promoting life long civic education.

    Publications
    Project on Human Dignity and Social Exclusion (HDSE)
    - Opportunity and risk : trends of social exclusion in Europe / by Katherine Duffy, reference HDSE (98) 1
    - Project on Human Dignity and Social Exclusion (HDSE) : final report
    - The interaction between the providers of family services (report drawn up by the Co-ordinated research programme in the social field (1993-1994), reference CDPS (97) 26.
    - The crisis of the Welfare State : how to respect and guarantee the social rights of individuals whilst controlling costs (report drawn up by the Co-ordinated research programme in the social field, 1996-1997)

    Social security
    See also Section 7 : Conferences of Specialised Ministers

    In April (627/6.1), the Ministers' Deputies examined the report of the 50th meeting of the European Social Security Committee (CDSS) and :
    - approved terms of reference, instructing the Committee of Experts for the Application of the European Convention on Social Security (SS-AC) to prepare an explanatory report with a view to the ratification of the European Interim Agreements on Social Security Schemes (European Treaty Series, nos. 12 and 13);
    - approved the terms of reference of a new Committee of Experts on Standard-setting Instruments in the Field of Social Security, which is instructed to :
    - supervise the application of the European Code of Social Security, Articles 74 and 76;
    - analyse the conclusions of the control mechanism(s) so as to identify needs and priorities at national level, with a view to suggesting concrete solutions;
    - assist member States wishing to ratify the Code, the Protocol and the (revised) Code to examine the legal, financial and administrative implications of ratification;
    - take stock of problems that States have in meeting specific provisions of the Code, the Protocol and the (revised) Code with a view to suggesting possible measures for overcoming the above-mentioned problems;
    - promote ratification of these instruments.

    European Social Security Committee (CDSS), 51st meeting, 26 - 28 May
    The CDSS :
    - submitted a draft recommendation on dependence and the final activity report of the Multidisciplinary Group on Dependence (SS-DPS) to the Committee of Ministers;
    - adopted the explanatory report on the European Code of social security (revised);
    - approved the publication of model provisions for a bilateral agreement in the social security field, as well as of the bilateral and multilateral tables on social security.

    At its first meeting, on 29th May, the Standard-Setting Committee in the field of Social Security (SS-CO) adopted the conclusions concerning the application of the European code of social security and, where applicable, its Protocol.

    In September (641/6.2 and 641/6.3) the Ministers' Deputies:
    - adopted Recommendation No. R (98) 9 on dependence;
    - adopted Resolutions CSS (98) 1 to 15 on the application of the European Code of Social Security and where applicable the Protocol thereto by Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom;
    - authorised publication of the explanatory report on the European Code of Social Security (revised).

    Conferences, seminars, workshops, training courses

    Seminar on the European Code of Social Security and the revised Code
    Vilnius, 17 - 18 September

    The seminar was attended by senior officials of Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia.

    Training Course on Social Security, Strasbourg, 13 - 16 October
    The standard-setting instruments in the field of social security were on the agenda.

    Seminar for countries participating in the Demosthenes Programme (other than the Baltic States), Strasbourg, 12 - 13 November
    The objective was a systematic introduction of the Code and of the revised Code and of their supervisory mechanisms with a view to their ratification by the participating member States.

    Publications
    - Comparative tables in social security systems, 8th edition
    - Report on developments in national social security legislation, 1998 edition
    - Model provisions for a bilateral social security agreement and explanatory report (bilingual)
    - Bilateral and multilateral co-ordination instruments governing relations between member and non-member States of the Council of Europe in the field of social security (bilingual)

    Programme for children
    In September (641/6.1) the Ministers' Deputies adopted the Recommendation No. R (98) 8 on the participation of children in family and social life.
    In December (652/6.4) the Deputies adopted a reply to Recommendation 1286 (1996) of the Parliamentary Assembly on a European strategy for children.
    In accordance with decisions taken by the Ministers' Deputies (634/6.3) on a Council of Europe Programme for Children, three focus groups have been set up to implement the three key issues to be dealt with, i.e.:
    - Children and their environment;
    - Children and child day care;
    - Social support systems for children at risk.
    The first meeting of the focus groups was held on 27 November, preceded on 26 November by a Forum which brought together different Council of Europe bodies with the other international and non-governmental organisations concerned.

    Population
    In January (615/6.2), the Ministers' Deputies :
    - approved the publication of a report on the demographic situation of the two population groups in Northern Ireland, and of a synthesis report on the demographic situation of national minorities in Hungary, Romania and the Slovak Republic;
    - took note of the final activity report on the demographic imbalances between the countries of the Mediterranean basin.
    In March (623/6.3), the Ministers' Deputies adopted revised specific terms of reference for the Group of Specialists on trends in mortality and differential mortality (PO-S-MT).

    European Population Committee (CDPO), 23rd meeting, 10 - 12 June
    During the meeting, the Committee took note of the state of progress of the work of its subordinated Groups of Specialists dealing with the following topics: the demographic situation of national minorities (PO-S-MIN), demographic trends and the labour market (PO-S-DLM), fertility and new types of households and family formation in Europe (PO-S-FF), internal migration and regional population dynamics (PO-S-REG) and trends in mortality and differential mortality (PO-S-MT).
    The Committee welcomed the co-operation in progress between the Council of Europe, the European Commission (Eurostat) and the United Nations (Economic Commission for Europe in Geneva and Statistical Division in New York) with the aim of co-ordinating and simplifying the collection of demographic data from the National Statistical Offices. This initiative has already led to the establishment of a joint data collection procedure between Eurostat and the Council of Europe regarding key demographic indicators, to be published as a joint brochure entitled "Statistics in focus: population and social conditions". The first issue was dated July 1998.
    In October (645/6.1), the Deputies approved the terms of reference of :
    - the Group of Specialists on the Demographic Characteristics of Immigrant Populations (PO-S-MIG);
    - the Group of Specialists on the Demographic Implications of Social Exclusion (PO-S-ES);
    - the Group of Specialists on the Demographic Consequences of Economic Transition in countries of central and eastern Europe (PO-S-TEC).

    Publications
    - Proceedings of the Mediterranean Conference on Population, Migration and Development (Palma de Mallorca, 15-17 October 1996). ISBN 92-871-3520-7
    - Statistics in focus: population and social conditions. - ISSN 1024-4352
    (available from Eurostat, Jean Monnet Building, L-2920 Luxembourg)

    - Recent demographic developments in Europe. - 1998 edition
    This publication, available on paper and CD-ROM, was presented to the press at Strasbourg on 13 October 1998 A press review on this report is also available (Document CDPO (98) 23).
    Population series:
    No. 30 : The demographic characteristics of national minorities in certain European States (Volume I)

    Migration

    European Committee on Migration (CDMG),
    38th meeting, 25-27 March
    The CDMG :

    - set up the Editorial Group for the new report on community and ethnic relations in Europe, which will be its most important activity between now and the end of the century ;
    - made arrangements for a Seminar on managing migration in the wider Europe, to be held in Autumn 1998 ;
    - held an extensive exchange of views on assisted voluntary return programmes for persons not having the right to stay ;
    - decided to engage in a process of reflection about its medium-term strategy, in connection, inter alia, with the forthcoming strategy on social cohesion.
    CDMG, 14 - 16 October
    The CDMG decided :
    - to carry out a study in 1999 of the rights accorded to legally admitted family members;
    - declassified the reports of two meetings on consultative mechanisms between Roma/Gypsies and governments; 
    - declassified the national reports on recent developments in policies concerning migration and migrants.

    Conferences, seminars, workshops, training courses
    Seminar on managing migration in the wider Europe, 11 - 12 October
    The main purpose of this event was to gauge reactions of governments to the report of the Reflection Group set up on this subject by the CDMG. In this way, the CDMG aims to broaden and deepen the debate about the fundamental principles of migration policy in European countries, so as to encourage the development of a more strategic and comprehensive approach.
    Seminar on religion and the integration of immigrants
    24 - 26 November

    A large number of participants from government, NGOs and religious bodies examined the legal and practical implications of the presence in European countries of religious groups whose members are primarily of recent immigrant origin. The proceedings of the Seminar will be published.
    Round tables on integration and community relations policies
    The series of national round tables on integration and community relations policies continued with round tables in Romania, Finland, Russia and Slovenia. In addition, a multilateral round table was organised in Warsaw to bring together the results of the national round tables held in Central and Eastern European countries and to reflect about the next stage of the round table process.

    Publications
    - Measurements and indicators of integration
    - Initiatives by employers to promote employment and integration of immigrants
    - Security of residence of long-term immigrants : a comparative study/ Kees Groenendijk, Elspeth Guild and Halil Dogan.

    Roma/Gypsies

    In January (615/6.1a), the Ministers Deputies decided to declassify the conclusions of the CDMG on problems arising in connection with the international mobility of Roma/Gypsies in Europe, as set out in Appendix V to CM(97)96, in order to make them accessible to those concerned.

    In June (635/6.1), the Ministers' Deputies :

    - took note of and declassified the Memorandum by the Specialist Group on Roma/Gypsies concerning strategic elements of education policy for Roma children in Europe;
    - instructed the Council for Cultural Cooperation (CDCC) to draw up a recommendation or resolution on the education of Roma children in Europe.

    The following activities were carried out as part of the Project on Roma/Gypsies in Central and Eastern Europe :
    - Round Table on community relations affecting the Romany minority in Brno, Czech Republic, 20-21 April
    - Seminar on Roma and Local Authorities, Lom, Bulgaria, 25-26 April (joint with Project on Ethnic Relations).

    In October (645/6.6) the Ministers' Deputies examined a progress report prepared by the Secretariat on the Project on Roma/Gypsies in Central and Eastern Europe and took the following decisions:
    - extended to the end of 2001 the period of operation of the special account set up to fund the Project;
    - changed the name of the Project to "Project on Roma/Gypsies in Europe";
    - decided to open up the Project on Roma/Gypsies in Europe to all member States, so as to enable it to support occasional activities elsewhere in Europe.

    Specialist Group on Roma/Gypsies 
    5th meeting, March
    The Group :
    - examined various current issues, such as allegations of involuntary sterilisation, compensation of holocaust victims, migrations of Czech and Slovak Roma,, the situation of Roma in or originating from former Yugoslavia and the government initiatives taken in several countries to develop comprehensive programmes for improving the situation of Roma minorities ;
    - had an extensive exchange of views with representatives of the Social Development Fund and the World Bank on ways of improving the economic and employment situation of Roma/Gypsies ;
    - examined the follow-up to the study visit on the housing problems of Roma/Gypsies in Valdemingomez (Madrid), the report of the consultant now having been declassified.

    6th meeting, Prague, 28 September - 1 October
    The Group carried out a field visit to Northern Bohemia and held hearings with the Deputy Prime Minister of the Czech Republic and government officials, as well as with Roma leaders. Within its ordinary business, the Group :
    - discussed international mobility and Roma/Gypsies;
    - continued its discussions with representatives of the Social Development Fund and the World Bank on ways of solving the economic and employment problems of Roma/Gypsies;
    - began examining housing and town planning problems experienced by Roma/Gypsies.

    Conferences, seminars, workshop, training courses
    The following activities took place as part of the Project on Roma/Gypsies in Europe :
    - Support to the first meeting of a network of experts on the legal status of Roma/Gypsies ;
    - Financing of a review of the Hungarian government's comprehensive medium-term package of measures for the Gypsy minority;
    - Organisation of a series of three seminars on the Roma minority in Moldova ;
    - In Co-operation with OSCE/ODIHR and Project on Ethnic Relations, Round Table in Warsaw on Roma and Sinti national policies.

    Publications
    Newsletter on "Activities of the Council of Europe on Roma/Gypsies" (No11).

    3.2.2 Health

    Protocol on human cloning - see Section 3.1.3 above

    In September (641/6.5), the Ministers' Deputies adopted:
    - Recommendation No. R (98) 10 on the use of human red cells for preparation of oxygen carrying substances
    - Recommendation No. R (98) 11 on the organisation of health care services for the chronically ill.

    European Health Committee (CDSP), 44th meeting, 1 - 2 December
    The Committee agreed to appoint an expert to develop an innovative work programme covering all aspects of health addressed by the Council of Europe, in line with the Council's values and objectives and which avoids duplication with the work of other European organisations working in the area of health.

    Training Course on Information Technology and Media Training
    Budapest, 25 -28 January

    The course was for teachers in the European Network of Health Promoting Schools. Its aim was to strengthen skills in the use of information technology and in presentation skills and how to make the most of the media, radio, TV and printed media

    Conferences, seminars, workshops, training courses

    2nd European Day of Organ Donation and Organ Transplantation
    Vienna, 19 September

    The Committee of experts on the organisational aspects of co-operation on organ transplantation participated in the activities of the 2nd European Transplant Day. The day was designed as a celebration for solidarity for patients and relatives. The lectures highlighted inherent problems but also gave good solutions to helping to increase organ donation.

    Training course on health care technology assessment, Budapest, 5-7 October
    The course presented latest developments in the fields of Health technology assessment and Quality improvement. Topics covered included definitions of and an introduction to the field of methodology, how to make syntheses of evidence, cost-effective dissemination of findings from research, reviews of practical work in HTA agencies, case studies and group work.

    Publications
    - The Collection and use of human blood and plasma in the non-European Union Council of Europe member States in 1995 (English only)
    - Standardisation of organ donor screening to prevent transmission of neoplastic diseases
    - Activities of blood banks in the Council of Europe member States related to bone marrow (English only)
    - Xenotransplantation - State of the art report (English only)
    - Guide to the preparation, use and quality assurance of blood components
    4th edition. ISBN 92-871-3530-4

    - Recommendation No. R (97) 17 on the development and implementation of quality improvement systems (QIS) in health care and Explanatory report
    - Report on the organisation of health care services in prisons in European member States. - ISBN 92-871-3685-8
    - Blood transfusion: half a century of contribution by the Council of Europe/ by Bernard Genetet
    - Guide to the preparation, use and quality assurance of blood components. - 5th edition
    3.2.3 Environment and sustainable development

    Environment
    Convention on the Protection of the Environment through Criminal Law
    see section 3.1.3 above

    Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy
    http://www.strategyguide.org

    In January (615/9.2), the Ministers Deputies approved the terms of reference for the following groups :
    - Group of Specialists on Tourism and Environment (PE-S-TO);
    - Group of Specialists on Transport and Environment (PE-S-TE);
    - Group of Specialists on the European diploma (PE-S-DE).

    4th Pan-European Conference of Environment Ministers "An Environment for Europe" Aarhus, Denmark, 23-25 June
    54 countries of the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE) were represented at the Conference.
    The Council of Europe and UNEP, which provide the joint Secretariat of the Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy, submitted a progress report on the implementation of the Strategy and a document on the better integration of biodiversity and landscape conservation objectives into sectoral policies at national and international levels.
    The Aarhus Declaration on environment, adopted at the end of the Conference, reaffirmed the importance of the Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy.
    The Ministers approved a Resolution on biological and landscape diversity, recognising that biological and landscape diversity is part of the priceless natural heritage of Europe, and that the conservation of this diversity constitutes a fundamental human right and duty, as well as an important element for debate in democracy.
    The Ministers acknowledged the progress made in establishing the Pan-European Ecological Network, as a means of promoting nature conservation both inside and outside protected areas. They also took note of the progress made to develop a Pan-European Code of conduct for coastal zones and a Model law on sustainable management of coastal zones as a source of inspiration for national legislation and practice.
    The question of integrating biological and landscape diversity objectives into sectoral policies was discussed extensively. The Ministers considered that the agricultural sector deserved special attention and gave their support to the organisation of a Conference between Ministers of Agriculture and Ministers of Environment.

    Council for the Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy (STRA-CO), 6 and 8 April
    The Council adopted the report on the Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy for the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity to be held in Bratislava from 4 to 15 May 1998.

    Bureau of the Council for the Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy
    12 - 13 November

    The Bureau examined the follow-up of the decisions taken at the 4th Pan-European Conference of Environment Ministers (Aarhus, Denmark, 23-25 June), the implementation of the work programme of the Pan-European Strategy and the draft Memorandum of co-operation between the Secretariat of the Convention on biological diversity and the Council of Europe and UNEP, in their capacity as joint Secretariat of the Pan-European Strategy.

    Committee for the activities of the Council of Europe in the field of Biological and Landscape Diversity (CO-DBP)
    In December (652/9.1) the Deputies instructed the CO-DBP to look into the advisability of reviewing and updating the European Soil Charter and European Water Charter and adopted a reply to Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1350 (1997) on global challenges for agriculture.

    Committee for the activities of the Council of Europe in the field of Biological and Landscape Diversity (CO-DBP), 7 April
    The Committee examined the Programme of the Council of Europe's activities contributing to the implementation of the Strategy, the activities undertaken in the framework of the European Diploma for protected areas, and the follow-up of the Second Summit : the campaign "Europe: a common heritage".

    Bureau of the Committee for the activities of the Council of Europe in the field of biological and landscape diversity, 12 November
    The Bureau considered the draft European Landscape Convention.

    Action themes under the responsibility of the Council of Europe
    Action theme 1 : The development of the Pan-European Ecological Network (REP)

    Committee of Experts for the Development of the Pan-European Ecological Network (STRA-REP), 2nd meeting, 30 September - 2 October
    The Committee considered the Guidelines for the development of the Pan-European Ecological Network that are in the process of being adopted.

    Action theme 11 : Action for threatened species
    The Council of Europe (Bern Convention) has been entrusted with the implementation of this Action Theme. Plans have been drawn up to carry out activities in five areas: list of European species, elaboration of Red books and Red lists, implementation and follow-up of action plans in favour of threatened species, and awareness-raising of the public.

    Group of Specialists "Tourism and Environment"
    At its meeting from 12 - 13 February, the Group examined :
    - the results of the first expertise missions carried out in the frame work of pilot projects on sustainable tourism in 3 countries:
    - Latvia, "Northern Vidzeme Regional Nature Protection Complex",
    - Ukraine, "Carpathian Biosphere Reserve: Regional Landscape Park Stuzhitsa",
    - Romania, "Karst regions of the Apuseni Mountains";
    - the provisional version of the training modules Tourism and Environment, aimed at decision-makers, fund providers and tourism professionals.
    A second study visit took place in the framework of pilot projects on sustainable tourism throughout a few central and eastern countries. Teams of experts went to Ukraine, Romania and Latvia in order to assist the national and local authorities to draft sustainable tourism development plans.
    5 - 6 November
    The Group decided to elaborate a Code of conduct for outdoor and field sports respecting the natural environment.

    Group of Specialists on Transport and Environment, 29 - 30 October
    The Group initiated the elaboration of a Code of practices in order to ensure a better consideration of biological and landscape diversity in transport policies (by road, rail and river).

    European Diploma of Protected Areas
    In September (641/9.2), the Ministers' Deputies adopted Resolution (98) 29 concerning the regulations of the European Diploma of protected areas. It is a revision of the former regulations in order to better take into account acquired experience in designating the sites. An information sheet for the new applications to the Diploma has been drawn up.
    The Deputies also awarded the European Diploma to :
    - Kostomuksha Strict Nature Reserve, Russian Federation (Resolution (98) 24)
    - Tsentralno-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve, Russian Federation
    (Resolution (98) 25)

    - Poloniny National Park (Východné Karpaty), Slovakia (Resolution (98) 26)
    - Bieszczady National Park, Poland, (Resolution (98) 27)
    - Dobroský National Nature Reserve, Slovakia, (Resolution (98) 28)
    Expert missions were carried out in the Doñana National Park (Spain) following the ecological disaster in the Park (17-19 September) and in the “De Oostvaardersplassen” Nature Reserve (The Netherlands), a new applicant area to the European Diploma (15-16 November).

    Group of Specialists "European Diploma", 18-20 March
    The Group examined the annual reports of the 46 Diploma Areas. It approved the renewal of the European Diploma to 10 areas:
    - Wollmatinger-Ried-Untersee-Gnadensee Nature Reserve (Germany)
    - Germano-Luxembourg Nature Park (Germany/Luxembourg)
    - Weltenburger Enge Nature Reserve (Germany)
    - Beinn-Eigne Nature Reserve (United Kingdom)
    - Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park (Spain)
    - Store Mosse National Park (Sweden)
    - Bullerö et Långvikssär Nature Reserves (Sweden)
    - Montecristo Island Nature Reserve (Italy)
    - Mercantour National Park (France)
    - Maritime Alps Nature Park (Italy)
    It was in favour of awarding the European Diploma to 5 areas:
    - Východné Karpaty Protected Landscape Area (Slovakia)
    - Bieszczady National Park (Poland)
    - Dobročský Virgin Forest National Nature Reserve (Slovakia)
    - Kostomuksha Strict Nature Reserve (Russia)
    - State Tsentralno-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve (Russia)
    It examined the 2 new applications for the European Diploma from the Slovakian and Dutch Governments and decided to have an expertise carried out:
    - Biele Karpaty Protected Landscape Area (Slovakia)
    - "De Oostvaardersplassen" Nature Reserve (Netherlands)
    The following European Diploma Award ceremonies were organised:
    - Bialowieźa National Park (Poland), 24 April
    - Belovezhskaya Pushcha National Park (Belarus), 25 April
    - Port Cros National Park (France), 22 June
    - Carpathian Biosphere Reserve (Ukraine), 3 July.

    On-the-spot appraisals before the renewal of the European Diploma have been carried out at:
    - Cretan White Mountains National Park (Greece);
    - Minsmere Nature Reserve (United Kingdom);
    - Purbeck Heritage Coast (United Kingdom);
    - Wurzacher Ried Nature Reserve (Germany);
    - Teide National Park (Spain);
    - Wachau Protected Landscape (Austria);
    - Oka National Biosphere Reserve and Teberda National Reserve (Russian Federation);
    and in the framework of new applications:
    - "De Oostvaardersplassen" Nature Reserve (The Netherlands).
    Furthermore, an extraordinary on-the-spot appraisal was held from 17 to 19 September, following the ecological disaster that happened in the Doñana National Park (Spain).

    Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention)
    Standing Committee, 18th meeting, 30 November - 4 December
    The Committee discussed the implementation of the Convention, the amendments of the Appendices, the biennial reports, the activities in favour of the threatened species and habitats, the specific sites files as well as the programme of activities for 1999.

    Group of experts on the conservation of invertebrates, 5th meeting, 28 and 29 April
    The Group adopted a draft recommendation on the conservation of Maculinea butterflies and a recommendation on the consequences of using endectocids on other invertebrates.

    Seminar on implementation of Action Plans for Amphibians and Reptiles and the meeting of the Bern Convention Group of Experts on conservation of amphibians and reptiles
    Thessaloniki (Greece), 28 - 31 May

    The IUCN Action Plans on European Amphibians and Reptiles were examined, and especially what relevance they may have both for the implementation of the Convention and for the development of the European Action Programme on Threatened Species.

    Seminar held during the PLANTA-EUROPA Conference, Uppsala (Sweden), 9 - 14 June
    The seminar presented current problems in plant conservation in Europe and proposed strategies to deal with those problems.

    Seminar on the possible use of corine-biotopes information for the setting-up of the Emerald Network (Network of Areas of Special Conservation Interest), Ljubljana, 3-5 September
    Experts discussed co-operation with other ecological networks and the establishment and operation of the Emerald network.

    Publications
    - Environmental Encounters series
    - No. 36, "Tourism and Environment: towards a New Tourist Culture". (Seminar, Strasbourg, 21 – 23 November 1996)
    - No. 37 on Nature conservation and media
    - No. 39, Drafting and implementing action plans for threatened species (workshop, Bértiz, Navarre, Spain, June 1997)
    - No. 40, Protected areas: centres for propagating a general nature conservation policy (Seminar, Abruzzi National Park, Italy, June 1997)

    Nature and Environment Series
    - No. 87, Introduction of non-native plants into the natural environment. – ISBN 92-871-3389-1
    - No. 88, Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of legislation for the protection of wild flora in Europe. – ISBN 92-871-3429-4
    - No. 93, First Phase Report of the Třeboň Otter Project (English only)
    - Seminar on "Incentive measures for the voluntary creation and management of protected areas", Romania, 29 September-2 October 1996. – ISBN 92-871-3381-6
    - Progress report on the implementation of the Strategy 1996-1998
    (STRA-CO (98) 3 rev.)

    - Report concerning the Map on nature conservation sites designated in application of international instruments at pan-European level and Map on nature conservation sites designated in application of international instruments at pan-European level (STRA-REP (98) 2 rev. 3)

    Publications (Naturopa Centre)
    Naturopa
    - No. 85, on nature conservation and land use problems
    - No. 86 on landscapes
    - No. 87, on ecological networks in Europe
    - No. 88: Coastal zones - towards sustainable management
    - Strategy Bulletin, nos. 5 -12
    Series of Brochures "Questions and Answers"
    - No. 1 'biodiversity' - (updated)
    - No. 2: Agriculture and biodiversity
    - No. 3: Tourism and environment
    - No. 4 'The Pan-European Ecological Network'
    - Library bulletin, nos. 1 - 6 (1998)
    Bibliographies:
    - Landscapes, no. 1998-1
    - Highways and wildlife relationships (1998-2)
    - European ecological networks (1998-3)
    - Sustainable management of coasts (1998-4)
    - Information document on the Bern Convention
    - Proceedings of the “Communication and biodiversity” seminar

    Sustainable development

    In February (621/9.1), the Ministers' Deputies took note of the report of the Secretary General on the 11th European Conference of Ministers responsible for regional planning (Limassol, 16-17 October 1997) and decided to bring the resolutions adopted at the conference (resolution no. 1 on 'Sustainable development in Europe' and resolution no.2 on 'Strategies to be implemented within a comprehensive regional/spatial planning framework for protecting and managing freshwater resources'), to the attention of their Governments and to forward them to the Steering Committee on Local and Regional Authorities (CDLR) so that it might take account of it in its work programme.
    Resolution no.1 on 'Sustainable development in Europe' stresses the need to introduce at the European level a comprehensive, co-ordinated, sustainable development policy, taking account of the exhaustibility of natural resources and incorporating environmental, social, cultural and public health considerations.
    Resolution no. 2 reaffirms that the safeguarding of the quantity and quality of water is a top priority for Europe and contains recommendations to member States on various measures at European and national level, which should be implemented.
    The Deputies also took note of the decision of the Ministers responsible for Regional Planning to instruct the Committee of Senior Officials to "prepare the document on the objectives and guiding principles which should facilitate and guarantee the sustainable and comprehensive development of Europe in the next century..."

    Seminar on "Preparing the Future: the European Spatial Development Perspective - Towards a Policy Strategy for the European Continent", Berlin, 27 - 28 April
    The aim of this seminar, organised in cooperation with the European Commission and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, was :
    - to clarify the political objectives and options for European spatial development,
    - analyse specific spatial development problems faced by the central and East European countries;
    - broaden political dialogue on matters relating to European spatial development both within the Union and with other European countries;
    - make a useful contribution to the work on planning being carried out by the European Commission, the Council of Europe and their member States.

    Seminar : “Towards a Spatial Development Strategy for the European Continent - Perspectives of Evolution of Rural Areas in Europe”, Ljubljana, 24 - 25 September
    The seminar was organised in the framework of the preparation of the 12th session of the European Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional Planning (CEMAT) to be held in Hanover in 2000.
    Publications
    - The Challenges facing European society with the approach of the year 2000: a comprehensive regional/spatial planning framework for protecting and managing freshwater resources' (Limassol, 16-17 October 1997)
    - The Challenges facing European society with the approach of the year 2000: strategies for the sustainable development of northern States in Europe (Helsinki, 22-23 May 1997).

    3.3 Cultural cohesion and cultural pluralism
    http://culture.coe.fr

    Council for Cultural Co-operation (CDCC)
    In April (628/7.1), the Deputies approved the criteria adopted by the CDCC and the Committee for the Development of Sport (CDDS) for granting observer status.
    In September (641/7.1) the Ministers' Deputies decided to grant Mexico observer status with the Culture Committee (CC-CULT) and the Higher Education and Research Committee (CC-HER).

    3.3.1 Education, higher education, culture and heritage

    Education

    Education Committee (CC-ED)
    At its meeting on 16 to 18 March, the CC-ED :
    - adopted the new description of the project “Modern languages and linguistic policy”;
    - adopted the work programme for the activity “Social cohesion, democratic security and educational policies” and for “Learning and teaching about the history of Europe in the 20th century”;
    - began the examination of a draft recommendation on secondary education, as well as the reform of a programme on further training for teachers;
    - had an exchange of views on the status of co-operation with Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.

    19th session, 29-30 September
    The Committee took note of and discussed the progress of the work done in the framework of the follow-up to the Strasbourg Summit more particularly concerning citizenship education and the impact of the new information technologies;

    Social Cohesion, Democratic Security and Educational Policies
    - Diffusion seminars on the results of the project on “Secondary education for Europe”, Vologda (Russian Federation) 11 - 14 February, and Sofia (Bulgaria), 2 - 5
    - Seminar of experts on the Impact of the New Information Technologies in Schools
    16-17 November, Strasbourg

    - Working Group on the Challenges of Educational Reforms,
    23-24 November, Strasbourg

    - Symposium on "Violence at Schools: awareness-raising, prevention, penalties",
    26-28 November, Brussels) in co-operation with the Flemish Community of Belgium.

    Publications
    - Secondary education in Hungary. - ISBN 92-871-3479-0
    - Secondary education in Portugal.- ISBN 92-871-3154-6
    - The Holocaust in the school curriculum: a European perspective. - ISBN 92-871-3352-2
    - What secondary education for a changing Europe? Trends, challenges and prospects / Pierre Luisoni. - ISBN 92-871-3414-6

    New Modern Languages Project
    In March (613/7.1e), the Ministers' Deputies “adopted Recommendation No. R (98) 6 on modern languages.

    Conferences, seminars, workshops, training courses
    - Seminar to launch the piloting of the European Language Portfolio
    Ticino, Switzerland, 25-28 January

    - Meeting of experts on general orientation for the medium-term Project “Language policies for a multilingual and multicultural Europe”, Strasbourg ,2-3 February
    - Workshop for the implementation of the Common European Framework and the European Language Portfolio, 19-25 April, Moscow
    - Meeting of Association of Language Testers (ALTE): presentation of the new Modern Languages Project, the Common European Framework, Threshold level specifications and of the activities concerning co-operation for the development of tests and certification for citizenship and occupational purposes in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, 22-24 April, Bergen, Norway
    - First meeting of the restricted Modern Languages Project Group: discussions concerning orientations of the new project, a major conference on language policies to be held in May 1999 and the European Year of Languages envisaged for 2001,27-28 April, Strasbourg
    - 2nd seminar to pilot a European Language Portfolio,16-18 May, Tampere, Finland
    - Workshop for the piloting of the Common European Framework in curriculum development,
    25-30 May, Graz, Austria

    - Initial consultancy visit on test of language for naturalisation purposes in Lithuania to assess the needs of the Lithuanian test developers, Vilnius, Lithuania, 22-24 June
    - Follow-up seminar on testing of Lithuanian for naturalisation purposes
    Vilnius, Lithuania, 24-28 August

    The seminar aimed to refine draft test specifications, consider appropriate text and task types for the new test, introduce the principles of item-banking, item analysis and test construction and discuss procedures for pre-testing and trailing of the new test and the role of supporting documentation
    - Seminar to disseminate the results of the Council of Europe's work in the field of modern languages, aimed at key multipliers in modern languages (officials, inspectors, teachers and teacher trainers, text book authors, test developers, etc.), 28 - 29 September, Tbilisi, Georgia
    - Seminar on Bilingual Education Policy, 30 Sept - 1 October, Tallinn, Estonia
    - Seminar to disseminate the results of the Council of Europe's work in the field of modern languages, aimed at key multipliers in modern languages (officials, inspectors, teachers and teacher trainers, text book authors, test developers, etc.), 1-2 October, Yerevan Armenia
    - Training seminar for Lithuanian testers involved with the examination for naturalisation purposes,
    19-23 October, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    - 3rd seminar on the piloting of a European Language Portfolio
    25-28 November, Soest, Germany

    - Seminar on Bilingual Education Policy, 3-4 December, Riga, Latvia
    - Monitoring of test of proficiency in Estonian for citizenship purposes and consultation on the test of Estonian for professional purposes, 7-10 December, Tallinn, Estonia
    - Seminar on the implementation of the communicative approach in teaching modern languages in Ukraine, 9-10 December, Kyiv, Ukraine

    Publications
    - Report on the functions of the Modern Languages Section by two international and independent experts from outside the Council of Europe (Document CC-Lang (98) 3)
    - The role of the school management team in using school exchanges as a resource
    ISBN 92-871-3490-1

    - Appentissage et usage des langues dans le cadre européen (in co-operation with Hachette/ Le français dans le monde, available in French only)
    - Threshold 1990, Cambridge University Press. - ISBN 0 521 56706 8
    - Fremdsprachen Lernen in der Grundschule – (im Alter von 5/6 bis 10/11 Jahren), published by ÖBV Pädagogischer Verlag GmbH, Vienna. - ISBN 3-215-12856-X
    - The Council of Europe and Modern Languages: CDCC Modern Languages Projects, Strasbourg and European Centre for Modern Languages, Graz
    - Komunikācija svešvalodu mācīšanā (Latvian version of "Communication in the Modern Languages Classroom")
    - Praktische Anleitung für Prüfer (User Guide for Examiners - to complement the Common European Framework of reference)
    - Explanatory memorandum to Recommendation No. R (98) 6 of the Committee of Ministers on Modern Languages
    - Report on the piloting of a Vantage Level specification of objectives

    Education for Democratic citizenship
    - Second meeting of the project group "education for democratic citizenship"  Strasbourg, 19-20 February
    - Study visit of the Irish site of citizenship, Dublin, 18-21 March
    This was followed, on 22 March, by a meeting of sub-group B of the "Education for democratic citizenship" project group, which is managing the sites of citizenship.

    - Expert visit to the Lisbon Site of Citizenship and a seminar on the Concept and Practices of Mediation, 18 - 21 May
    - First meeting of the Reflective group for the sites of citizenship, 24-25 June
    - Participation of young people from the Alsacian, Belgian, Portuguese sites of citizenship in the training session on Mediation, proposed in the framework of the co-operation with the Youth Directorate,
    6-11 July, European Youth Centre, Budapest

    - Seminar in the framework of the long term activity "Political education for multipliers in education and industry" : The role of top executives in a democratic society, 15-17 July, Bildungsheim der Baden-Württembergischen Wirtschaft e.V., Steinheim/Murr, Germany
    - First seminar of the long-term training course "Education for democracy and European studies in Croatia", 31 August-4 September, Bad Urach, Germany
    - Seminar to launch the Citizens' Initiative network as the basis for the site of citizenship, Bizovac Toplice, Croatia, 19-20 September
    - Seminar "Remembrance and citizenship: from spaces to projects”, Delphi, Greece, 25-27 September
    - "Learning and Teaching for Democratic Citizenship: Critical Approaches to the Media in Civic Education", 6 - 11 October, Warsaw-Konstancin, Poland
    - Launching seminar on sites of citizenship in Bulgaria and in neighbouring countries, Velingrad, Bulgaria, 17-20 October
    - Seminar on the topic "Participation" hosted by the Norwegian authorities and carried out within the framework of Sub-Group B's activities on the sites of citizenship, Lillehammer, Norway, 22-24 October
    - Seminar “youth cultures, lifestyles and citizenship”, Budapest, 8-13 December
    - First seminar of the long-term training course "Education for Democracy and European Studies in Ukraine", 15-19 December, Kyiv, Ukraine

    Learning and Teaching about the History of Europe in the 20th Century
    - Preparatory meeting for "Theatrum Europaeum" 1648-1998 (350th anniversary of the Treaty of Westphalia), Münster, Germany, 1-3 March
    - Second meeting of the Project Group "Learning and teaching about the History of Europe in the 20th Century", Strasbourg, 6 - 7 April
    - Seminar on "initial training of history teachers in ten Council of Europe member States" Vienna, Austria, 19-22 April
    - European Seminar for Teachers: Population Movements in Europe in the 20th Century, Donaueschingen, Germany, 15-19 June
    - National Seminar on "The preparation, publication and use of new history textbooks and teaching resources"(Secretary General's New Initiative, 29 June-1 July, Arkangelsk, Russian Federation
    - Seminar “Theatrum Europaeum”, study the past to better understand the present and prepare for the future, Munster, Germany , 19 to 25 September
    Against the background of the celebration of the 350th anniversary of the Treaty of Westphalia, thirty-two students from upper secondary schools and their history teachers from eight countries once signatory to the Munster Peace agreement participated in a European week, during which they were confronted with a European vision of history teaching. The topics of human rights, tolerance, war and peace, and the environment were the four bases of discussion.
    - Symposium on the theme "Towards a pluralist and tolerant approach to teaching history - a range of sources and new didactics"
    Brussels, Belgium, 10 - 12 December

    Secretary General's new initiative : history teaching
    - Seminar on "The preparation and publication of new history textbooks"
    Chisinau, Moldova, 9-11 March

    - National Seminar on The Reform of History Teaching: Curricula, Textbooks and Teacher Training, Baku, Azerbaijan, 27-29 April
    - National Seminar on The Reform Of 20th Century History Curricula in Secondary Schools with Special Reference to Controversial and Sensitive Subjects and the Role of Famous Historical Persons, Yalta, Ukraine, 12-14 May
    - National Seminar on the Reform of the Curricula for Teaching 20th Century History in Secondary Schools, Chisinau, Moldova, 8-10 June

    Secretary General's new initiative : human rights and civic education in the Russian Federation
    As part of the Project "In-service training of teachers of civics in the Russian Federation, the first Evaluation and Training Seminar on the "Education File" was organised for 35 multipliers from seven Russian Regions in Saint-Petersburg from 11-14 March at the International Centre for Pedagogical Innovations.

    - Meeting of the Council of Europe Project Partner Organisations, 17 September, Brussels
    The meeting, which involves representatives of the Flemish Ministry of Education, British Council, Educaplan and Kulturkontakt was held to develop plans for future action in the Russian Federation, based upon the achievements of the Council of Europe Project.
    - Presentation of the Council of Europe project on human rights and civic education at a national conference on human rights education, 30 June-2 July, Moscow
    - Seminar ”Developing Civic Education Curricula using the Education File”
    12-14 September, Kaluga, Russian Federation

    - Seminar “Democratic Administration of Educational Institutions using the Education File”, 23-25 September, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia.
    - Seminar “Developing Civic Education Curricula using the Education File”
    21-23 December, Samara, Russian Federation

    Human rights and civic education in Bosnia and Herzegovina
    - Planning and co-ordination meeting of the ad hoc Project Group for the activities to be implemented, 24 and 25 January, Strasbourg
    - Meeting of 25 Directors of Pedagogical Institutes and representatives of Ministries of Education of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, 27 February.
    - Seminar for Bosnian teacher-trainers who will be responsible for the future implementation of the project (from both Republika Srpska and the Federation), Neum, 3 - 5 May
    - Teacher training seminars in Human Rights education and education for democratic citizenship, 16 October – 25 October 1998, Bihac, Bugojno, Gorazde, Tuzla, Teslic (cancelled), Orasje
    Participants : 210 teachers, 15 Council of Europe teacher trainers and 15 Bosnian co-trainers.

    Publications
    - Practical folders on “teaching human rights” containing three manuals for teachers on human rights and citizenship education, plus important legal conventions to be produced in the languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    The European dimension of education
    In-service Teacher Training Programme
    - Cinema and education for citizenship, Angers/France, 19-24 January
    - Before the decision – the monetary union, Bad Berka/Germany, 29-31 January
    - Managing 5-14 in the Primary School, Edinburgh/UK, 2-4 February
    - The Image of War in Literature, Drama and Film, Georgsmarienhütte/Germany, 2-6 March
    - Education for democratic citizenship with a global dimension, Leeds/UK, 3-8 March
    - Teaching following constructivist principles, Lausanne/Switzerland, 5-7 March
    - Human Resource Management in the Secondary School, Edinburgh/UK , 9-11 March
    - Telecommunication and multimedia, Donaueschingen/Germany, 9-11 March
    - Jobs around the world – English outside the UK and USA, Lochau/Austria, 9-12 March
    - History teaching and information technology, Espoo/Finland, 9-15 March
    - Creative writing and its evaluation, Donaueschingen/Germany, 23-25 March
    - Introducing new teaching material on racism, Hertenstein bei Weggis/Switzerland, 23-25 March
    - The Management of the Secondary School Curriculum, Edinburgh/UK, 23-25 March
    - Heritage classes for Mediterranean Europe, Malta, 23-27 March
    - Experience and activity oriented use of out-of-school learning places, Donaueschingen/Germany,
    25-27 March

    - Literature in foreign language classes, Riga/Latvia, 26-28 March
    - Effective learning and teaching of modern languages, Donaueschingen/Germany, 30 March – 1 April
    - Bullying in school, Bled/Slovenia, 16-20 April
    - How to successfully organise a European training seminar, Donaueschingen, Germany, 4-8 May
    This training course was offered for the National Liaison Officers of the CDCC In-Service Teacher Training Programme. It contributed to a common understanding of this programme, its aims and working methods.
    - Quality Assurance in the Secondary School, Stirling, Scotland, 27-29 April
    - Quality Assurance in Primary and Special Schools, Stirling, Scotland, 11-13 May
    - Debating Skills: a Way of Young People's Interaction, Primorsco, Bulgaria, 24-28 May
    - Intercultural Education in the Light of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Primorsco, Bulgaria, 28 May-1 June
    - Innovation in the Teaching of Science and Mathematics, Oslo, Norway, 1-7 June
    - Pedagogical Management – a Tool to Develop Partnership and Networking, Tampere, Finland,
    7-11 June

    - It moves!... Shifts in Population and their Impact on School Life, Donaueschingen, Germany,
    15-19 June

    - Prospects on political education, 29 June-1 July, Fuldatal, Germany
    - Human rights and democracy in practice, 6-26 July, Tours, France
    - Dealing with learner's diversity in the second foreign language classroom, 20-24 July, Toledo, Spain
    - Teaching human rights and peace, 5-11 July, Geneva
    - Greek language, history and culture, 26 July-23 August, Thessaloniki, Greece
    - Learning and Teaching for Democratic Citizenship: critical approaches to the media in civic education, Konstancin Jeziorna, Poland, 6 – 11 October
    - Vocational training – only for a job?, Donaueschingen, Germany, 12– 16 October
    - Objects and methods of environmental education in connection with agenda 21, Szeged, Hungary,
    13 – 18 October

    - The Danube: a way for understanding European cultural identity, Izmail, 26 - 31 October
    - Exchange for change, Skopje, 31 October – 6 November
    - "Healthy school, healthy pupils" - New Agendas for 2000. The development of personal social and health education in schools, Warwickshire, 3 – 8 November
    - Europe and the Mediterranean sea: the roots of a common cultural richness and perspectives for a better mutual understanding, Grado, Italy, 10 – 14 November
    - "Pupils rights, teachers rights" – Teacher training for multi-national school projects, Kyiv, Ukraine,
    10 - 15 November

    - Human rights and children's rights, Gent, Belgium, 10 - 15 November
    - Creative expression in education, Gent, Belgium, 10 - 15 November
    - European dimension of education: new methods and techniques in science education, Portoroz, Slovenia, 13 – 15 November
    - Teachers/Pupils: partners or enemies?, Donaueschingen, Germany,
    16 - 20 November

    - Democratic strategies for overcoming exclusions, Azeitao, Portugal,
    17 - 22 November

    - History and Identity, Vienna, Austria, 24 - 28 November
    - Citizenship Education, Uppsala, Sweden, 9 - 13 December

    Network for School Links and Exchanges
    - Visions of Europe, follow-up meeting for pupils and teachers, Limas/Cyprus, 2-6 April
    - Intercultural Education and Multicultural School Project, 2nd part of a long-term training course for teacher trainers from seven countries (Bulgaria, Estonia, Germany, Ireland, Russian Federation, Spain and Sweden) aiming at the creation of European networks of teacher trainers who are active in this field. This second residential part served to evaluate the projects, which had been implemented since the first meeting in November 1997, and to reinforce the co-operation between the trainers, 19-24 May, Väsu, Estonia.
    - School Links and Exchanges for Democratic Citizenship, the bi-annual conference of national delegates to the Network for School Links and Exchanges has examined the important contribution school partnerships and intercultural exchanges can make to education for democratic citizenship and European integration, 18-21 June, Dublin, Ireland.
    - South-east European School Network Inauguration seminar, Primorsko, Bulgaria, 16-20 September
    - European Clubs as a means to promote the European dimension in school education (co-organised by the Council of Europe Information and Documentation Centre in Bratislava) 5-6 November, Bratislava/Slovak Republic
    - 1st part of a long-term training course on for teacher trainers "Pupils' rights, teachers' rights",
    10-15 November, Kyiv/Ukraine 

    - Seminar on "the  European Dimension and international school links and exchanges" for regional co-ordinators of international school links, 25-28 November, Tirana/Albania 
    - School Links and Exchanges, Europe at School, follow-up seminar for regional co-ordinators of international school links, 10-13 December, Sinaïa/Romania 

    European Secondary School Student Exchanges - ESSSE
    - Introduction Seminar, Budapest, Hungary, 25-28 June
    - Long-term effects of pupil exchange programmes, project evaluation : experts meeting, 29 June
    - ESSSE and the Language Portfolio Experts meeting, 20 July
    - 63 secondary school students from Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Norway, the Russian Federation, Slovakia and Switzerland participated in the exchange programme, staying with host families and going to school in their host countries, September - December

    Publications
    - "Vis-à-vis", practical guide for setting up school exchanges for primary schools. - ISBN 92-871-2996-7
    - "Vis-à-vis", practical guide for setting up school exchanges for lower secondary schools
    ISBN 92-871-2998-3

    - The role of the school management team in the pedagogy of exchanges : practical guide published in co-operation with the Modern Languages Section

    Reform of history teaching and preparation of new history textbooks (Secretary General's New Initiative)
    - Seminar on "The teaching of history in multicultural societies and border areas" Khabarovsk, Russian Federation, 21 - 23 September
    - Conference on "Teaching about the Holocaust in Russia in the 21st Century", Moscow, Russian Federation, 6 - 8 October
    - Seminar on "The preparation and publication of new textbooks on 20th Century history", Chernigiv, Ukraine, 12 - 14 October
    - Seminar on "The reform of history teaching in Armenia", Yerevan, Armenia, 26 - 28 October
    - Preparatory Meeting for the Second National Stocktaking Conference on history teaching in the Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, 6 November
    - Seminar on "History teaching and education for democratic citizenship", Tbilissi, Georgia, 19 - 20 November
    - Advisory Mission on the Preparation of three textbooks on world history for upper secondary schools in the Russian Federation at the "Prosvescheniye" Publishing House, Moscow, Russian Federation, 30 November

    Higher Education and Research

    In March (623/7.1b and 623/7.2), the Ministers' Deputies:
    - adopted Recommendation No. R (98) 3 on access to higher education and authorised the publication of its explanatory memorandum;
    - adopted a reply to the Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1320 (1997) on “Education, training and advisory services in agriculture, fisheries and forestry”.
    In May (631/7.1 and 631/7.4), the Ministers' Deputies :
    - decided to renew the terms of reference of the ENIC Network (European Network of National Information Centres on academic recognition and mobility);
    - adopted the opinion of the Higher Education and Research Committee (CC-HER) on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1353 (1998) on the access of minorities to higher education as the essence of its reply to the Assembly.

    Higher Education and Research Committee (CC-HER), 25-27 March
    At its annual session the Committee:
    - made proposals for its contributions to the follow-up of the Second Summit, in the framework of the three follow-up actions co-ordinated by the Council on Cultural Co-operation;
    - adopted the conclusions of the conference on Regional Co-operation in Higher Education, held in Reykjavík in September 1997 jointly with the Nordic Council of Ministers;
    - launched a new project on “Lifelong Learning for Social Cohesion: a New Challenge to Higher Education”;
    - adopted an action plan through the year 2000 for the closing phase of the Legislative Reform Programme;
    - considered an evaluation report on EUDISED and mandated the Bureau to make the final decision on the future of this activity at its meeting in September 1998;
    - reviewed its work on recognition and mobility (carried out in partnership with UNESCO), on “European Studies for Democratic Citizenship and on Social Sciences and the Challenge of Transition”;
    - considered the main orientations of its 1999 work programme;
    - held its round table debate on “New Forms of Diversification of Higher Education”.
    Bureau of the Higher Education and Research Committee (CC-HER)
    16 – 17 September

    Among the issues considered by the Bureau were the progress of the new CC-HER project on “Lifelong Learning for Equity and Social Cohesion: a Challenge to Higher Education”, the preliminary draft of a recommendation on the research mission of the university, proposals for the 1999 programme budget and co-operation with the European Union.
    Bureau of the Higher Education and Research Committee (CC-HER)
    17 – 18 December

    Among the issues considered by the Bureau were a proposal for a new project on the changing role of teaching and learning in the information society, a draft recommendation on the research role of the university and a first draft of a recommendation on social sciences and the challenge of transition.

    Conferences, seminars, workshops, training courses

    - ENIC Network annual meeting, Vienna, 7 – 10 June,
    The meeting was held jointly with the NARIC Network of the European Commission. The ENIC Network is a joint Council of Europe/UNESCO body. The annual meeting considered and gave opinions on a variety of recognition and mobility issues, including the pilot project on the Diploma Supplement, the recognition of qualifications from franchised institutions and qualifications held by refugees.

    - Final conference of the pilot project on the revised Diploma Supplement, Brussels, 15 May
    The pilot project, which has been undertaken jointly by the Council of Europe, the European Commission and UNESCO, has revised the Diploma Supplement to make it better adapted as an easy to use instrument explaining the content and level of a given higher education qualification. The project was carried out with the participation of some 35 higher education institutions as well as representatives of the world of work.

    - Workshop on Social Sciences and the Challenge of Transition, Bled, 11 – 13 June

    - Preparatory meeting for the UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education, Strasbourg, 2 - 3 July
    The meeting was organised by the French National Commission for UNESCO in association with the Council of Europe and UNESCO/CEPES. It gathered representatives of most National UNESCO Commissions in Europe for a consideration of “The role of higher education in lifelong learning” and “The role of research: competition or co-operation?”

    - Working Party on Trans-national Education, 1st meeting, Bucharest, 16 - 18 July
    The aim of this joint Council of Europe/UNESCO working party is to elaborate policy recommendations concerning trans-national provision of higher education, a main example of which is franchised education. The particular emphasis of the working party is on the recognition of trans-national qualifications.

    - Colloquy on European Studies for Democratic Citizenship, Strasbourg, 15 – 16 October
    The colloquy addressed the situation of European Studies in Europe's higher education establishments, with particular regard to curricula and examples of good practice. It sought to identify problems caused by the development of European Studies, especially in the Council of Europe's new member States, and to evaluate the role that such studies play in forming and reinforcing democratic societies.

    - Launching symposium of the new CC-HER project on Lifelong Learning for Equity and Social Cohesion, Budapest, 12 – 14 November
    The debate mainly focused on the new mission of the university with regard to equity and social cohesion, the reform of university curricula to meet the demand of a more diverse student body and the impact of the new information technologies on the process of lifelong learning.

    - Colloquy on the concepts of democratic citizenship
    Luxembourg, 4 - 5 December

    This was a contribution to the follow-up action on Education for Democratic Citizenship.

    Publications
    - Democracy and Governance in Higher Education. - (Legislating for Higher Education in Europe, vol.2). - published by Kluwer Law International (English only). - ISBN 90-411-0575-1
    - Tertiary professional and vocational education in Central and Eastern Europe
    - Higher education financing in a changing environment
    - Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European Region and its Explanatory Report. - ISBN 92-871-352-3552-5
    (English, French, Russian and Spanish versions in one volume)

    - Council of Europe/Nordic Council of Ministers: Joint Conference on Regional Co-operation in Higher Education (Reykjavík, September 1997). - København / Nordic Council of Ministers, TemaNord. - ISBN 92-893-0190-2
    - Social Sciences and the Challenge of Transition - Compendium of national reports. -DECS-HE 98/71

    Culture
    At their 623rd meeting, in March (623/7.1f), the Ministers' Deputies adopted Resolution (98) 4 on the Council of Europe Cultural Routes and authorised the Secretary General to sign the Draft Agreement Protocol with the Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Draft Administrative Arrangement with the President of the "European Institute of Cultural Routes" Association.

    Culture Committee (CC-Cult)
    16th meeting, 7-9 April
    The core items of this meeting were the following:
    - reviews of the cultural policies of Latvia and Croatia;
    - examination of the proposals for a work schedule as a follow-up to the Plan of Action of the 2nd Summit of Heads of States and Governments on the subject of new information technologies.
    The Committee also examined the 1998 budgetary situation as well as proposals for the orientation and prospects for the 1999 programme and budget.

    17th meeting, 14 -16 October
    The Committee examined and approved the action plan of the project "New Information Technologies", within the follow-up to the 2nd Summit of Heads of State and Government;

    Conferences, seminars, workshops, training courses
    - Meeting of the Project Group on Electronic publishing, Books and Archives,
    12-13 January, Strasbourg

    - Working group for the preparation of the Souillac Seminar on the Charter "Art and Industry",
    26 January, Paris

    The meeting dealt with the preparation of action, projects and concrete programmes allowing the implementation of the principles of the Souillac Charter "Art and Industry" on co-operation between the cultural, educational and industrial fields with respect to the New Information Technologies (NIT).

    - 6th BOBCATSSS International Symposium: shaping the knowledge society, 26-28 January, Budapest
    Results of the New Book Economy Project were disseminated to information professionals.

    - International Symposium on "Preservation and opening to researchers of concentration camps and genocide archives: specific study of the Arolsen IRS", 5-6 February Strasbourg
    The proposals made by the Symposium to the International Commission managing the International Research Service (IRS) concern a precise inventory of the Arolsen funds and other funds devoted to concentration camps as well as, in the long run, the possibility for researchers and victims' families to use and consult the archives while respecting the States' interests and archival duties.

    - First transnational steering group meeting of the New Book Economy - BIS (Building up the Information Society) Project, 16-17 February, Strasbourg
    During this meeting, the transnational training, research and awareness activities were approved and a timetable was set up for the drafting of recommendations on new professional profiles. It was agreed that the Council of Europe would receive a contribution from the European Union for its work as transnational coordinator.

    - Virtual Communities - Seminar on new information technologies,
    24-28 February, Madeira (Funchal, Portugal)

    The aim of this meeting was to reflect on the theme of civil society and to draw attention to the fact that the latter is no longer the sole concern of the "real" communities (associations, etc.) but also of virtual communities. The activity "New Information Technologies" (NIT) should therefore take account of the citizen and his many forms of expression and propose to politicians a strategy which gives to civil society its place.
    The experts participating in this workshop examined the development of a network of Innovation Centres in Europe as well as a questionnaire to be used by Mediacult (Vienna) to draw up a European inventory of such centres as well as of YES (Your European Space) public spaces.

    - Round Table on culture and civil society, 1 April, Stockholm
    This Round Table was held in the framework of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies. It was part of the follow up to the Council of Europe report «In from the Margins», which was a contribution to the debate initiated by the World Commission on Culture and Development (UNESCO/UN).

    - General Assembly of the European Network of Cultural Administration Training Centres
    23-26 April, Uppsala, Sweden

    Some 40 representatives of Network training centres gathered to hold their annual General Assembly, and also to discuss the implications of new technologies as regards curricula and teaching methods in the field of training for arts management and cultural administration.
    - Meeting of New Book Economy Partners to develop a European Recommendation on Professional Profiles for Cultural Workers in the new electronic environment, 28-29 April, Genova, Italy
    The meeting examined the preliminary results of the New Book Economy Projects of Germany and Italy with a view to developing Recommendations on Professional Profiles for Cultural Workers in the new electronic environment.

    - Conference on the 21st Century Information Society - The Role of Library Associations
    10-14 May, Budapest

    The Conference examined the role of library associations as part of civil society and the development of pluralist democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. The Conference provided information for a European survey on library legislation co-ordinated by the Council of Europe.

    - European Summit on Archives. 14-16 May, Bern
    The meeting examined progress of the Council of Europe Draft Recommendation on a European Policy on Access to Archives and expressed its wish to see the Recommendation approved by the relevant instances of the Council of Europe.

    - International Seminar on Developing Books in Print catalogues in Central and Eastern Europe
    18-19 May, Strasbourg

    The meeting examined the state-of-the-art of Books in Print catalogues in Central and Eastern Europe and established an action plan for future developments

    - 2nd Transnational Meeting of the New Book Economy - BIS Project. 8-9 June, Berlin
    This meeting reviewed the transnational activities of the New Book Economy - BIS Project and examined the draft Recommendation on Professional Profiles for Cultural Workers in the new electronic environment.

    - 2nd meeting of the Literature Express 2000 Project. 18-19 June, Berlin
    The meeting developed the marketing strategy of the “Literature Express 2000” Project and examined ways of providing further funding.

    - Seminar "Decentralised cultural policies in Bosnia and Herzegovina", Sarajevo, 23-25 June
    This seminar enabled 45 participants from both the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina to discuss the question of decentralisation as regards cultural policies. Other European countries represented (Belgium, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom) offered useful illustrations of the different ways in which decentralisation operates (legislation, structures, funding) and of its advantages.

    - Seminar: "Are books different?" - Strategic and practical approaches to the issues of the book industry, Almaty (Kazakhstan), 25-27 August
    This international seminar was organised by the Association of Publishers of Kazakhstan in collaboration with International Book Agency (Berlin) and was aimed at publishers and booksellers. The subjects which discussed were: the dual nature of books as a cultural and an economic object, national book policies and the role of libraries, the business of selling, strategic planning for market approach, management for market-oriented companies in publishing and book selling, the free flow of books.

    - First study visit: “Transversal analysis: desetatisation and privatisation”
    Netherlands and Finland, 23-30 August

    National cultural institutions in transition from the public to the private sector in the Netherlands and Finland were visited by European experts. More visits to Germany (old and new Länder), Cyprus, Hungary, and Poland are to follow. The results of these tours and meetings will be put together in a transversal analysis with a view to analysing and comparing the practice and trends of this evolution.

    - Meeting on “The Europe of literary translation: towards a synergy of networks”
    Villefranche-sur-mer (France), 17-18 September

    The meeting aimed to enable European networks working on the promotion of literary translation to co-ordinate their operations and to define their future action in the field.

    - Conference “Memory and History – Archival declassification policies”, Bucharest, 24-26 September
    The Conference examined issues concerning the opening of files on the 2nd World War and secret service archives

    - Opening of a series of Czech cultural events in the framework of Artistic Exchanges
    Strasbourg, 25 September

    A series of events showing various aspects of modern Czech culture has been set up. Some of these events will travel during 1999.

    - Conference on “Democracy and Libraries – Freedom of expression , censorship and libraries” and Press Conference to launch Latvian books-in-print catalogue, Riga, 14-16 October
    The Conference examined the Council of Europe document “Freedom of Expression and the Communication Networks” and the Riga Memorandum on “Freedom of Expression and Free Access to Information at Public Access Points”. There was a presentation to the press and to professionals of the Latvian Books in Print catalogue produced with the support of the Council of Europe and the Open Society Foundation.

    - Opening of the 26th Council of Europe Art Exhibition "1648 - War and Peace in Europe", Münster and Osnabrück, Germany, 24-25 October
    Some twenty Heads of State attended the commemorative ceremony of the signature of the Treaty of Westphalia in Münster.

    - Conference on “Laboratory of Future Communication", Berlin, 25-26 October
    This included a presentation of the findings of the German New Book Economy Project and examination of the draft Recommendation on “Cultural work within the information society: new professional profiles and competencies for information professionals and knowledge workers operating in cultural industries and institutions”.

    - Colloquy on “Democracy and Libraries: the responsibilities of the State, local authorities and professionals”, Strasbourg, 23-25 November
    Discussion of the draft Recommendation on freedom of expression and free access to information at public access points, which includes a revision of the 1997 UNESCO-IFLA Recommendations on national libraries.

    - National debate on Latvia's cultural policy, Valmiera, 26-27 November
    This national debate was a follow-up to the cultural policy review of Latvia which was discussed at the Culture Committee in April 1998. Several European experts took part in the debate. The items on the agenda were: "National identity and multiculturalism", "Decentralisation and changing responsibility: state, regions, municipalities", "The status of the artist and society", and "Economy, infrastructure and continuity of the cultural process".

    - Seminar on Regional Cultural Policies, Lithuania, 30 November - 1 December
    The Seminar took place at the Seimas. It was a follow-up to the national debate which took place in Vilnius in December 1997. Participants included the panel of European experts who had carried out the analysis. The theme of the Seminar was: "Strategies for cultural infrastructure development".

    - National debate as a follow-up to the cultural policy review in Bulgaria
    Sofia, 30 November-1 December

    This national debate was organised by the Ministry of Culture of Bulgaria and was open to participants from all over Bulgaria as well as to representatives from other European countries. It was aimed at pursuing and widening the discussions begun by the analysis of Bulgaria's cultural policy conducted by the Council of Europe in 1996/7.

    - National debate as a follow-up to the cultural policy review in Croatia, Trakoscan, 3-4 December
    After the debate held at the Culture Committee in April 1998, a debate was held at national level on Croatia's cultural policy; it was organised by the Ministry of Culture and was open to wide participation on the part of cultural decision-makers and experts from all over Croatia, and from other European countries.

    - CIRCLE – Past, Present and Future, European Round Table and Annual General Assembly 1998
    Strasbourg, 4 December

    This included the evaluation of 15 years work and experience in the field of networking in cultural research and documentation and the formalisation of the Association's status (statutes).

    - Advisory Board for Cultural Routes, Luxembourg, 4-5 December
    During its 5th meeting, the Board's tasks were:
    - to examine the proposals for cultural routes received either by the Secretariat of the Council of Europe or by the European Institute of Cultural Routes;
    - to choose new themes to be submitted to the competent committees of the Council of Europe;
    - to examine the assessment of the activities of the Luxembourg Institute.

    - Group of experts on the issue “New technologies and young people” , Strasbourg, 14-15 December
    1st meeting of the Group of experts entitled "Media, new technologies and young people". The Group has been entrusted with the implementation of one of the axes of the "New technologies" project. It examined aspects linked both to creativity and to classical media and, in particular, to cinema. A draft schedule for 1999-2000 has been set up.

    - Opening of the 25th Council of Europe Art Exhibition, Copenhagen, 18 December
    The 25th Council of Europe Art Exhibition on "Gods and Heroes of the Bronze Age: Europe at the Age of Ulysses" was opened at the National Museum of Copenhagen in the presence of HM Queen Margarethe of Denmark.

    Publications
    - Cyberculture: Pierre LEVY
    - New Ideas in Science and Arts; New Technologies: cultural, co-operation and -communication.
    - In from the margins : a contribution to the debate of culture and development in Europe
    ISBN 92-871-3336-0

    - French version of “The Cultural Policy in the Russian Federation.”
    - Cultural Policy in Slovenia
    - Cultural Policies in Europe: a comparative approach / by Mario d'Angelo and Paul Vespérini
    - Cultural policy in Croatia (English and Croatian versions, published by the Croatian Ministry of Culture) 
    - Culture and neighbourhoods: Perspectives and keywords (Vol. 4 of the series, by Giandomenico Amendola) ;
    - TVA et politique du livre : impacts et enjeux (Note politique n° 1)

    Cultural heritage
    In March (623/7.1c and 623/7.1d) the Ministers' Deputies:
    - adopted Recommendation N° R (98) 4 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on measures to promote the integrated conservation of historic complexes composed of immovable and moveable property;
    - adopted Recommendation No. R (98) 5 of the Committee of Ministers to member States concerning Heritage Education.
    In October (645/7.1) the Ministers' Deputies adopted a reply to Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1372 (1998) on “Unidroit Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Property”.

    Cultural Heritage Committee (CC-PAT)
    13th Plenary Session, 16 - 18 March
    The main theme treated was the follow-up of the Second Summit of Heads of State and Governments of the member States of the Council of Europe, in particular the organisation of the "Europe, a common heritage" Campaign to be launched in 1999.

    Bureau, 10th meeting, 28 September
    The main theme treated was the Campaign: “Europe: a common heritage”. The Bureau examined :
    - a proposal to the Committee of Ministers for a clear definition of terms of references for the International Guiding and Co-ordinating Group of the Campaign (GI-Camp), to establish its responsibilities and structure in order to secure a consistent and effective management of the Campaign.
    - the Identity and Diversity Programme and Heritage and Sustainable Development Programme

    Conferences, seminars, workshops, training courses
    - 2nd European Symposium of Architectural Restoration Firms, Strasbourg, 4-5 June
    Organised by the European Association of Architectural Heritage Restoration Firms (A.E.E.R.P.A.), in co-operation with the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, the European Foundation for Heritage Skills (FEMP) and the European Commission on the theme of maintaining our heritage after 2000.

    - European Heritage Days (EHD)
    The official launching ceremony for the European Heritage Days took place on 5 September in Stockholm (Sweden), the European Cultural Capital for 1998. The EHD are organised with the help of the King Baudouin Foundation (Belgium) and receive the support of the European Union. In 1998, European Heritage Days are being organised in 44 European countries with the participation, for the first time, of Turkey.

    - Days on European Heritage Skills Networks, Obidos, Portugal, 22 and 23 October

    - Further Training Course on Inventory and Documentation Methods on Architectural Heritage, Belgium, 5 - 16 October

    - Exhibition of Bosnia and Herzegovina "Putting Hope in the Picture"
    Sarajevo, from 8 October

    Publications
    - Crafts and Heritage magazine, issues No 9 and 10
    Cultural Heritage series
    - No. 36, Cultural heritage and its educational implications: a factor for tolerance, good citizenship and social integration: proceedings (Brussels international seminar, Belgium, 28-30 August 1995). ISBN 92-871-3584-3.
    - No.38, Strategies for vocational training in architectural heritage skills : proceedings (Symposium, International Heritage Fair, Le Carrousel du Louvre, Paris, France, 13 April 1996).- ISBN 98-871-3563-0.
    - No, 40, Sustained care of the cultural heritage against the deterioration due to pollution and other similar factors: evaluation, risk management and public awareness: proceedings (Stockholm International Seminar, Sweden, 24-26 April 1997)
    - No. 41, Report on the situation of urban archaeology in Europe
    - European Heritage No. 4/98
    - Compendium of basic texts of the Council of Europe in the field of cultural heritage - 1998 updated version, CC-PAT (98) 65 Inf
    - Technical Co-operation to the Palace of Jelgava (Latvia) (September 1993),
    CC-PAT (98) 62

    - Technical Co-operation to the St-John's Co-Cathedral of La Valletta, Malta
    (October 1993, CC-PAT (98) 67

    - Technical Co-operation to the Count's Palace in Zadar and Sibenik Cathedral, Croatia (February 1994), CC-PAT (98) 60
    - Technical Consultancy for the rehabilitation of the City of Skofja Loka, Slovenia (June 1994), CC-PAT (98) 63 (English only)
    - Technical Co-operation to the city of Tallinn, Estonia (October 1994), CC-PAT (98) 57
    - Technical Co-operation to the city of Urbino, Italy (Nov. 92 - Feb. 95), CC-PAT (98) 58
    - Technical Co-operation to Cyprus (November 1995), CC-PAT (98) 59
    - Technical Co-operation to the City of Pecs, Hungary) (November 1995), CC-PAT (98) 56
    - Technical Co-operation and Consultancy Programme related to the integrated conservation of cultural heritage
    European Foundation for Heritage Skills (FEMP). Heritage Skills Collection
    - 1997 FEMP activity report
    - Charter on the use of ancient places of performance (adopted at the International Colloquy held in Verona (Italy), August 1997)
    - Vocational guidance in the field of skills relating to the architectural heritage, decorative complexes and movable heritage items: proceedings (1st European Colloquy, Paris, Carrousel du Louvre, 27 September 1997)

    3.3.2 Sport
    See also Section 7 : Conferences of specialised Ministers

    In April (628/7.1), the Ministers' Deputies approved the criteria adopted by the CDCC and the Committee for the Development of Sport (CDDS) for granting observer status.

    Monitoring Group of the Anti-Doping Convention (T-DO)
    9th meeting 19-20 May
    The Monitoring Group:
    - adopted 3 recommendations on: Standard operating procedures at doping control laboratories; basic principles for disciplinary phases of doping control; and blood sampling;
    - noted the presence of South Africa as an observer for the first time at the meeting;
    - held an exchange of views with the International Olympic Committee.

    Extraordinary meeting, 5 November
    The Group discussed recent events in the field of doping and their implications for its work, and prepared the Monitoring Group's contribution to the World Conference on Doping convened by the International Olympic Committee in February 1999.
    The Group agreed on a number of proposals with the aim of boosting the effectiveness of anti-doping work and of improving co-operation and harmonisation between the sports movement and that of the public authorities active in this field.

    Standing Committee of the European Convention on Spectator Violence (T-RV)
    18th meeting, 9-10 June
    The Standing Committee evaluated the preparations for the Football World Cup 1998 with the provisions of the Convention and its recommendations. In this framework, the Standing Committee examined in particular the relevant dispositions concerning the ticketing system at the majors sport events in order to conciliate the requirements of the Convention in the matter of the security of the spectators with the principles of a fair allocation of tickets.

    Conferences, seminars, workshops, training courses
    Multilateral SPRINT Seminar on Evaluating Progress in Sports Development since 1989
    1 - 2 April, Budapest

    The themes were:
    - The effects of political, organisational changes;
    - Consequences of the move towards a free market economy;
    - Social importance of sport in the new democracies;
    - The past, the present and the future of SPRINT.

    Third training seminar for trainers in disabled sport, 3-5 April, Cazin, Bosnia and Herzegovina
    The Seminar programme is directed towards imparting practical expertise in certain sports for the disabled and a theoretical knowledge on ways to teach sport to people with disabilities.

    SPRINT multilateral Seminar on Women and Sport, 21-22 June, Kaunas, Lithuania
    The main themes were:
    - Women in sport - individuals and groups;
    - Women in sport - half of democratic society;
    - Women in sport - influencing structures and strategies.

    This seminar was organised to take account of the World Conference on Women and Sport, held in Namibia on 19-22 May 1998.

    SPRINT Multilateral Seminar for the Balkan countries on “Fair play, tolerance and social cohesion for children in sport: physical education teachers' training project”
    2-3 July, Krani “The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”

    This seminar looked at both practical issues concerned with teaching sport to young people and the importance of including education for tolerance and fair play.

    Camp for disabled children and young people
    1-7 July, Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    This camp brought together disabled young people from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Sprska. It included courses on wheelchair mobility and swimming.

    SPRINT multilateral Seminar on Anti-Doping Policy
    Sofia, 8-10 October

    The main themes examined were the following:
    - Consequences and risks of using doping agents;
    - Analytical methods to detect masking agents used in doping;
    - Sports and non-sports use of prohibited substances by young people and children;
    - SPRINT countries' national anti-doping programmes.
    In conclusion, the seminar brought to the fore the dangers of using doping in and out of sport and the necessity to strengthening the fight against this scourge.

    SPRINT multilateral Seminar on Combating Hooliganism
    Berlin, 26-27 November

    The main themes were:
    - Crowd management at stadia (responsibilities and co-ordination, design of the stadium, ticketing, stewarding);
    - Control of spectators outside the stadium (responsibilities and co-ordination, policing in a democratic society, movement of supporters);
    - Relations with supporters (creating a good atmosphere, information for supporters, fan coaching);
    - International co-operation.
    The Seminar deepened and improved the exchange of knowledge and experience in these fields, in particular for the SPRINT countries.

    Publications
    - Report on compliance by Spain with the European Convention on Spectator Violence at Sports Events 1987-1997

    3.3.3 Youth

    Committee of Ministers
    In April (628/8.2) the Ministers' Deputies adopted Resolution (98) 6 on the Youth Policy of the Council of Europe.
    The Deputies also (628/8.1) authorised the creation of a working party to evaluate the functioning of the European Youth Centre in Budapest after three years of operation.

    Reform of the Youth Sector
    In November (650/8.1), in the context of the Reform of the Youth Sector of the Council of Europe, the Ministers' Deputies :
    - adopted new Statutes for the European Youth Centre (EYC) and the European Youth Foundation (EYF) - Resolution (98) 31;
    - approved the terms of reference of the following youth sector statutory bodies:
    - the European Steering Committee for Youth (CDEJ);
    - the Advisory Council;
    - the Joint Council on Youth Questions;
    - the Programming Committee;
    - instructed the Secretariat to elaborate proposals concerning educational criteria for running activities in the EYC and new regulations containing the basic rules governing the manner and conditions of the use of the EYF's resources in conformity with the respective Statutes.

    Advisory Committee of the European Youth Centres (EYCs) and the European Youth Foundation (EYF), 19th meeting, 18 - 20 March
    The main item on the agenda was the process of reform of the youth sector's structures and policy. The Advisory Committee adopted a proposal concerning this matter, underlining the necessity to maintain the principle of co-management.

    Evaluation Working Group on the Budapest Youth Centre (GTE-EYCB)
    The Working Group met in Strasbourg (3 - 4 June) and in Budapest (10 - 11 June).
    According to its terms of reference (628/8.1), the Group examined:
    - the extent to which the activities of the Centre fulfil the objectives set and correspond to the priorities of the Council of Europe;
    - the relations between the Centre in Budapest and the Centre in Strasbourg;
    - the economic feasibility of the Centre in Budapest, especially in terms of its occupation.

    Governing Board of the European Youth Centres and the European Youth Foundation
    Evaluation Group on the Budapest Centre

    The Governing Board constituted, from its own members, a group to evaluate the Centre in Budapest. This Group met on the same dates as the group nominated by the Committee of Ministers..

    Governing Board of the European Youth Centres and the European Youth Foundation,
    19th Meeting, Budapest, 9 – 12 June

    As well as adopting of the programme of the Centres and Foundation for the first semester of 1999, the Governing Board worked on the reform process of the youth sector, cooperation with the European Union and the youth sector's contribution to the 50th anniversary of the Council of Europe.

    European Youth Foundation (EYF)
    The EYF gave financial support to youth projects on themes relating to the situation of young people, the values of the Council of Europe, and youth work.

    Technical co-operation programme
    - Follow-up seminar to the long-term training course (1996) for youth leaders and officials in charge of youth questions in the Russian Federation (Russian Federation, 22-30 August),
    - Follow-up seminar to the long-term training course (1996) for children's organisations in the Russian Federation (Russian Federation, 13-20 September).
    - Training Course for leaders of non-governmental youth organisations and civil servants dealing with youth matters in Romania, 19-26 October
    - Training Course for leaders of non-governmental youth organisations and civil servants dealing with youth matters in Bulgaria, 15-22 November

    Language courses for youth leaders
    Language courses were conducted in French (in France and Belgium); English (courses in the United Kingdom and in Ireland); Spanish (in Spain); Portuguese (in Portugal); Italian (in Italy) and German (in Germany).

    Training courses for youth leaders
    - Training course on organisation of international youth activities (21 June-4 July),
    - Training course on work in international youth structures (30 August-6 September).
    - Training Course "Training for trainers", 18-31 October
    - Long-term Training Course 1998-1999 : introduction Seminar, 4-18 October
    - Training Course on intercultural learning for language course organisers, 10-15 November
    Activity in the framework of the Partnership Agreement with the European Union

    - Long-term Training Course "Participation and citizenship for minority youth leaders": third phase,
    19-29 November

    Consultative meeting on Intercultural Learning, 12-14 March
    This meeting brought together youth NGO representatives, governmental representatives, and trainers in Intercultural learning to discuss the changing context of intercultural learning in Europe, namely in relation to the programmes of the European Youth Centres. They discussed the political context in which intercultural learning takes place, training objectives and methodology, the changing target groups, the enlargement of Europe and its incidence on the role of education and training in the non-formal education sector.

    Long Term Training Courses
    The third phase of the 1997/98 long term training course concentrated on evaluating projects carried out during the intermediary phase, including the creation of a centre for youth NGOs in Georgia and the elaboration of a role game on youth policies.

    The first phase of the long term training course "participation and citizenship" included a pilot training course on the participation of minority youth in Europe. Projects included : creation of an international organisation for young Hindus, training of young Aromi women in "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" and the setting up of information centres for young homosexuals.

    "Children at risk" : first phase of a Long-term Training Course for youth
    Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria, 30 March - 5 April

    The Course aims to encourage co-operation and coordination between the governmental and non-governmental sector and develop strategies for community based and participatory youth policies for successfully reaching out to young people and integrating them into society. The course will consist of two seminars, study visits and an evaluation meeting. It is planned that participants will implement a series of pilot projects developed during the training course.

    Symposium on "Youth Participation in Rural Development ", 24-29 March
    The Symposium was organised in co-operation with rural youth organisations and several committees of the Parliamentary Assembly and the CLRAE. The main aim of the symposium was to examine how youth policy and rural policy could be better synchronised with a view to improving the situation of rural youth and preventing the exodus from rural areas.

    Seminar on  "The future of non-governmental youth work in Bosnia and Herzegovina"
    San Marino, 13–18 February

    This seminar made it possible for young people from Bosnia and Herzegovina coming from the different communities to look into possibilities for future co-operation between their organisations.

    Study sessions conducted at the European Youth Centre (Strasbourg)
    - European Youth Information and Counselling Agency (ERYICA)
    "European Training Course on Different Approaches to Youth Information in Europe",
    27 September - 4 October

    - Youth of the European People's Party (YEPP)
    "Minorities in Europe: A minority in one place can be a majority in another place", 4-11 October

    - European Educational Exchanges – YFU (EEE-YFU)
    "Concepts of Peace: Towards non-violent cultures", 25 October - 1 November

    - International Movement ATD Fourth World Youth
    "Poverty and human rights: youth commitment to the elimination of poverty and promotion of human rights", 25 October - 1 November

    - International Falcon Movement – Socialist Educational International (IFM-SEI)
    "On the brim of the next century, are the values that built our types of youth movements still up-to-date?", 8-15 November

    - European Federation of Youth Service Organisations (EFYSO)
    "Minorities/Majorities: Integration and Exclusion", 15-22 November

    - European Youth Forest Action (EYFA)
    "LETS Exchange and Training Seminar", 23-29 November

    - Young European Federalists (YEF/JEF)
    "Popular Culture: Contribution to European Integration", 29 November - 6 December

    - European Council of Conscripts Organisations (ECCO)
    "Protection of human rights: how can young people contribute to a better democracy?", 29 November - 6 December

    Study sessions conducted at the European Youth Centre (Budapest)
    - World Association of Young Esperantists (TEJO)
    "Language rights – language policy", 11-18 October

    - Federation of Young European Greens (FYEG/FJEE)
    "East/West relations nine years after the fall of the wall", 12-18 October

    - Young Women from Minorities (WFM)
    "Education and self-awareness to overcome oppression and discrimination", 15-22 November

    - The European Confederation of Youth Club Organisations (ECYC)
    "Citizenship 2000 – The Role of Young People in the new Millenium"
    22-29 November

    - MIJARC - Europe
    "North-South-East-West-European Relations", 29 November - 6 December

    4 Multilateral activities for the consolidation
    and development of democratic stability

    Comprehensive reports of these activities are presented by the Directorate of Political Affairs in the documents "Activities for the development and consolidation of democratic stability : synopses of activities (ADACS)."

    4.1 Human rights

    European Convention on Human Rights. Training Programmes
    Seminar on "The right to freedom of expression and privacy under the European Convention on Human Rights", Tallinn, 2-3 March
    The seminar brought together legal practitioners and journalists and focused on Articles 8 and 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, and on European Standards for Data Protection. A wide range of issues related to freedom of expression and privacy were addressed from the points of view of both the legal community and the press. Organised in cooperation with the Tallinn Information and Documentation Centre on the Council of Europe and Tark & Co. Law Offices.

    Training seminar for judges, lawyers, prosecutors and university law students on the European Convention on Human Rights, Chisinau, 23-24 March
    The aim of the seminar was to familiarise participants with the mechanisms and substance of the European Convention on Human Rights. Organised in cooperation with Chisinau Information and Documentation Centre on the Council of Europe and the Law Faculty of the University of Moldova.

    Workshop for Bosnian lawyers from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Legal Advice Centres on selected aspects of the European Convention on Human Rights, Sarajevo, 5-7 February
    The workshop was a follow-up to a similar seminar organised for legal advice centres in December 1997. It focused in particular on Articles 5 and 6, and on property issues under Article 1 of Protocol No. 1. Organised in cooperation with the UNHCR.

    Workshop for legal practitioners on selected aspects of the European Convention on Human Rights, Tirana, 9-10 February
    The workshop focused in particular on Article 5, 6 and 10, and was aimed at providing training for School of Magistrates students. Organised in cooperation with the Albanian School of Magistrates.

    Seminar on "Taking a case to the European Commission of Human Rights"
    Tirana, 27-29 April
    The seminar was aimed at providing information and practical training for lawyers and judges on the procedures for lodging a complaint with the Strasbourg organs. It was organised in cooperation with the Albanian Lawyers Group for Human Rights (ALGHR) and the AIRE Centre.

    Seminar on selected aspects of the European Convention on Human Rights and the implementation of the Convention in domestic law
    Kiev, 18-19 June
    The aim of the seminar was to offer training to 25-30 judges and legal professionals. It was organised in cooperation with the Ukrainian Legal Foundation.

    2-3 July, Zagreb
    Workshop for practising lawyers, civil servants, judges, university lecturers and NGOs on the European Convention on Human Rights and the rights of refugees. The workshop was organised in cooperation with the UNHCR office in Zagreb and with the participation of the OSCE. It aimed at providing information and training on certain aspects of the Convention specifically relevant to the question of return of refugees and displaced persons, and to introduce the control mechanisms under the Convention.

    8-9 July, Brcko
    Workshop for judges, prosecutors and practising lawyers from the Brcko area on selected aspects of the European Convention on Human Rights. The workshop was aimed at providing an introduction to the Convention and its control mechanisms through presentations and case-studies, while attempting to put the issues raised into a local context. The workshop focused in particular on Articles 5, 6 and 1 of Protocol No. 1. Organised in conjunction with the Office of the High Representative in Brcko.

    27-28 July, Chisinau
    Meeting on the compatibility of Moldovan legislation with the requirements of the European Convention on Human Rights, including an examination of recent draft laws. Organised in cooperation with the Moldovan Ministry of Justice.

    27-28 August, Kyiv
    Meeting for representatives of the Government Agent's office as part of the effort to provide training and information concerning the organisation and work of the Government Agent's office. Organised in cooperation with the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice.

    27 October, Zagreb
    Workshop for civil and criminal court judges on selected aspects of the European Convention on Human Rights, organised in co-operation with the Ministry of Justice. The workshop was aimed at providing information and training to judges, introducing a number of fundamental concepts under Article 6 in particular, and presenting the control mechanism under the Convention as changed by Protocol No. 11.

    30-31 October, Yaroslavl, Russian Federation
    Seminar on the implementation of the European Convention on Human Rights in the Russian Federation, as part of an effort to raise awareness about the European Convention on Human Rights in the Russian Federation and about the human rights standards and instruments of the Council of Europe in general. The seminar was organised in co-operation with the Moscow Helsinki Group and the International Helsinki Federation.

    19-20 November, Bucharest
    Training seminar for judges and representatives of the office of the Government Agent on the application of the European Convention on Human Rights, in particular Articles 6 and 10 and Article 1 of Protocol No. 1. The seminar was organised in co-operation with the Ministry of Justice. It was aimed at introducing the Convention to judges who were not familiar with the Strasbourg system and at explaining key concepts, as well as selected case-law, to the participants.

    25-26 November, Tirana
    Training seminar organised in co-operation with the School of Magistrates to provide training and information about the European Convention on Human Rights and the enforcement machinery following the entry into force of Protocol No. 11. The seminar also offered an opportunity for participants to apply the Convention to fictional scenarios and become familiar with the relevant case-law of the European Court of Human Rights.

    10-11 December, Sarajevo
    Workshop for practising lawyers, civil servants and representatives of non-governmental organisations on the European Convention on Human Rights and the rights of refugees. The workshop was organised in co-operation with the UNHCR office in Sarajevo and aimed at providing information and training on certain aspects of the Convention, introducing the control mechanisms under the Convention and putting the standards of the Convention into a local context.

    10-11 December, Kyiv
    Seminar on the European Convention on Human Rights in the domestic legal order of Ukraine, organised in co-operation with the Ukrainian Centre for Human Rights of the Legal Foundation. The seminar formed part of an effort to provide human rights training through specialised courses geared towards lawyers and activists involved in raising human rights awareness and supporting civil society initiatives.

    Study visits
    Strasbourg, 18-22 May
    Study visit for 11 officials, representing Albania, Azerbaijan, Croatia, Estonia, Lithuania, Slovenia and Ukraine, to become acquainted with the work of the Council of Europe in general, and in the field of human rights in particular. The visitors attended hearings before the European Court of Human Rights and gained information about a broad range of human rights issues, focusing especially on the main human rights treaties of the Council of Europe. They also pursued individual research and relevant professional contacts.

    Human rights education and awareness, including projects to combat racism and intolerance

    20-22 April, Strasbourg
    Visit by 22 students from the Jagiellonian University Human Rights Centre, Cracow, to the Council of Europe. The visit formed the conclusion to a year-long course on European human rights standards. It was aimed a providing information about the Council of Europe in general and its work in the field of human rights in particular. The visitors attended hearings before the European Court of Human Rights and gained information about a broad range of human rights issues, focusing especially on the main human rights treaties of the Council of Europe.

    13-17 July, Tirana
    Training workshop for the staff of the Police Academy of Albania on “Policing and Human Rights”. The aim of the workshop was to provide an introduction to the subject of policing and human rights, with the aid of the “Albanian Human Rights Manual” for the police. The course drew upon both the international human rights protection mechanisms, and, in particular, the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights. Organised in cooperation with the Albanian Ministry of Public Order.

    27 July – 5 August, Saratov
    Summer school for lawyers from migration offices and NGOs on “Human Rights and Forced Migrants”, aimed at addressing questions concerning the rights of forced migrants under international, including European, human rights standards. Organised in cooperation with the Inter-Regional Association of Women's Lawyers, Saratov.

    Assistance in setting up and running Government Agent's offices
    Seminar on the organisation of the Government Agent's office, including the experiences of other European Government's offices and the different models adopted. Sofia, 19-20 February
    Organised in cooperation with the Bulgarian Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

    Establishment and strengthening of national institutions for the protection and promotion of human rights (including ombudsman, human rights commission etc)

    Seminar on a law concerning a regional parliamentary Ombudsman, St Petersburg (Russian Federation), 20-21 March
    The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for discussion among a wide circle of relevant participants of the possibilities offered by the office of a parliamentary Ombudsman. Organised in cooperation with the "Strategy Centre" in St Petersburg.

    Seminar on the role and work of European ombudsman offices in the field of human rights, Tbilisi, 23-24 March
    The seminar was aimed at providing an opportunity for debate in connection with the recent appointment of the Georgian Ombudsman for Human Rights, and at providing information on the experiences of other European ombudsman offices, both long-established ones and offices set up more recently in the new member States.

    Workshop on "Establishing the Ombudsman Institution in Bulgaria: Draft Law Conference"
    Sofia, 14-15 May
    The workshop brought together a wide circle of participants, representing the legal profession, media, academia and parliament, to look at the possibilities for creating legislation on the setting up of an ombudsman institution in Bulgaria and the practical implications of its establishment. Experts from both new and long-established ombudsman offices gave presentations on the experiences of their respective institutions. The workshop was organised in cooperation with the Sofia Information and Documentation Centre on the Council of Europe.

    Seminar on "Drafting a law for a regional parliamentary ombudsman".
    Irkutsk, 6-8 June
    The seminar is the second in a series of five events on the ombudsman institution to be held in the Russian Federation. The Irkutsk seminar brought together legislators and NGO representatives from 23 Subjects in the east of the Russian Federation, and the aim was to provide a forum for discussion of the possibilities offered by the office of a parliamentary Ombudsman. It was organised in cooperation with the regional Human Rights Commissioner of Irkutsk and the "Strategy" centre of St Petersburg.

    Seminar on the ombudsman institution.
    29-30 June, Yerevan
    The seminar provided a forum for discussion of the role of the Ombudsman institution in a democratic society and the possibilities of creating such in institution in Armenia. Organised in cooperation with the Armenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

    25-27 September, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation
    Intensive workshop on preparing legislation, as well as other basic documents and procedures, for the establishment of a regional parliamentary ombudsman institution in North Caucasus. The workshop was organised in co-operation with the Strategy Centre in St. Petersburg and the Institute of Civilisation in Vladikavkaz.

    29 October, Skopje
    Consulting seminar on the ombudsman institution to present the recently established institution to a wide audience, including parliamentarians, ministry officials, judges, journalists, academicians, representatives of non-governmental organisations and the OSCE, the UNHCR and UNPREDEP. The seminar was organised in co-operation with the Ombudsman's office and focused on the work and role of the ombudsman in a democratic society, looking specifically at the situation in “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” and the intentions and priorities of the newly established office.

    2-4 December, Sarajevo
    Meeting with the OSCE, the Office of the High Representative, representatives of the Working Group on the establishment of an Ombudsman institution in Bosnia and Herzegovina and representatives of the Venice Commission to prepare legislation on the setting up of a Republika Srpska ombudsman, and discuss the role of this institution at the federal level and in the entities.

    3-4 December, Tirana
    Round-table meeting with parliamentarians and representatives of non-governmental organisations to look at the possibilities of establishing an ombudsman institution in Albania. The meeting was aimed at providing a forum for discussion of the prospects and preparations for the setting up of a non-judicial institution for the protection of human rights in Albania as well as the work and role of the ombudsman in a democratic society in general.

    Cooperation with non-governmental human rights organisations and human rights institutes
    Human Rights Forum for non-governmental organisations Tirana, 11 February
    The forum formed part of the public debate on the Constitutional process in Albania and looked, among other things, at rights to be included in the constitution. Organised in cooperation with the Albanian Human Rights Documentation Centre.

    Abolition of the death penalty
    17 September, Vilnius
    Conference on abolition of the death penalty, forming part of the year-long project “Death Penalty in Lithuania: From Retentionist Public Support to Abolitionist Well-Informed Opinion” run by the Lithuanian Centre for Human Rights. The conference aimed at bringing together participants from a wide spectrum of Lithuanian society, including the legal profession, parliamentarians, academia and the media, in order to discuss possible ways towards abolition in Lithuania, and to follow up the conference held in Vilnius on 11-12 July 1997. Organised in cooperation with the Lithuanian Centre for Human Rights.

    Training
    Seminar for judges and other officials from Central and Eastern Europe on the use of the European Convention on Human Rights in domestic law by national courts in the first instance, Luxembourg, 2-3 March
    The seminar drew on the experiences of judges from older member States of the Council of Europe and sought to illustrate the importance of the Convention as a living instrument to be applied on a day-to-day basis by judges in domestic courts. Organised in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice of Luxembourg and the European Institute of Public Administration.

    4.2 Legal co-operation

    The legal status of Non-Governmental Organisations, Strasbourg, 23-25 March
    The aim of the meeting was to reinforce civil society and consolidate pluralistic democracy in partner countries by promoting, in particular, the implementation of a legal framework enabling the development and reinforcement of NGOs, to encourage the international recognition of NGOs in the light of the European Convention on the recognition of the legal personality of International non-governmental organisations and to create awareness among the participants of the advantages of adhesion to this Convention by most States.

    The guarantees of the independence of judges - evaluation of judicial reform
    Budapest, 13-15 May
    Following the first meeting held in September 1997 in Neuchâtel on the role, powers and status of associations, the Presidents and members of the Associations of Judges of the countries of central and eastern Europe met together at the invitation of the Association of Judges of Hungary, on 13-15 May, in Budapest, to discuss the guarantees of the independence of judges. Their aim was to evaluate the progress in judicial reform accomplished in their respective countries concerning, in particular, the selection and recruitment of judges, their disciplinary regime, their remuneration and their pension system, as well as their training.
    During the meeting the participants expressed a great interest in continuing the meetings between associations with the support of the Council of Europe and within the framework of legal cooperation.

    Second multilateral meeting on the statute for Judges in Europe
    Strasbourg, 8-10 July

    The aim of the meeting was to discuss the draft European Charter n the statute for judges, elaborated on the basis of the conclusions adopted following the first multilateral meeting (Strasbourg, 9-11 July 1997).
    The Charter, adopted at the end of the meeting, includes the following chapters: 1. General principles 2. Selection, recruitment, initial training 3. Appointment and irremovability 4. Career development 5. Liability 6. Remuneration and social welfare 7.Termination of office.
    The explanatory memorandum specifies the provisions of the Charter.

    Multilateral meeting on "Forensic expertise – Quality Assurance and Education" - Cracow (Poland), 24-26 June
    This activity was aimed at directors of national institutes or laboratories who are in charge of forensic expertise.
    The aim of the meeting was to analyse and examine problems linked to the quality of the expertise used in judicial proceedings as well as exchanging one's experiences of education in this matter.

    The Supreme Court and the administration of justice : Fourth meeting of the Presidents of the Supreme Courts of the countries of central and eastern Europe, Kyiv, 12-14 October
    At the fourth meeting held within the framework of the programmes of legal Co-operation of the Council of Europe in Kyiv, the Presidents and judges of the Supreme Courts of central and eastern Europe discussed the theme : " The Supreme Court and the administration of justice".
    During the discussions on the administration of courts in general and of the Supreme Court in particular, the participants agreed on the need to conduct research into new rules, in order to allow judges to manage the influx of cases more efficiently, while respecting the fundamental right of the citizen to an independent and impartial judge, according to the requirements of the European Convention on Human Rights.

    4.3 Transfrontier cooperation

    Colloquy on the promotion of transfrontier co-operation between the Republic of Moldova, Romania and Ukraine, Izmail (Ukraine), 24-25 February
    The main themes concerned the legal competencies and experiences of Moldovan, Romanian and Ukrainian local and regional authorities of transfrontier co-operation, the principles of the European Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation between Territorial Communities or Authorities, transfrontier crossing points and infrastructure, environmental concerns and possibilities to establish transfrontier links in the economic field. The possibility of creating Euroregions was also discussed. Following the discussions at the colloquy, a mixed Commission on the promotion of transfrontier co-operation was created between the central and regional authorities of Moldova, Romania and Ukraine.

    Seminar on transfrontier co-operation between local and regional authorities, Rychnov nad Kneznou (Czech Republic) and Kudowa Zdroj (Poland), 26-27 March
    Topics discussed included a general evaluation of transfrontier co-operation between the Czech Republic and Poland and the particular working experience of the Euroregion Glacencis. Discussion was held on the obstacles to transfrontier co-operation, problems of the protection of the environment in frontier areas, improvement in co-operation in the event of disasters, in particular floods, at local level, and arrangements for the economic development of border zones (special economic zone of Walbrzych). A declaration was adopted at the end of the seminar where the participants welcomed the announcement made by the Czech authorities of their intention to sign the Outline Convention and addressed a series of measures to improve transfrontier co-operation.

    Seminar on Decentralised transfrontier co-operation between frontier local authorities of Albania and Greece, held in Korça (Albania) and in Florina (Greece), 12-13 May
    The programme consisted of introducing the principles of the European Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation between Territorial Communities or Authorities; general requirements, including a national legal framework, for the promotion of Albanian-Greek transfrontier relations; visa requirements and the number of checkpoints; perspectives for transfrontier co-operation in the field of economic development, trade and environmental protection and in establishing contacts across the frontier.
    At the close of the seminar an interregional committee was created, composed of representatives of the Prefecture of Korça (Albania) and the Region of Western Macedonia (Greece), with a view to promoting transfrontier co-operation across the frontier.

    Seminar on Transfrontier Co-operation in Murmansk (Russian Federation) and in Kirkenes (Norway)
    16-18 June

    The seminar gathered local, regional and national representatives of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Russian Federation. The objectives of the seminar were to discuss different aspects of transfrontier co-operation between local and regional authorities, such as the legal framework of transfrontier co-operation, including the European Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation and the possibilities of stepping up transfrontier co-operation in order to promote economic development and explore solutions to environmental concerns in the Murmansk region and to encourage and further relations between the Russian/Finnish/Norwegian/Swedish frontier regions.
    A Declaration was adopted at the end of the Seminar, inviting the central authorities to intensify the regional environmental, economic and cultural co-operation along the common border in order to promote a balanced development in these areas.

    National Conference on transfrontier co-operation
    Skopje, "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", 11 September

    The Conference had the purpose of raising awareness in transfrontier issues and introducing the European Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation between Territorial Communities or Authorities to the national as well as local and regional authorities of the "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".

    Conference on transfrontier co-operation around the Baltic Sea : Realities and Perspectives
    Klaipeda , 1-2 October

    The key issues were the transfrontier experiences of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus and Kaliningrad, the role of Euroregions in furthering stability and prosperity in the Baltic region, the impact of EU enlargement on transfrontier co-operation and the local and regional government reforms in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.
    A declaration was adopted at the end of the conference expressing the political will of the participants to develop further transfrontier co-operation across the States of the Baltic region.

    Conference on Transfrontier Co-operation between local and regional authorities of Turkey and Bulgaria Edirne, Svilengrad, 19-20 October
    The themes of the Conference were the legal basis for transfrontier co-operation, various aspects of transfrontier co-operation for economic development and perspectives for promoting transfrontier co-operation in the fields of environmental protection, culture, education and in building sustainable contacts across the frontier.
    Results included :
    - the decision to establish a transfrontier commission made up of local and regional authorities with working groups in various fields of activity.
    - the Turkish authorities have requested the Secretariat to prepare a draft Protocol of agreement for the new commission.
    - the proposal to create a transfrontier nature park across the Bulgarian-Turkish border was accepted (the Strandja Park).
    A joint declaration was adopted at the end of the meeting encompassing these issues and others.

    Information seminar on transfrontier co-operation between local and regional authorities
    Tirana, 19 November

    The major themes were the principles of the Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation, the experience of Albanian local authorities in establishing transfrontier contacts with their counterparts in Italy, "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia " and Greece, as well as certain obstacles to transfrontier co-operation.

    Workshop between Bulgarian and Romanian local and regional authorities
    Rousse, Bulgaria, 15 December

    The purpose of the workshop was to follow-up the activities implemented in accordance with the Declaration adopted at the conference held in Rousse and Turnu Magurele in September 1997. The major issues concerned concrete proposals, projects and agreements to develop transfrontier co-operation and to establish a transfrontier co-operation body.
    A declaration was adopted at the end of the workshop for setting a timetable for the preparation of a transfrontier agreement and a statute to create a Euroregion across the Danube. It was decided that a working group should be established, which will define the key elements that will appear in the texts.

    4.4 Media

    The coverage of elections by the media, Kyiv, 12-13 January
    The seminar was aimed at presenting how the coverage of elections by the media is regulated and monitored in other European countries, as well as discussing practical ways of reporting on election campaigns in the day-to-day work of journalists, in the perspective of the forthcoming general elections in Ukraine.

    The regulation of public service broadcasting, Tirana, 21-22 April
    The seminar was aimed at presenting the principles which govern the establishment and operation of an independent service broadcasting organisation (remit and structures), as well as the different ways of funding such an organisation, in the perspective of the adoption of a new Broadcasting Law in Albania.

    Seminar for magistrates and lawyers on freedom of expression, Zagreb, 22-23 April
    The aim of the seminar was to present the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights concerning a number of questions of interest to magistrates and lawyers in Croatia: defamation and criticism of public figures, the protection of journalists' sources of information, access to information, hate speech.

    The Council of Europe standards in the media field , Moscow, 14-15 October
    The aim of the conference was to present the case-law developed by the European Court of Human Rights on Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights to media professionals from the different regions of the Russian Federation, as well as to discuss the situation of the media in this country in regard to the Council of Europe standards.

    Media concentrations and media transparency in the Baltic States, Vilnius, 6-7 November
    The aim of the seminar was to discuss the situation of media concentrations in the Baltic countries and to present possible ways of limiting the development of the concentration phenomenon, via regulatory or other measures, so as to safeguard media pluralism.

    The regulation of the press in a democratic society, Baku, 10-11 November
    The aim of the seminar was to present the standards which govern the regulation of the press in a democracy, as well as to raise awareness about the value of self-regulatory measures adopted by media professionals themselves, as an alternative to regulation.

    The regulation of broadcasting, Tallinn, 12-13 November
    The seminar was aimed at presenting the way in which both public service and commercial broadcasting organisations are regulated in other European countries (rules concerning the remit, structures and funding of public service broadcasters, the granting of licences to private broadcasters and the monitoring of compliance by broadcasters with the law and their licence), in the perspective of the revision of the Estonian Broadcasting Law.

    5 Partial agreements

    5.1 Social Development Fund1

    Accessions
    - Estonia, 1 April
    - Hungary, 10 March
    - Latvia, 14 September
    - Moldova, 4 May
    - Poland, 17 August
    - Slovak Republic, 22 December

    The Fund Bodies met as follows :

    Administrative Council
    - 192nd meeting, 28 January
    - 193rd meeting, 26-27 March
    - 194th meeting, 14-15 May
    - 195th meeting, 15 June
    - 196th meeting, 21-22 September
    - 197th meeting, 26-27 November

    Governing Board
    - 154th meeting, 3 April
    - 155th meeting, 15 June
    - 156th meeting, 14 December

    Joint Meeting
    - 33rd Joint Meeting of the Governing Board and the Administrative Council, 16 June

    Executive Committee
    - 25th meeting, 28 January
    - 26th meeting, 26 March
    - 27th meeting, 14 May
    - 28th meeting, 15 June
    - 29th meeting, 7 July
    - 30th meeting, 21 September
    - 31st meeting, 26 October
    - 32nd meeting, 26 November

    Administrative Council, 192nd meeting, 28 January
    New loan requests
    The Administrative Council approved four new loan requests totalling XEU 352 million:
    Italy Loan request from the Cassa di Risparmio delle Provincie Lombarde S.p.A, Milan, for a global disbursement programme in the field of social housing throughout Italy (ITL 50 billion = XEU 25.7 million)
    Germany Loan request from Commerzbank for a global disbursement programme throughout Germany in the fields of health, education, environment and improvement of living conditions in disadvantaged urban areas (DEM 200 million =XEU 101 million)
    - Loan request from Landesanstalt für Aufbaufinanzierung for a global disbursement programme in the field of vocational training in Bavaria (DEM 400 million = XEU 202.4 million).
    Malta Loan request from Mid-Med Bank for a global disbursement programme in the field of job-creation in small and medium-sized enterprises throughout Malta (LML 10 million = XEU 22.9 million).

    Manual for the preparation and monitoring of projects
    The Administrative Council thanked the Governor and his staff for the new projects Handbook coming into use on 15 February.

    Administrative Council, 193rd meeting 26 - 27 March
    1997 financial year
    The Administrative Council recommended the approval of the balance-sheet, the profit and loss account and the notes appended to the financial statements of 31 December 1997, discharged the Governor from any responsibility for the 1997 financial year and allocated the net profits for the financial year 1997 (XEU 81 598 367) as follows : XEU 5 000 000 to the Selective Trust Account, XEU 76 598 376 to the General Reserve.

    New loan requests
    The Administrative Council approved 8 loan requests totalling XEU 346 000 000
    Belgium Loan request from the Crédit Communal de Belgique for a global loan in the field of social housing, environment protection infrastructures, health and education (BEF 1 billion = XEU 24 642 600).
    Croatia Loan request from the Government of Croatia for the improvement of health infrastructures in Eastern Slavonia (HRK 172.744.129 = XEU 24 793 910)
    - Loan request from the Government of Croatia for the reconstruction of infrastructures in the field of education in Eastern Slavonia (HRK 67.368.000 = XEU 9 669 307)
    For the two projects, the Administrative Council noted that the Fund would ensure a very close follow-up of the terms and conditions of the project, in conformity with the undertaking of the Croatian Government that "the proposed programme of reconstruction aims at facilitating the return and peaceful reintegration of displaced people, at present living in other parts of the country or abroad, to their homes, without any sort of discrimination as to their ethnic origins", as well as the use of the funds before further disbursement. In its follow-up the Fund will ensure close co-operation with the Council of Europe, EBRD, the UNHCR, OSCE and especially the World Bank because of its important activity in the health sector. The pledge of the Croatian Government would be included in the loan contract as well as in the project monitoring process. The pledge of the Croatian Government would be included in the loan contract as well as in the project monitoring process.
    For the school rehabilitation project, the Administrative Council stressed the importance that these schools should be open to all ethnic groups without discrimination, as pledged by Croatia, and that the curriculum of these schools should include minority education programmes.
    The Administrative Council approved interest subsidies of 50 bp for the duration of the loan; in six to twelve months, the possibility of a higher subsidy would be examined.
    Cyprus Loan request from the Government of Cyprus for the construction of a new hospital complex in Nicosia (CYP 30.500.000 = XEU 52 636 575)
    Iceland Loan request from the City of Reykjavik, submitted by the Government of Iceland for a programme of building and renovation of (ISK 3.585.939.000 = XEU 45 146 073)
    Italy Loan request from the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro S.p.A, Rome (Italy) for a global loan programme throughout Italy for the construction of social housing, job creation, health and education, environment protection, rural modernisation, social infrastructures aimed at improving living conditions in disadvantaged urban areas, reconstruction work in areas affected by the earthquake (Marches and Umbria), protection and rehabilitation of the historic heritage involving job creation (ITL 150 milliards = XEU 78 065 000).
    - Loan request from the Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena S.p.A, Siena, Italy for a global loan programme throughout Italy for the financing of projects in the fields of the creation of reception centres for refugees and migrants, the reconstruction of regions affected by natural disasters, construction of social housing, environment protection, education and health, basic infrastructures in disadvantaged urban areas, job creation in SMEs, and rural modernisation (ITL 100 milliards = XEU 51 291 000)
    Spain Loan request from Dexia Banco Local, S.A., Madrid, submitted by the Spanish Government for a global loan programme throughout Spain concerning reconstruction work in regions affected by natural disasters, aiming at improving the quality of life in urban and rural areas, environment protection (ESP 10 milliards = XEU 59 642 600).

    Administrative Council - 194th meeting (14-15 May)
    Approval of 6 new loan requests totalling ECU 427.754.000
    France Loan request from the Caisse Nationale de Crédit Agricole for a global disbursement programme in the field of job creation, environment protection, health, education, rural modernisation and social housing (FF 2 000 000 000) ;
    Germany Loan request from the Deutsche Ausgleichsbank (DtA) for a global disbursement programme in the field of health and education infrastructures (DEM 150 000 000) ;
    San Marino Loan requests from the Government of San Marino for three projects in the fields of natural disaster prevention, environment protection and health protection (ITL 12 000 000 000, ITL 4 500 000 000 and ITL 21 000 000 000 respectively) ;
    Malta Request for modification of a previously approved project and increase of the loan from the Government of Malta concerning the construction of Tal Qroqq hospital (MLT 26 000 000).

    Administrative Council, 195th meeting (15 June)
    Approval of 14 new loan requests totalling ECU 440.3 million:
    Belgium A loan request for a global disbursement programme in the fields of health and education infrastructures and social housing (BEF 2 000 000 000)
    Germany Loan request from the Land of Berlin, for a programme in the fields of aid to refugees and displaced persons in favour of Bosnian refugees returning to their country (ECU 1 800 000). The Administrative Council approved the project with an interest subsidy from the Selective Trust Account of 300 bp.
    Hungary Loan request from the Hungarian Development Bank, Budapest, for a global disbursement programme in the fields of environment protection, rural modernisation, health, job creation in SME's, protection and rehabilitation of the historic heritage (ECU 40 000 000).
    Italy Three loan requests for global disbursement programmes in the fields of basic infrastructures for refugees and migrants, reconstruction of areas hit by natural disasters, public health, social housing, environment protection, job creation in SME's, aid to refugees and migrants, education, and social infrastructures designed to improve living conditions in disadvantaged urban areas (total ITL 400 000 000 000).
    Portugal One loan request for a global disbursement programme in the fields of environment protection, rural modernisation, protection and rehabilitation of the historic heritage, reconstruction of areas hit by natural disasters, social housing and job creation in SME's (PTE 10 000 000 000).
    Slovenia Loan request from the Slovenian Development Corporation, Regional Development Fund of the Republic of Slovenia and Housing Fund of the Republic of Slovenia, for a programme concerning natural disasters (SIT 959 000 000). The Administrative Council approved the project with an interest rate subsidy of 50 bp.
    Spain Five loan requests for global disbursement programmes in the fields of social housing, job creation, environment protection, rural modernisation and health (total ESP 11 400 000 000)
    Loan request from the Government of Spain – Confederacion Hidrografica del Guadalquivir - for the reparation of an ecological disaster - Donaña (ESP 4 500 000 000).

    Administrative Council, 196th meeting, 21-22 September
    New loan requests
    The Administrative Council approved four new loan requests totalling ECU 340 500 000:
    Germany Loan request from Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau for aid to refugees and displaced persons returning voluntarily to Bosnia and Herzegovina from the Land of Baden-Württemberg (DEM 5 000 000, = ECU 2 539 000, with an interest subsidy of 300 bp from the STA).
    Spain Loan request from Banco Popular Espanol for a multi-sectoral global disbursement loan programme (ESP 10 bn, = ECU 59 799 000) ;
    Loan request from Banco Santander for a multi-sectoral global disbursement loan programme (ESP 40 bn, = ECU 238 787 000)
    Loan request from Ibercaja-Zaragoza for a multi-sectoral global disbursement loan programme (ESP 6.6 bn, = ECU 39 400 000)
    Cyprus The Administrative Council further approved a modification request involving an increase by CYP 2 000 000 (ECU 3 447 000) of the initial loan approved by the Administrative Council in favour of the Limassol Sewerage Board.
    The Administrative Council authorised the Governor to negotiate and raise until 31 December 1999 long-term loans to a total amount not exceeding 2 200 000 000 euros.
    The Administrative Council held discussions on the possible revision of accession conditions to the Fund, the use of global disbursement loan programmes, financial off-balance sheet items, utilisation of the Fund's Selective Trust Account for strengthening social cohesion, the future appointment of the Executive Committee and the interpretation of its terms of reference, and the functioning of the Autonomous Pension Fund.

    Administrative Council, 197th meeting, 26-27 November
    New loan requests
    The Administrative Council approved five new loan requests totalling ECU 114 556 000:
    Romania Loan request from the Government of Romania for the part- financing of social infrastructures for the prevention of natural disasters and rehabilitation of infrastructures damaged by the recent floods throughout Romania
    The Administrative Council approved an initial financing of ECU 20 000 000, with an interest subsidy of 150 bp, of the total loan requested of ECU 44 419 802, and indicated its readiness to examine additional financing for this project at a later stage.
    In approving the project, the Administrative Council invited the Secretary General and the Governor to examine possibilities to use part of the exceptional subsidy of up to 1.5 MECU for projects in the framework of activities relating to social cohesion within the Council of Europe to finance feasibility studies and technical assistance in the framework of the project.
    Spain Loan request by ARPROMA, Madrid, for the part-financing of the construction of a women's and children's hospital in Madrid, the reconstruction of the current administrative building of the Office of the Public Health Counsellor, the improvement of the accessibility of the hospital, the extension of parking spaces (ESP 6 329 million, = ECU 37 960 031);
    Loan request by Comunidad Autonoma de Andalucia, for the part-financing of a project to clean up the area affected by the contamination of the land bordering and the waters of the river Guadimar following the bursting of the retention dam of the Aznalcollar mining basin (ESP 8 000 million , = ECU 47 982 342);
    Loan request by CAJA BALEARES, Mallorca, for the part-financing of the installation of a global pipeline network for the pneumatic collection of solid urban waste in the historical centre of Palma de Mallorca (ESP 861 500 000 , = ECU 5 167 100);
    The Administrative Council further approved a modification request involving an increase by CYP 2 000 000 (ECU 3 447 000) of the initial loan approved by the Administrative Council in favour of the Limassol Sewerage Board (Cyprus).
    The Administrative Council approved the administrative budget for 1999, for a total of 17 083 000 euros.
    The Administrative Council decided to allocate an exceptional subsidy of up to 1.5 MECU, covering a maximum period of 2 years, which is intended for project preparation and project support in the framework of activities relating to social cohesion within the Council of Europe. The Fund's contribution should clearly be directed towards specific projects which are focused on areas falling within the Fund's high priority objectives and in line with Article II of the Articles of Agreement. The Administrative Council stressed that this amount should be used for project generating studies and not for general studies, and that no new bureaucracy should be created. The Administrative Council agreed that an initial follow-up report on the social cohesion subsidy plan would be presented by the Secretary General and the Governor in six months' time, and subsequently on a yearly basis.
    It discussed the status of the Autonomous Pension Fund, property questions, the Fund for General Banking Risks and the situation of the reserves, the report by the Working Party on the Future Appointment of the Executive Committee and interpretation of its terms of reference and the intermediary report of the Working Party on General Staff Incentive Policy, and expressed its opinion on the appointment of members of the Auditing Board for 1999.

    Governing Board, 154th meeting, 3 April
    The Governing Board approved the annual report, the accounts and other financial statements for 1997, discharged the Administrative Council of its responsibility for the 1997 financial year and endorsed the distribution of the 1997 net results by the Administrative Council.

    Governing Board, 155th meeting (15 June)
    The Governing Board examined, in preparation of the Joint Meeting, the Follow-up of the recommendations of the Second Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe Member States, the Selective Trust Account and the update of the medium-term Development plan and had preliminary discussions regarding the adaptation of the financial structure of the Fund and of the Fund's structures and procedures. It further discussed the conditions of membership for new member countries, and called for candidatures for the election of the Chairman of the Governing Board due in December 1998.

    Governing Board, 156th meeting (14 December)
    The Governing Board :
    - elected Mr. Kari Nars, the current Chairman of the Administrative Council, as the Chairman of the Governing Board for the term of three years;
    - elected the member for Slovenia, Ambassador Magdalena Tovornik as the Governing Board's Vice-Chairperson for a two year period ending on 14 December 2000;
    - decided to open at its April meeting a procedure for the election of the Chair of the Administrative Council and to fix the deadline for presenting the candidatures at 28 May 1999, with a view to electing the Chairman at the occasion of the Joint Meeting in Slovenia, on 28 June 1999. From 1 April to 28 June 1999 the Vice-Chair of the Governing Board would act as chairperson of the Governing Board;
    - appointed the members of the Auditing Board for 1999, following the rotation scheme adopted at its 149th meeting;
    - noted with satisfaction the Administrative Council's decision to make an exceptional grant of up to ECU 1.5 million to joint projects with the Council of Europe in the social cohesion field;
    - confirmed the maintenance of the Fund for General Banking Risks and decided to reclassify the Special Reserve by merging it with the General Reserve;
    - discussed the report of the Wise Persons, the follow-up of the 2nd Summit of the Council of Europe, aspects of the Fund's budget for 1999, the financial situation and the conditions of accession for new members.

    Governing Board and Administrative Council, 33rd Joint Meeting (16 June)
    The Organs discussed the follow-up of the recommendations of the Second Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe member States, the Fund's development plan, situation of the Fund's reserves and evolution of its capital.

    5.2 Social and Public Health2
    Accessions
    - Cyprus, 1 September
    On 9 June Estonia, Iceland, Latvia and Lithuania were granted observer status with the Committee on the Rehabilitation and Integration of People with Disabilities (CD-P-RR).

    Public health
    Public Health Committee(CD-P-SP)
    61st session 25 June
    62nd session 3 December
    At these meetings the CD-P-SP reviewed its work programme and that of its subordinate committees.

    Committee of Experts on Pharmaceutical Questions
    The Committee, during its 41st meeting (London, 21-24 April), continued its work on the following issues:
    - Harmonisation of regulations, updating of the list of warning phrases for certain categories of medicines and the list of excipients to be declared (updating of Resolutions AP (95) 1, (95) 2 and (96) 1).
    - Exchange of information on: pharmacovigilance, generic medicines, vitamin products, importation of unregistered medicines, clinical pharmacy, pharmacists' role in the choice, use, validation and vigilance of medical devices, and the field of "prescriptions" (requirements applying to them, problems of validity from one country to another, transmission of prescriptions to the pharmacy).
    - The Committee progressed on the study of the subject "information technologies applying to the provision of pharmaceutical services”. A presentation of the potential advantages of these new technologies in the context of the British National Health Service was given.

    Committee of Experts on Cosmetic Products
    The Committee, during its 29th meeting (The Hague, 11-15 May), continued its work on the following issues:
    - The final report on the classification of "borderline" products (cosmetic products -medicines – foodstuffs) is being drafted, and the report on "Plant and plant preparations used as ingredients of cosmetic products", classifying these substances in three categories, is under revision.
    - The current work programme includes several new activities, i.e., the studies on drugs and other active substances used in cosmetics and on allergenic reactions caused by cosmetic ingredients, the report on the use of essential oils in cosmetics, as well as the proposal of harmonisation of regulations on advertising and claims on cosmetics.

    Committee of experts on medicines subject to prescription
    At its 24th meeting, in Brussels, 10-11 February, the Committee completed the annual revision, for publication purposes (1998 edition), of the Appendices to Resolution AP (95) 1 on the classification of medicines which are obtainable only on medical prescription (superseding Resolution AP (89) 3); these Appendices set out, on the one hand, an alphabetical list of active principles, their pharmaco-therapeutic classification and their anatomical-therapeutic-chemical classification and, on the other hand, recommendations on their classification as regards the renewal of medical prescription.
    Resolutions AP (95) 1 and AP (95) 2 on warning phrases for certain categories of medicines are under revision, and the proposals for it will be discussed at the autumn meeting of the Committee.

    Committee of experts on nutrition, food safety and consumer health
    The Committee had its 1st meeting in February. Its work programme includes :
    - energy drinks
    - the contribution of diet to the incidence of cancer
    - the protective function of food against cancer
    - food supplements and food habits
    - health costs and nutrition
    - the effectiveness of nutrition programmes in hospitals.

    Forum on Functional Food, Strasbourg, 1-2 December
    The aims of the Forum were :
    - to provide the platform for governmental experts, the scientific community, the food industry, consumer branch organisations to exchange ideas and interact on functional food;
    - to enable the Committee of experts on nutrition, food safety and consumer health to provide the national authorities responsible for public health in the member States of the Partial Agreement, as well as the food industry and the consumer, with guidelines on functional food.

    Publications
    - Proceedings of the Seminar on "The Pharmacist and the challenge of new social trends" (Strasbourg, October 1995). - ISBN 92-871-3628-9
    - Guidelines for flavouring preparations produced by plant tissue culture. - ISBN 92-871-3738-2
    - Proceedings of the Forum on Functional Food
    - Appendices to the Resolution AP (95) 1 on the classification of medicines obtainable only on medical prescription. - 1998 edition

    Integration of people with disabilities
    21st session of the Committee on the Rehabilitation and Integration of People with disabilities (CD-P-RR), Oslo, 9-12 June
    The Committee
    - issued a declaration on its contribution to the follow-up to both the Action Plan and the Final Declaration of the Second Summit of the Council of Europe ;
    - extended the terms of reference of its Committee of experts on the impact of new technologies on the quality of life of persons with disabilities;
    - decided to draw up a Resolution on accessibility of houses and the built environment;
    - launched a new initiative to prevent and combat violence against and abuse of persons with disabilities.

    Working Group on employment strategies for persons with disabilities
    3rd session, 4-6 March
    The Working Group reviewed the measures on vocational guidance and training described in the responses to the questionnaire on employment strategies.
    It held two hearings: one with management and labour, the other with NGOs on their respective role and responsibilities in this field.

    Follow-up to the Committee of experts for the application of the WHO International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH) (P-RR-CI)
    Publications
    - The use and usefulness of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH) in relation to the elderly
    - Resolution AP (95) 3 on a Charter on the vocational assessment of people with disabilities, and glossary
    - Use and Usefulness of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH) for the education of children with impairments or disabilities
    - The Use and usefulness of the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH) in the maintenance of people with disabilities at home and in their communities
    - Literature Review on the WHO International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH) and rehabilitation of people with disabilities

    5.3 European Department for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM)3
    http://www.pheur.org

    Accessions
    The Czech Republic adhered to the European Pharmacopoeia Convention by depositing its instrument of ratification with the Council of Europe on 19 March. By virtue of the provisions of the European Pharmacopoeia Convention, the Czech Republic became a full member of the European Pharmacopoeia Convention as from 20 June. Consequently, the number of Parties to the Convention is now of 27, i.e. the Commission of the European Communities, representing the European Union, 25 Member-States of the Council of Europe and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    European Pharmacopoeia Commission, 100th session, 17 - 19 March
    At this hundredth meeting, which marked the enduring activity and vitality of the Commission, a special effort was made to promote communications: a visit of the premises was organised for the permanent representatives of the Council of Europe, the professional press and the national delegations of the Commission and this was followed by a press conference; a press release was published in all the languages of the member States of the European Pharmacopoeia.
    During this session, a new Chair was elected for a term of three years. New monographs were adopted and many were revised; these texts will be released in the prepublications brochure two months after the session and will later be included in the next supplement of the 3rd Edition of the European Pharmacopoeia.

    Session, 23 - 25 June
    The Czech Republic attended its first session as a full member with the other delegations (26 member States of the Council of Europe plus the delegation of the Commission of the European Communities representing the European Union). Ukraine also participated for the first time, as an observer. More than 27 monographs and general texts were adopted.

    Session, 17 - 19 November
    Nearly 180 new or revised monographs and general texts were adopted.

    International conference, 5 - 6 May
    This symposium was dedicated to the quality of animal sera used in the preparation of pharmaceuticals. More than 200 experts representing 21 countries, of which the United States, New Zealand and Cuba, have participated in this meeting.

    Annual meeting of the European network of official medicines control laboratory (OCML), Montpellier, France, 29 September - 1 October
    The objective of this seminar, which brought together almost 70 representatives of official national control laboratories representing 21 European countries (members of the European Union, the EEA, member and observer countries of the European Pharmacopoeia Commission, joined by observers from, inter alia, Canada and Australia) was to carry out an overview of annual activities and to establish the work programme for 1999. These collaborative studies are organised by the EDQM and serve as reliable indicators of the quality of pharmaceutical products on the European Market.

    International conference on the international harmonisation of pharmaceutical dosage forms,
    Seville, Spain, 26 - 27 October

    The conference brought together representatives of the world pharmaceutical industries, the licensing authorities, and the pharmacopoeias of Europe, Japan and the United States.

    OMCL network
    Within the framework of the OMCL network, the yearly meeting dedicated to biological products (in particular the batch release procedure) for human vaccines and blood products, took place in April. Moreover, a meeting on quality assurance systems was organised in May on the subject “Quality audits".

    Other meetings
    The European Department for the Quality of Medicines participated in meetings of the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA): Quality Working Party, Biotech Working Party, Immunological Working Party. The representatives of the EDQM also participated in the meeting of the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG) in Washington (9-11 February) which brought together representatives of the United States and Japanese pharmacopoeias to develop a programme for collaboration and international harmonisation.

    Publications
    - List of standard terms for dosage, forms of medicines, routes of administration and containers
    This list has been translated into fifteen European languages and covers all the terms for medicines for human and veterinary use.
    - 1999 supplement to the 3rd Edition of the European Pharmacopoeia
    (contains all texts adopted or revised in 1997)

    - CD-ROM 1999 supplement to the 3rd edition of the European Pharmacopoeia

    5.4 Pompidou Group4
    Estonia acceded to the Partial Agreement on 1 July.

    Permanent Correspondents, 42nd Meeting, 26 – 27 October
    The Correspondents agreed to launch five projects in the field of prevention, treatment and harm reduction :
    - Women and drug abuse - guidelines will be developed based on existing studies
    - Compulsory treatment of drug addiction
    - Handbook on HIV prevention and risk reduction for intravenous drug users
    - Handbook on outreach work among young drug users focusing on project planning and implementation of early intervention strategies including case studies
    - Pregnancy and substance dependence / drug misuse: A consultant study analysing the state of research projects in evaluating existing treatment programmes in order to develop a medical and psychosocial treatment model especially adapted to drug dependent pregnant women.

    Follow-up planning conference of the Demand-Reduction Staff Training Programme,
    29-30 January, Strasbourg

    The conference reviewed the evaluation material on this 3-year programme and agreed priorities for future training needs in the 12 countries of central and eastern Europe involved and outline proposals for a follow-up project within the Pompidou Group. Together with a Management Committee meeting in Vienna on 13 March, the conference marked the completion of this project.

    Ad hoc conference on general aviation, 26-27 February, Strasbourg
    The Conference out to raise awareness of the problem of drug trafficking by non-commercial aircraft through an exchange of information on the risks involved and on measures taken in a number of countries to counter the threat. Proposals were adopted concerning the organisation of national responsibilities, co-operation with flying clubs and other professional groups, further specific risk assessment missions and a co-ordinated sub-regional law enforcement operation.

    Seminar on problems linked to ecstasy and other drugs taken in discotheques and places of leisure, San Marino, 26-27 March
    The conclusions call in particular for measures to monitor this type of drug use, research on specific questions such as neuro-toxicity and for the development of targeted prevention instruments.

    Committee of epidemiology experts on drug problems, 8-9 June
    The Committee adopted final reports on “Data concerning benzodiazepine and ecstasy use” and on “Heroin seizure indicators” as well as syntheses of the 1997 national reports and city reports.

    Annual Meeting of the Co-operation Group of drug control services at European airports,
    Prague, 16 - 18 September

    Statistics of drug seizures at European airports were presented.

    Seminar on Drug misusing offenders and the criminal justice system
    Strasbourg, 12 - 14 October

    The seminar was attended by 60 participants from 22 countries where the responses made by the judicial authorities in close co-operation with social and medical services were presented.

    INCB / Pompidou Group Conference on Control of Psychotropic Substances in Europe,
    Strasbourg, 7- 9 December

    A review of recent trends in the abuse of psychotropic substances and of psychoactive substances not under international control has been made. The adequacy of the national and international control systems, in particular, the scheduling mechanisms, in response to these new trends have to been studied in order to find measures to combat the diversion of psychotropic substances from licit distribution channels (manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers). Regulations regarding the prescription of psychotropic substances and their implementation, in particular those relating to stimulants used for the treatment of attention deficit disorder or as anorectics have been presented.

    Publications
    - Handbook : prevention ; alcohol, drugs and tobacco. - ISBN 09-74037-08-9, (available from the Secretariat of the Pompidou Group)
    This handbook was compiled by experts from the Jellineck Clinic with financial support from the Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sport and pilot-tested by the Pompidou Group working party. It contains practical guidelines for the planning and implementation of primary prevention projects
    - Pregnancy and drug misuse : proceedings of the Symposium (Strasbourg, 6-7 March 1997). - ISBN 92-871-3784-6
    - Drug misusing offenders and the criminal justice system - the period from the first contact with the police up to and including sentencing : proceedings of the Seminar (Strasbourg, 12-14 October 1998). - ISBN 92-871-3790-0
    - Minorities and drug misuse – consultant's report /Mr G.F. Van De WIJNGAART and M.F. LEENDERS. - P-PG/Minorities (98) 1
    5.5 EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement 5
    (Cooperation Group for the Prevention of, Protection against, and Organisation of Relief in Major Natural and Technological Disasters)

    Moldova acceded to the Partial Agreement on 8 January.

    Assistance to victims of the Chernobyl disaster
    In December (652/9.2), the Committee of Ministers, in its composition of the States members of the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Partial Agreement, examined proposals made by the Ukrainian Delegation and instructed the Secretariat to submit, on an indicative basis, the costs involved for the implementation of the various proposals and possible ways of funding them.

    Committee of Permanent Correspondents, 7th meeting, Paris, 30 June - 1 July
    The Committee, inter alia, approved the draft budget for 1999 and took note of the information concerning the implementation of the EDRIM project, aimed at setting up an experimental network of an electronic discussion group.

    STRIM Programme (European Programme on the use of Space Techniques for Major Risks Management),
    (Implementation of Resolution No.1 on the use of space technologies to assist risks management : STRIM Programme, adopted by the 7th Ministerial Meeting of the Agreement, 24-25 November 1997, in Monaco)

    Steering Group and Programme Committee meetings, Paris, 29 June
    The Programme Group appointed the Steering Group and appointed Professor Hubert Curien as chair of the STRIM Programme.
    Training group of the STRIM Programme, Paris, 4 May
    The aim of the meeting was to make an inventory of training programmes in Europe on the use of satellites for risks management

    Anti-personnel landmines
    (Implementation of Resolution No.2 on anti-personnel landmines and their humanitarian implications)
    11 May, meeting at the World Health Organisation (WHO) in Geneva, aiming at defining the cooperation between the European Center on Medicine related to Catastrophes (CEMEC) of the Agreement and the WHO on this theme.

    Specific Programmes
    13 May in Nainville les Roches and 8 June in Madrid, meetings aiming at defining the implementation of an electronic discussion group network between the Civil Protections of the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement.

    5.6 EURIMAGES6
    Romania acceded to the Partial Agreement on 29 May.
    In July (638/7.1), the Ministers' Deputies took note of the adoption of Resolution (98) 10 modifying Resolution (88) 15 by the Representatives on the Committee of Ministers of the States members of the European Support Fund for the Co-production and Distribution of Creative Cinematographic and Audiovisual Works (Eurimages).

    Board of Management
    53rd meeting, Rotterdam, 28-30 January
    The Board agreed to support 15 feature films and 2 documentaries for a total amount of 28,45 Million French Francs. Furthermore, support was awarded to 16 films to be distributed in 9 countries.
    54th meeting, Bratislava, 30 March - 1 April
    The Board agreed to support 13 feature films and 8 documentaries for a total amount of 28.51 Million French Francs. The list of films is given in the press release issued on 7 April.
    55th meeting, Helsinki, 22-24 June
    The Board agreed to support 8 feature films and 3 documentaries for a total amount of 22.56 Million French Francs. Furthermore, support was awarded to 30 films to be distributed in 7 countries.
    In order to better keep in touch with and meet the needs of professionals and the market, the Board of Management decided to create a Working Group which will examine a reform of selection procedures and the running of EURIMAGES.
    56th meeting, Lisbon, 14-16 September
    The Board agreed to support 14 feature films and three documentaries for a total amount of 28.92 Million French Francs. In addition, support was awarded to 33 films for distribution in 6 countries.
    57th meeting, Strasbourg, 23 - 25 November
    The Board agreed to support 10 feature films and one documentary for a total amount of 23.1 Million French Francs. In addition, support was awarded to 44 films for distribution in 9 countries.
    58th meeting (Annual policy meeting of the Fund), Paris, 14-15 December
    The purpose of the meeting was to define the policy outline for 1999. The Board of Management elected Mr Gianni Massaro (Italy) Chairman of Eurimages for a two-year term of office from 26 January 1999.

    Cannes Film Festival, 13- 24 May
    A film supported by Eurimages won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival :
    "Eternity and a Day" directed by Theo Angelopoulos is a Greek, French and Italian co-production.

    Working Group Reform
    The Working Group Reform met twice with a view to making proposals for the running of the three programmes paying particular attention to the coproduction selection procedures.

    Publications
    - New Eurimages Guide concerning the application form

    5.7 North-South Centre 7
    (European Centre for Global Interdependence and Solidarity)

    http://www.nscentre.org/

    See also Section 1.9 above - Global Solidarity Campaign

    The Holy See acceded to the Partial Agreement on 4 June.

    Statutory meetings
    - Bureau, Lisbon, 9 January
    - Meeting of the member States and the Executive Council, Sintra, Portugal, 12 - 13 June
    - Meeting of the North-South Centre Member States, Strasbourg, 12 October
    - Executive Council, Lisbon, 23-24 October

    North-South Prize
    On 23 October the 1998 North-South Prize was awarded to Mrs. Graça Machel, Chairman of Mozambique's National Organisation for Children and Mr. Lloyd Axworthy, Canadian Minister for Foreign Affairs.

    Conferences, seminars

    - Intergovernmental Round table on “Raising public awareness to international development - what strategy towards information, education and communication ?”, Ljubljana, 16 -17 January 

    - Euro-Mediterranean Round-Table on “Partnership for Co-operation and reconciliation”
    12-13 March, Strasbourg

    The objective of the round table was to assess the situation with the peace process and possibilities for the future through informal dialogue and to foster reconciliation by means of political, economic and cultural initiatives at grassroots level.

    - "Africa-Europe dialogue: a change for education" Project
    - Intercontinental round-table on education for international solidarity,
    Basle, Switzerland, 11 May

    - Exhibition of African teaching aids during the 1998 Worlddidac Fair, Basle, 12-15 May

    - General Assembly of the Standing Conference of Mediterranean Media, (Tunis, Tunisia). 18-21 April
    The North-South Centre was reelected to the Administrative Council.

    - North-South Media Encounters
    The North-South prize, awarded by the North-South Centre to the best production from the South, was given to the Madagascan film "Tahiry or Women's access to credit" by Véro Rabakoliafetra, Geneva, Switzerland, 4-8 May 

    - Expo'98
    Thematic weeks organised by the North-South Centre in collaboration with the Council of Europe in the Council of Europe Pavilion at Expo '98 (on the themes of "Communication", "Africa" and "The Mediterranean"), Lisbon, Portugal, 22 May - 18 June 

    - Lisbon Forum on The current state of human rights in Africa
    Lisbon, Portugal, 24-25 October

    - Plenary session of the European Youth Parliament on Drugs and Development, Strasbourg, 2 November
    Organised in co-operation with ENCOD and the Parliamentary Assembly
    - Conference "Beyond Lomé 2000", Vienna, Austria, 12-13 November
    Organised by Sud-Wind Agentur (Austria) in the framework of the Campaign against poverty and social exclusion.
    - Intergovernmental Round-table on "The new challenges for youth policies in the era of globalisation", Ljubljana, Slovenia, 15-16 November

    Publications
    - Guide de la coopération décentralisée en Méditerranée
    - The Interdependent (monthly)
    - Terra Viva (monthly)
    - Civil society and international development (in partnership with the Development Centre of the O.E.C.D)
    - leaflet presenting the North-South Centre
    - brochure presenting the North-South Centre
    - Partnerships in global education in secondary schools 
    - Lisbon Forum: the Great Lakes region: towards a new North-South dialogue
    5.8 European Commission for Democracy through Law8
    http://www.coe.fr/venice

    Kazakhstan obtained observer status with the Commission.

    34th Plenary meeting, Venice, 6-7 March
    The Commission :
    - adopted the report by Mr Scholsem on the Competence of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in penal matters and decided to forward it to the Minister of Justice of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
    - endorsed the draft law on the Ombudsman of the Republika Srpska and decided to forward it to the authorities of the Republika Srpska;
    - adopted the second progress report on co-operation with Croatia and decided to forward it to the Parliamentary Assembly;
    - agreed to provisional conclusions concerning the amendments to the Constitutional provisions of Albania and the suspension of the Albanian Constitutional Court which will serve as a basis for further discussion with the Albanian authorities;
    - adopted the consolidated report on Internal Security Services and decided to forward it to the Parliamentary Assembly;
    - adopted the opinion on the legal problems of the coexistence of the Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of the Community of Independent States and the European Convention on Human Rights and decided to forward it to the Parliamentary Assembly;
    - adopted the Annual Report of Activities for 1997 and decided to forward it to the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe.
    - decided, at the request of Mr Westendorp, the High Representative of the international community in Bosnia and Herzegovina, to study the questions
    - whether members of the Presidency needed to originate from the entity for which they were elected;
    - whether there should be two co-Presidents or only one Prime Minister in Bosnia and Herzegovina;
    - whether only the respective ethnic groups are constituent peoples of the entities or whether are all three groups are constituent in both entities.
    - decided, at the request of Mr Godo, Co-Chairman of the Albanian Parliamentary Commission for the drafting of the Constitution, to contact the Secretary General and the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe with a view to setting up a working group on real property in Albania in which the Commission would be represented.

    35th Plenary meeting, Venice, 12 - 13 June
    The Commission adopted the following reports and opinions:
    - opinion on Chapters I and II of the draft Constitution of Albania
    - Interim report on the structural and functional relations between the Ombudsman Institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina
    - opinion on the regulation of co-operation between the entities in Bosnia and Herzegovina
    - opinion on amendments to the Estonian Constitution concerning Estonia's accession to the European Union and on the question of the reform of the system of constitutional control in Estonia
    - opinion on the draft "Statute of Gagaouzia"
    - consolidated opinion on the draft laws on referendum and citizen initiative of "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"
    - Report on constitutional law and European Integration
    - Report on the legal foundations of foreign policy
    and took note of :
    - opinion on the number of tribunals to be established in Mostar established by Mr Scholsem
    - opinion of the Sub-Commission on Constitutional Reform on recent amendments to the law on major constitutional provisions of the Republic of Albania (CDL-INF (98) 9).

    36th Plenary meeting, Venice, 16 - 17 October
    37th Plenary meeting, Venice, 11 - 12 December
    The Commission :
    - took note with satisfaction that the draft Constitution presently examined by the Albanian Parliament is the fruit of close co-operation between the Venice Commission and the Constitutional Commission of Albania;
    - adopted, the following opinions concerning the constitutional regime of Bosnia and Herzegovina :
    - opinion on the competence of Bosnia and Herzegovina in electoral matters (CDL-INF (98) 16);
    - opinion on the creation of a Tribunal at the level of the State of Bosnia and Herzegovina (CDL-INF (98) 17);
    - opinion on appeals against decisions of the Human Rights Chamber of Bosnia and Herzegovina (CDL-INF (98) 18);
    - opinion on the Constitutionality of international agreements concluded by Bosnia and Herzegovina and its entities
    - expressed its readiness to study further requests by the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the delegation of powers between the entities and the State and on the process of transformation of international treaties into domestic law;
    - examined, on request from the Parliamentary Assembly, proposed amendments to the Bulgarian Law on the Judiciary and the Bulgarian Law on the Civil Service;
    - considered progress in its co-operation with Croatia with particular regard to the revision of the Constitutional law and the protection of human rights and the rights of national minorities;
    - decided to undertake a study of the issue of party financing and upon request by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, to continue its work concerning the Prohibition of Political Parties and Analogous Measures (CDL-INF (98) 14) with a view to drawing up guidelines or recommendations;
    - examined the constitutional aspects of the Kosovo crisis;
    - declared its readiness to assist Mozambique in its process of constitutional reform and decided to participate in an international conference on this issue;
    - considered its report on Constitutional Law and European Integration;
    The Commission also considered constitutional developments in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia, Georgia, Latvia, “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” and Ukraine.

    Conferences and seminars

    - Seminar on Equality, 1-2 February, Cape Town
    organised in co-operation with the Constitutional Court of South Africa
    - Round Table on "Functioning of the system of constitutional control"
    4-5 April, Sarajevo

    organised in co-operation with the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Office of the High Representative, the American Bar Association and the Phare Programme of the European Union.
    - UniDem seminar on "new trends in electoral law in a pan-European context" in co-operation with the University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, 18-19 April;
    - Workshop on Judicial independence and incompatibilities of the function of judge with other activities, Bishkek, 20-21 April
    - Conference on "Democratic Institutions and Civil Society in South-Eastern Europe" Strasbourg, 5-6 May
    organised at the proposal of the Greek Presidency of the Committee of Ministers and in co-operation with the Hellenic Institute for International relations of the Panteion University, Athens;
    - Exchange of views with the Constitutional Court of Armenia and with the Armenian authorities on Constitutional reform and in particular the introduction of individual complaint to the Constitutional court, Yerevan, 22-26 May;
    - Meeting on the Electoral Law of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Strasbourg, 25-26 May;
    - Workshop on the principles of constitutional control : techniques of constitutional and statutory interpretation in co-operation with USAID, Kiev, 5-6 June;
    - Meeting of the Sub-Commission on Constitutional Justice with Liaison Officers from Constitutional Courts and other equivalent bodies, Ljubljana, 15 June;
    - Meeting of the international advisers to the Constitutional Court of Croatia
    Zagreb, 15 June.

    - Unidem Seminar on "the principle of respect for human dignity in European case-law " in co-operation with the University of Montpellier, Montpellier, 2-6 July;
    - Meeting on the revision of the Constitution of Georgia with the Constitutional Commission of Georgia, Tbilissi, 14-15 July;
    - Meetings on the Kosovo crisis in Rome on 16 July and in Vienna on 21 August;
    - Meeting with a delegation from the Albanian Constitutional Commission on the draft Constitution on Albania, Rome, 17-18 July;
    - Meeting with the Office of the High Representative of the International Community of Bosnia and Herzegovina regarding the questions asked by Mr Westendorp, Heidelberg, 7 July;
    - UniDem Seminar on "Distribution of powers", Tbilissi and Baku, 7-12 September;
    - Meeting of the Working Group on the Ombudsman Institutions of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Lisbon, 14-15 September.

    - Conference with the South African Constitutional Court (1-3 October) and Workshop on the rationalisation of laws (13-14 October), Johannesburg
    Organised within the framework of the Programme “Democracy from the Law Book to Real Life”
    - Seminar on International Law and Domestic Law, Lviv, Ukraine, 7-8 October
    Organised in co-operation with USAID
    - UniDem seminar on “Constitutional developments in the Caucasian Republics : the Distribution of Powers", Yerevan, 13-14 October
    - Seminar on the Electoral Control by the Constitutional Court, Yerevan, 15-16 October
    - Meetings of the Working Group on the Ombudsman Institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Banja Luka, 22-23 October and Sarajevo, 2-4 December
    - Round Table on Constitutional Justice, Banja Luka, 23-24 October
    Organised, in co-operation with the American Bar Association and the Phare Programme of the European Union
    - Working Group on International Agreements in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Paris, 14 November
    - Meeting of the International Advisers to the Constitutional Court of Croatia
    Strasbourg, 15-16 December

    Publications
    Science and technique of Democracy series
    - Proceedings of the UniDem Seminar on Nationality and state succession (Vilnius, 16-17 May 1997)
    - Proceedings of the UniDem Seminar on The transformation of the Nation-State in Europe at the dawn of the 21st Century (Nancy, 6-8 November 1997)
    - Consequences of State succession for Nationality
    - Law and Foreign Policy
    Bulletin on Constitutional case-law
    - No. 98/1
    - Leading cases of the European Court of Human Rights;
    - Special edition : Basic Texts V

    5.9 Partial Agreement on the Youth Card9

    Accessions
    - Malta, 14 January
    - Croatia, 3 February

    Bureau, Paris, 19 June
    The Bureau prepared the programme for 1999 and discussed partnership with other organisations active in the field of youth mobility in Europe.

    Board of Coordination, Portugal, 21 November
    The Board adopted the 1999 programme and discussed various options how to enlarge the membership of the Partial Agreement.

    5.10 European Audiovisual Observatory 10
    http://www.obs.coe.int

    Executive Council
    5 February
    The Council approved the Second Draft 1998 Action Plan and Budget. The Council also took note of the Observatory's budget forecast for 1999, as well as an analysis of contributions and cost structure of the Observatory for the years 2000-2004. The main point of these documents is the need to increase member States' contributions in 1999 and again in 2000, to the maximum level approved in the “Cracow decision” to continue the activities of the Observatory.

    19 June
    The Council approved the Audit Committee's report on the 1997 financial exercise, decided to address the Council of Europe for assistance in determining appropriate measures to be taken against continued non-payment of Members' contributions, and agreed to allow the Chair of the Advisory Committee to be invited to meetings of the Executive Council to present the Committee's statutory Recommendation on the Observatory's annual Action Plan. It also approved a new Partner to the Observatory partnership network.

    16 November
    At this meeting the Council :
    - issued a statement assuring that the Observatory would be willing to co-operate with European Union bodies in data collecting, but would require the European Union to clarify the legal basis for its participation;
    - approved the 1999 Draft Action Plan and Draft Budget.
    The Observatory has been paying attention to the proposal before the Council of Ministers of the European Union to establish a “statistical infrastructure for the audiovisual sector”, as this proposal has been tied to the European Union providing a legal basis for the European Commission's participation in the Observatory's work and to its budget.

    Financial Committee, 23 February
    The Financial Committee adopted the Second Draft Budget 1998.

    Advisory Committee, 17 March
    The Committee expressed, in an opinion to the Executive Council, its anxiety over the funding of the Observatory and asked Mr. Jacques Briquemont to remain in the Chair until new elections for Chair could be held in the autumn.

    Conferences, seminars, workshops
    In March the Observatory held a conference and several specialised workshops on market and legal matters in Moscow, Russia, in co-operation with Russian partners and correspondents. The Observatory has also been present at the MILIA market (February) and the Berlin Film Festival (February).

    Cannes film festival, 13 - 24 May
    The Observatory was present in force during the Cannes film festival, taking the opportunity to launch several presentations. The Observatory having negotiated the insertion of a 40-page overview of the film and cinema market situation in major countries and territories in the Guide of the Marché International du Film, the Market Information Expert held a workshop on the same theme on May 14. He also gave an overview of “Current Market Trends” to the Conference on International Audiovisual Law, organised by the International Chamber of Commerce and with the Observatory as co-organiser. The Legal Adviser also participated in this conference (May 15-16), dedicated to the problems of co-production.
    On May 18 the Observatory and the French Centre National de la Cinématographie (CNC) presented their joint two-volume report on Public Aid Mechanisms for the Film and the Audiovisual Industry in Europe to 80 high-ranking representatives of the industry. The report will be available in French in June and in English and German in July.

    Publications
    - Iris - Legal Observations of the European Audiovisual Observatory (monthly)
    - Statistical Yearbook - Film, Television, Video and New Media in Europe
    - Public Aid Mechanisms for the Film and the Audiovisual Industry in Europe
    - Radio and Television Systems in Europe
    In collaboration with the Hans-Bredow-Institute for Radio and Television in Hamburg, a collection of 31 monographs extracted from the 1998/99 edition of the German-language publication Internationales Handbuch für Hörfunk und Fernsehen has been published by the Observatory in English in April under the title Radio and Television Systems in Europe. Restricted on-line access to the reports is scheduled as part of the overall development of charged/subscription-based on-line services of the Observatory.
    - Eurofiction report 1998 (a study of fiction production for television in seven European countries)

    5.11 European Centre for Modern Languages 11
    http://culture.coe.fr/ecml

    Iceland acceded to the Partial Agreement on 1 January.

    In May (632/7.1), the Ministers' Deputies:
    - took note of the evaluation report on the European Centre for Modern Languages (ECML) in Graz;
    - took note of the conclusions of the Governing Board of the ECML on the results of the evaluation of the Centre;
    - approved, subject to the decision to be taken subsequently on the continued existence of the ECML, the main lines of the Council of Europe's modern languages policy;
    - asked their Working Group on Partial Agreements (GT-AP) to examine the administrative and budgetary aspects of the operation of the ECML and the problem of financing its activities in the medium term, with a view to taking a decision on the continued existence of the Graz Centre at one of their forthcoming meetings.” 

    In July (638/7.3), the Ministers' Deputies, in their composition limited to the States Members of the Partial Agreement on the European Centre for Modern Languages, adopted Resolution (98) 11 confirming the continuation of the European Centre for Modern Languages.

    Governing Board
    6th meeting, 23-24 February
    The Board discussed :
    - the evaluation report on the activities and functioning of the Centre;
    - the future activities of the Centre.
    7th meeting, 8-9 October
    The Board examined :
    - co-operation with the Modern Languages Project of the CDCC;
    - Third Colloquy of the ECML;
    - general orientation and framework of the medium-term programme of activities;
    - programme of activities of the first semester of 1999;
    - draft resolution on the status of “partner” States.

    Bureau, 10th meeting, 10-11 September
    The main items on the agenda were :
    - financing of the autumn 1998 activities;
    - 1999 draft budget;
    - programme of activities of the first semester of 1999 and the medium-term programme (July 1999 - 2001).

    Conferences, seminars, workshops, training courses
    - 13 - 17 January, Graz, Workshop 1/98 : Modern Language Education in Primary Schools - an International Concern to be Implemented in National Contexts
    - 8-12 February, Graz, Workshop 2/98 : Piloting the Common European Framework of Reference in teacher training
    - 24-28 February, Graz, Workshop 3/98 : The Internet as a communication tool in the modern language classroom: developing strategies for effective implementation of the Internet as a communication and information tool
    - 10-14 March, Graz, Workshop 4/98 : Teacher training and exchange classes/language residency programmes
    - 7-11 April, San Julian, Malta, Workshop 5/98 : The specification of objectives for learner autonomy and cultural awareness within syllabus development at secondary level
    - 23-25 April, Graz, Austria: Workshop no. 6/98:Accommodating Linguistic Diversity in Europe - Promoting Unity and Harmony among European Peoples by Planning for the Conservation and Development of Lesser Used (regional or minority) Languages
    - 5-9 May, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina: Workshop no. 7/98, Methods for Facilitating Communicative Competence in a Multicultural Society
    Decentralised and co-financed follow-up activities are planned in various regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina (three per year on average)
    - 20-24 May, Graz, Austria: Workshop no. 8/98, Introduction to Language Policy: Methods of Analysis and Evaluation, Fields of Intervention
    This workshop was the second part of Workshop no. 12/97; it enabled a deepening of the themes related to training experts for language planning and language policy; follow-up activities will comprise the development of training tools in co-operation with European universities.
    - 26-30 May, Graz, Austria Workshop no. 9/98: Piloting the Common European Framework of Reference for Curriculum Development
    - 9-13 June, Graz, Austria, Workshop no. 10/98: Creating a Biliterate Environment For Foreign Language Teaching to Young Learners: Implications for Curriculum Design and Methodology
    - 19-24 April, Moscow, Federation of Russia: Piloting/Dissemination Workshop of the 1997 and 1998 ECML Workshops related to the Common European Framework of Reference on Defining Levels in Relation with the Common European Framework of Reference
    - 23-25 April, Riga, Latvia: Follow-up and dissemination workshop in Latvia: Follow-up of Workshop no. 1/97: How to Promote Learner Autonomy in the Adult Classroom (Lernerautonomie (LA) im Fremdsprachenerwerb
    - 24 April, Graz, Austria: Minorities and Language Policy in Russia, Presentation and discussion with Mr Kim TSAGOLOV, Deputy Minister of the Ministry for National and Federative Relations of the Russian Federation, Head of the Institute of the Peoples of Russia
    - 24-26 April, Budapest, Hungary: Cultural Awareness Network Meeting of Workshop no. 4/97 and 17/97 (Follow-up of Workshop nos. 4/97 and 17/97: "Establishing principles and guidelines for publishers and authors of FL textbooks in the context of the aims of the ECML"
    - 15 May, Veszprem, Hungary: Dissemination Workshops Introduction to the principles of video materials production and introduction of the "Wire Man" multilingual project" (Follow-up of Workshop nos. 1/96 and 5/97)
    - 17-20 May, Varna, Bulgaria: Follow-up and dissemination workshop in Bulgaria on Training in Negotiation through Simulation" (follow-up of Workshop no. 14/96)
    - 20-23 May, Kiev, Ukraine: Dissemination workshop in Ukraine Viewing to Learn: Strategies for Using Audiovisual Materials in the FL Classroom (follow-up of Workshop nos. 1/96 and 5/97)
    - 27-30 May, Bucharest, Romania: National dissemination workshop in Romania Strategies for Understanding Videos in Modern Language Teaching/Learning
    - 28-29 May, Strasbourg: Co-ordination and follow-up meeting of Workshop no. 19/97 related to the project on Teaching Partner Languages in Border Areas - Fremdsprachen-Grenzdidaktik
    - 29-30 May, Nancy, France: Expert Meeting within the framework of an action-research project on the issue of introducing self-directed language learning in existing training systems
    - 4-5 June, Brussels, Belgium: This was the first meeting of the Scientific Committee: Preparation of the ECML Third Colloquy Living together in Europe in the 21st century: the Challenge of Plurilingual and Multicultural Communication and Dialogue
    - Expert meeting of workshop nos. 7/95 and 9/97: "Syllabus Definition and Evaluation of Proficiency at the End of Upper Secondary Education: Diversity and Harmony in Objectives and Approaches to Assessment", 7 - 8 September, University of Barcelona.
    - Workshop no. 13/98 (Graz, 17-21 September) : The use of technology enhanced language learning (TELL) in vocationally-oriented language learning (VOLL)
    http://artic.ac-besancon.fr/herellier/newgraz/
    - Workshop no. 15/98 (Graz, 30 September – 3 October): “The teaching of Language and Peace”
    - Activity no. 18/98 (Conference) (Graz, 5-7 November) : “Combining multilateral and bilateral resources in the area of modern language learning/teaching in Europe”
    As a follow-up project it was decided to produce a handbook with a glossary defining the various categories of co-operative projects and detailed, practical illustrations of concrete projects; it was also decided to organise a follow-up conference of two days maximum reserved to decision-makers.
    - Activity no. 17/98 (Graz, 17-21 November): “Quality and quality assurance in language teaching”
    - Activity no. 14/98: Third Colloquy of the ECML (Graz, 9-12 December): “Living together in Europe in the 21st century: the challenge of plurilingual and pluricultural communication and dialogue”

    Publications
    Workshop reports :
    3/95 Evaluation, adaptation and production of modern language textbooks in lower secondary education (English only)
    4/95 Bilingual schools in Europe (English only)
    6/95 Understanding teacher development for primary schools, age 6-10 (English only)
    8/95 Alternative paths to language learning: Linguistic psychodramaturgy (LPD) (English only)
    2/96 Computers in the foreign language classroom (English only)
    5/96 Lernertypen und Lernstrategien im modernen Fremdsprachenunterricht (German only)
    7/96 Insett provision for modern language teachers within national career structures (English only)
    8/96 Language learning and teaching for non-specialists at university level (French and English)
    10/96 Multimedia (and hypermedia) in foreign language learning and teaching: nature, role and impact (English only)
    11/96 Child development and early foreign language learning: Implications for curriculum design, materials and methodology (English only)
    12/96 Action-oriented Media Education in Foreign Language Teaching (English only)
    14/96 Inventer pour apprendre: Mise en pratique et étude comparée de deux approches créatives de l'enseignement/apprentissage des langues vivantes: la simulation globale (français) et story line/story telling (anglais)
    Inventing to learn: Implementing and comparing two creative approaches for teaching/learning modern languages: The global simulation (French) and the storyline/story telling (British) approach (French and English)
    16/96 New trends in FL learning and teaching for FL teachers from Bosnia-Herzegovina (English only)
    18/96 L'individualisation de l'enseignement de l'anglais et du français et les centres de ressources (French only)
    21/96 The implementation of bilingual streams in ordinary schools: process and procedures - problems and solutions (English only)
    2/97 Theme-based Foreign Language Teaching to Young Learners: Integrating Language, Culture and Content through Learner involvement in the Teaching and Learning Process (English only)
    6/97 New trends in foreign language learning and teaching for Bosnian and Herzegovian foreign language multipliers (for French language educators and educators of another modern language) (English only)
    7/97 Workshop B: Minorities, language teaching and in-service training: an intercultural exchange of experiences and developments (English only)
    8/97 Aspects of teaching methodology in bilingual classes at secondary school level (English only)
    11/97 Content, design and methodology of seminars, workshops and congresses (available in English)
    12/97: Introduction to language policy: methods of analysis and assessment, intervention fields (bilingual version)
    13/97: Developing intercultural communicative competence in foreign language teaching: curriculum planning and policy" (bilingual version)
    16/97: Implementing and managing European educational projects: Exchange of experiences and development of skills necessary for successful implementation of European educational projects in a multilateral environment" (bilingual version)
    17/97 Establishing principles and guidelines for publishers and authors of FL textbooks in the context of the aims of the ECML (English only)
    18/97 Redefining formal foreign language instruction for a bilingual environment (available in English)
    20/97 Content and language integration in vocational and professional education (English only)
    21/97 A reflective model of language teacher education: an integration of theoretical with competency-based training in an awareness-raising context" (available in English)
    6/98 East meets West: Unity in Diversity - Accommodating linguistic diversity in Europe - Promoting unity and harmony among European peoples by planning the conservation and development of lesser used (regional or minority) languages. ( also available on the Website).

    Website
    The site aims to be at the forefront of the ECML's dissemination policy, promoting the work and the results achieved at the Centre and providing an up to date information source on forthcoming workshops and conferences.
    For the 1997 Colloquy, 33 States submitted national reports, detailing the situation of modern language learning and teaching in their countries. These are now all available on-line.
    The ECML is also co-operating with CILT (Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research) and several other European partners in an EU-sponsored project which aims to develop a Virtual Resource Centre on the teaching and learning of foreign languages (Lingu@NET-EUROPA). A pilot site with an interface in four languages is currently being set up.

    6 Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE)

    5th Plenary session, 26 - 28 May
    The Congress adopted the following texts :
    Recommendations
    Recommendation 40 on the draft European Landscape Convention
    Recommendation 41 on new prospects for regional/spatial planning policy in greater Europe
    Recommendation 42 on nuclear safety and local/regional democracy
    Recommendation 43 on territorial autonomy and national minorities
    Recommendation 44 on the crisis in Kosovo
    Recommendation 45 on the situation of local and regional self-government in the Republic of Bulgaria
    Recommendation 46 on the state of local and regional democracy in Croatia
    Recommendation 47 on local and regional democracy in Latvia
    Recommendation 48 on local and regional democracy in Ukraine
    Recommendation 49 on the situation of local and regional democracy in the United Kingdom
    Recommendation 50 on decentralised co-operation and migration in the Mediterranean Basin
    Recommendation 51 on social cohesion in towns
    Recommendation 52 on the regions and employment: contribution to social cohesion in Europe

    Opinion
    Opinion 8 on the draft Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers prepared by the CDLR on the control and auditing of local authorities' action

    Resolutions
    Resolution 60 on the verification of procedures fort appointing national and special guest delegations to the CLRAE and of members' credentials
    Resolution 61 on the statutory reinforcement and the revision of the Charter of the Congress
    Resolution 62 on the draft European Landscape Convention
    Resolution 63 on new prospects for regional/spatial planning policy in Greater Europe
    Resolution 64 on nuclear safety and local/regional Democracy
    Resolution 65 on territorial autonomy and national minorities
    Resolution 66 on the situation of local and regional self-government in the Republic of Bulgaria
    Resolution 67 on the state of local and regional democracy in Croatia
    Resolution 68 on local and regional democracy in Ukraine
    Resolution 69 on decentralised co-operation and migration in the Mediterranean Basin
    Resolution 70 on social cohesion in towns
    Resolution 71 on monitoring of the application of the European Charter of local Self-Government
    Resolution 72 on the regions and employment: contribution to social cohesion in Europe

    Bureau, Lecce (Italy), 3 February
    At its meeting on 3 February, the Bureau :
    - decided to set up a joint working group which would present a report on migratory phenomena in the Mediterranean area to the Vth Plenary Session;
    - adopted a press release on migratory phenomena, in which it expressed its political support for the idea of creating an inter-regional observatory of Mediterranean migration;
    - decided to send a delegation to observe the municipal elections in Ukraine on 28 March, with Mr Chénard as its President.

    Standing Committee, Strasbourg, 5-6 March
    The Standing Committee adopted the following texts:
    - Recommendation 38 (1998) on "The Situation of Local and Regional Self-Government in the Republic of Moldova";
    - Recommendation 39 (1998) on "The Incorporation of the European Charter of Local Self-Government into the Legal Systems of Ratifying Countries and on the Legal Protection of Local Self-Government";
    - Resolution 59 (1998) on "The Situation of Local and Regional Self-Government in the Republic of Moldova".

    The Standing Committee also
    - adopted a Decision on "The situation in Kosovo" in the form of an appeal to cease violence and provocation and to restore forthwith the autonomous status of the province;
    - discussed the preparation of the Vth Plenary Session and follow-up to the Second Summit of the Council of Europe.

    Bureau, 29 June
    The Bureau discussed a number of significant questions, including:
    - the report prepared by Mr Frecon following a mission to the FYROM to meet the imprisoned mayors of Gostivar and Tetovo in respect of the use of an Albanian flag in the two town halls.
    - instruction of Mr Cuatrecasas, rapporteur of the Congress for Kosovo to take part in a meeting organised by the Venice Commission, Rome 16 July on an autonomous statute for the region;
    - the designation of a small group of observers of the new local elections in Odessa, 23 August 1998;
    - the reconstitution of 25 working groups of the Congress and the creation of a new group on "Regions with legislative competencies";

    Standing Committee and Mini-Session, Strasbourg, 2-3 November
    The Standing Committee was informed of political actions taken by the Congress President and the Bureau in relation to the situation of Local and Regional authorities in various member States or non members States, in particular in the “former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”, following the imprisonment of two mayors, the situation in Kosovo and the co-operation with the Venice Commission as well as contacts with Albania and elected local representatives from Serbia and Montenegro.

    The Standing Committee adopted :
    - an Opinion on the draft preliminary Recommendation concerning the financial responsibility (civil and accounting) of local elected representatives for acts or omissions during the performance of their duties
    - a report on the Observation of Local and Regional elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina (12-13 September 1998)
    At the first Congress Mini-Session, on 3 November, high representatives from the Governments of Bulgaria, Croatia, Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine, The Russian Federation and Albania presented the follow-up being given by these members States to Congress Recommendations for improving the situation of local and regional democracy.

    Relations with individual States
    - Mission in Albania, 5-8 May
    Mr Haegi, President of the Congress, accompanied by Mr Martini (Italy) and Mr Paour (France), visited Albania following an invitation by the Albanian Government, for meetings with the President of the Republic, various members of Government, including the Minister for Local Authorities, Mr Fino, the President of the Parliament, the Albanian Delegation to the Congress and representatives of various political parties. The visit was made after the Government had just created the Ministry of Local Authorities and had decided to sign the European Charter of Local Self-Government.
    The visit provided an opportunity to examine possibilities for reinforcing cooperation between the Council of Europe and the Albanian authorities in the field of local self-government and came up with the following proposals:
    - assistance from the LODE programme for incorporating into the draft Constitution a series of articles on local self-government in accordance with the principles contained in the European Charter of Local Self-Government;
    - coordinated legal assistance from the LODE programme for revising the texts on the organisation and functioning of local authorities, and where necessary, for preparing new laws in this field;
    - for the long term, assistance for personnel training for staff in local administrations and local authorities.
    For the first time since Albania's accession to the Organisation, a delegation composed of elected representatives at local level and in the districts took part in the Plenary Session of the Congress, thus allowing for more consistent dialogue with this country's local authorities.

    Contacts in Tunisia, 12-13 May
    A delegation from the Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe, presided respectively by Jean Briane, President of the Committee on the Environment, Regional Planning and Local Authorities, and Claude Haegi, President of the Congress, visited Tunisia for a number of contacts, mainly in view of preparing the 5th Conference of Mediterranean and Black Sea Regions.
    The delegation met the Mayor of Tunis and President of the Association of Tunisian Cities, as well as the President of the Congress of the Organisation of Arabian Cities, the Director Generals of the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of External Relations, the Minister of the Environment and his team, a Vice-President of the Chamber of Deputies and several Presidents of Commissions of this Chamber as well as Parliamentarians, including those from the opposition.

    Statutory Session of the Congress of Local Authorities of Russia, June
    Further to the invitation of Mr Anatoly Saltykov, member of the Bureau of the Congress and President of the Committee for the organisation of the statutory session, Mr Tchernoff, rapporteur on the situation of local democracy in Russia, visited Moscow on 19 June.
    This visit took place further to CLRAE Recommendation 51 (1997) on the follow-up to be given to the situation of local democracy in Russia. Speaking before 52 delegates of the Russian association assembled for creating a new association of local authorities at federal level, Mr Tchernoff underlined the necessity for this association to take into account the interests of all organisations represented in this unique association. He encouraged the efforts undertaken by Russian municipalities in order to assume their political and economic responsibilities.

    Republic of Montenegro (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
    A delegation of the Congress, led by President Chénard, visited the Republic of Montenegro from 23 to 25 November at the invitation of the Mayor of Podgorica and the association of municipalities of Montenegro. The programme of the visit included high-level meetings with the Montenegran authorities. Local and regional authorities of Montenegro presented proposals to the delegation on co-operation and legislative assistance.

    Voivodina (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)
    Representatives of the Congress participated in a seminar, held in Subotica from 7 to 11 December and organised by the Local Democracy Agency. The theme of the seminar was the European Charter of Local Self-Government and problems concerning its implementation in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The issue of the dismissed local authorities of the Town of Titel was also debated.

    Conferences, seminars, workshops, training courses

    - Seminar on "Local and Regional Information Society", Helsinki (Finland), 21-23 January
    The purpose of the Seminar was to facilitate contacts and the exchange of experience amongst municipalities and regions which have already carried out Information Society projects and those who are planning to do so.

    - Hearing on Albania, 30 January
    The Congress Working Group on Albania organised a hearing with:
    - Mr Perpali, Secretary of State for Local Autonomy
    - Mr Brojka, Mayor of Tirana and Chairman of the Association of Mayors
    - Mrs Kellezi, Chairman of the Association of Chairmen of District Councils
    - Albanian members of the Parliamentary Assembly
    The dialogue focused on the preparation of the Constitution and possible reference to the European Charter of Local Self-Government which Albania intends to sign, the revision of the laws on local self-government and co-operation with the LODE Programme.

    - Colloquy : "Slovakia in the Process of Regionalisation"
    Bratislava (Slovak Republic), 13 February

    The main objective of the colloquy was to study the legal arrangements made by the Government with a view to setting up regional structures which would have their own directly-elected bodies. The Council of Europe experts and the participants discussed the competencies and the functioning of future regional structures in this country.

    - Colloquy on "New Initiatives on Youth Employment", Naples (Italy), 12-13 March
    In 1997, the Congress produced a questionnaire addressed to European regions with the aim of identifying, firstly, the competencies and powers of regions in implementing employment policies and, secondly, the main instruments and measures used by Regions to encourage job creation. During this colloquy, preliminary results of the questionnaire produced last year were presented. Experts gave information on the successes and/or limits of the policies adopted and programmes developed directly at regional level or combined with national measures.

    - Conference on "Policies for Deprived Children/Adolescents and Families"
    St Petersburg (Russian Federation), 2-4 April

    The Conference addressed the question of how public authorities and municipalities can deal with phenomena such as street children, adolescents in prison, family poverty and the consequences they have on the living conditions of individuals and the community.

    - Consultative Conference on the Draft European Landscape Convention
    Florence (Italy), 2-4 April

    At its IVth Plenary Session (3-5 June 1997), the CLRAE adopted a preliminary draft European Landscape Convention in its Resolution 53 (1997). Before recommending the adoption of the European Landscape Convention to the Committee of Ministers, it decided to submit the preliminary draft to the ministerial authorities concerned in the framework of an Intergovernmental Consultation Conference.

    - Seminar on "Tackling crime and urban insecurity through co-operation between local authorities and police", 29 April - 1 May, Newcastle, United Kingdom
    Three hundred participants examined various examples of this type of co-operation, with particular attention paid to legislation, which, as is the case in the United Kingdom, obliges local authorities and police forces to prepare a strategy, with the corresponding financing, aimed at reducing crime. The seminar was also an occasion for analysing the origins of crime, particularly in connection with the opening-up of frontiers.
    The conclusions of the Newcastle seminar will be included in a guide on local prevention policies, currently being prepared by the Congress and destined for local authorities.

    - 5th Economic Forum of the Regions of Europe, 2 - 4 July, Bucharest
    The Forum dealt with: "Investment and regional and local development policies at pan-European level".
    The aim of the work of the 5th Forum was, in general, the promotion of socio-economic co-operation of regions and towns in the new Greater Europe, with the following aims:
    - to provide a pan-European platform for contact, discussions and pooling of experiences on developing and intensifying economic co-operation between regional and local authorities and large towns;
    - to develop a dialogue between the regional authorities of Eastern, Central and Western Europe and to promote co-operation programmes and interregional partnerships;
    t- to offer the opportunities to regions, to show in a fair-exhibition their cultural, environmental and socio-economic potentialities and to develop a network of solidarity and interregional co-operation in Europe.

    Conference "Historic Towns", Valetta, Malta, 1-3 October
    The Conference had as its principal objective an examination of the possibility of establishing a European Association of Historic Towns and the examination of a number of questions concerning conservation of the historic heritage in Europe.
    The objectives of such an association would be to:-
    - assist with the establishment of national associations of historic towns, in countries where they do not yet exist, with a broad membership of institutions supportive of historic towns;
    - share experience and good practice on urban conservation and management;
    - ensure that European and national policy making bodies understand and reflect the specific needs and interests of historic towns and their inhabitants;
    - promote the viability and sustainability of historic towns, in the belief that conservation promotes economic and social development;
    - encourage and support European partnerships and co-operation between historic towns;
    - raise public awareness about the value of conservation of historic towns in Europe;
    - assist its members in securing finance for historic towns and partnership programmes and, to this end, seek European funding opportunities;
    - establish contact and maintain collaboration with other relevant European institutions and bodies for historic towns co-operation.

    - Seminar on local and regional information society, Miercurea Ciuc, Romania, 8 - 9 October
    Debates focused on the possibilities and problems of the development of the Information Society in the activities of local and regional authorities, especially in Central and Eastern Europe. A number of successful local projects were presented from different European countries.

    - 11th Seminar and Annual General Meeting of ENTO (European Network of Training Organisations for Local and Regional Authorities) , Prague, 30-31 October
    The topic of this year's seminar was "The role of training in improving relations between elected representatives and staff".
    Training programmes were presented on :
    - building and leading effective teams;
    - creating and sustaining partnerships;
    - influencing critical decision makers;
    - communicating complex issues to different types of public.

    - Analysis of the process of regionalisation in Bulgaria
    Rousse, Bulgaria, 20-21 November

    On the basis of the draft Law on regional development and taking into consideration the Bulgarian Constitution, the experts of the Congress and the Bulgarian governmental, parliamentarian and municipal representatives held an exchange of views on the competencies and the functioning of the future regional structures in Bulgaria.

    - Conference on the Implementation of the European Charter of regional or minority languages, Innsbruck, 14-15 December
    The Charter, the aim of which is to promote and protect regional or minority languages as part of a European cultural heritage, entered into force on 1 March 1998
    This conference was organised with the aim of promoting the Charter among the member States of the Council of Europe and of assisting them in the ratification processes. During the Conference, after a political and technical analysis of the Charter, the Contracting Parties shared their experiences on the ratification processes.

    Kosovo
    Alain Chénard, President of the CLRAE, and the presidents of the CLRAE's two chambers, meeting in Innsbruck on 11 August 1998 expressed their grave concern over the situation in Kosovo.
    The President reiterated the position already announced by the Bureau of the Congress in the spring, and the conclusions of Recommendation 44, which the Congress adopted in June. In particular, he maintained: "the only reasonable outcome for the problem in Kosovo is a return to a system of very broad autonomy….This would include reviving the autonomous status which Kosovo enjoyed from 1974 to 1989. The new status would have to be guaranteed by the international community and accepted by both parties, the Albanians of Kosovo and the Serbs…".
    The Congress has been associated in the work of the Venice Commission to establish a special status for Kosovo. In this context the Venice Commission and the Congress have been consulted by the Contact Group on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

    Observation of elections

    Albania
    A CLRAE delegation observed the partial elections of 21 June, in co-operation with OSCE, issuing a joint declaration at a press conference, 23 June in Tirana.
    Generally, the delegation concluded that the elections were conducted satisfactorily and represented a major step forward in democratic consolidation in Albania. However, the observers suggested a number of improvements, particularly regarding electoral lists.

    Bosnia and Herzegovina
    A CLRAE delegation observed the cantonal and municipal elections which took place in the context of the general elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina's two constituent entities on 12 and 13 September.
    Gianfranco MARTINI, head of the CLRAE delegation, said in a subsequent press release that: "The regional and partial local elections were in general free and fair; they represent a legitimate will of the peoples. However, serious problems with the opening and the listing of refugees in the respective pooling stations were observed."

    Ukraine
    A CLRAE delegation observed the elections held in Odessa on 23 August. New elections were held following a controversial election and campaign for the position of Mayor of Odessa on 29 March and in the light of a subsequent judgement by the Court of Kirovograd.
    The delegation concluded that, despite a low turnout (37 %), the elections held on 23 August represented a step forward in strengthening democracy in the city.

    Georgia
    Within the framework of the examination of Georgia's application for Council of Europe membership and further to the invitation of the Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia, a delegation from the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe observed the local elections held in Georgia on 15 November.
    The delegation, chaired by Mr Gabor Kolumban, Co-rapporteur on local and regional democracy in Georgia, was made up of 14 observers from 11 member States of the Council of Europe.
    The Congress delegation observed the local elections in close co-ordination with the OSCE Mission to Georgia.
    The elections' evaluation will be included in a report on the state of local and regional democracy in Georgia, currently being prepared by the Congress.

    7 Conferences of specialised ministers

    5th European Conference of Ministers responsible for Youth
    Bucharest, 27-29 April

    The main theme of the Conference was : "Young people: active citizens in a future Europe", with three sub-themes :
    - democracy, participation and civil society
    - solidarity, fight against social exclusion
    - human rights, youth rights

    which were debated in Round Tables which grouped together ministers, parliamentarians, researchers and representatives of youth organisations.
    The Final Declaration fixed the objectives of a youth policy and formulated recommendations for the attention of the Committee of Ministers and governments.

    7th Conference of European Ministers responsible for Social Security
    Valletta, Malta, 12-14 May

    The Conference was attended by the Ministers, or their representatives, of member States of the Council of Europe, the Committee of Ministers and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, as well as observers from Canada and the Holy See. The International Labour Office (ILO) and the International Social Security Association (ISSA) also attended the Conference as observers.
    The general theme of the Conference was: "Social Security and its transition into the 21st century".
    The Conference discussed this theme on the basis of a report entitled "Current and future trends in the field of Social Protection".
    The Conference was preceded by a hearing of representatives of the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and the Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE).

    15th Informal Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Sport
    Nicosia, Cyprus, 14 -15 May

    The themes of the Conference were:
    - Ethical Questions in Sport
    - Legal Questions in Sport
    - Social Cohesion through Sport
    The European Sports Ministers emphasised the need for new action to reinforce the ethical basis and values of sport. The Ministers also discussed ways in which the CDDS could follow up the 2nd Summit Declaration on the role of sport in promoting social integration.

    APPENDIX 1
    Action taken on texts adopted by the Assembly

    Assembly recommendations
    In January (615/1.3) the Ministers Deputies approved the following guidelines for the drawing up of draft replies to Recommendations:
    - priority should be given to final replies (taking stock of the situation while at the same time informing the Assembly of the intentions of the Committee of Ministers with regard to the specific proposals);
    - priority should be given to concise replies (concentrated on the political views of the Committee of Ministers; any technical opinions of other bodies could be added as appendices);
    - priority should be given to substance rather than procedure;
    - where Recommendations are to be examined, and the replies to them, prepared by a Rapporteur Group, care should be taken to ensure that they are given priority treatment in that Rapporteur Group's order of business;
    - a steering committee should be consulted where there is a need for technical expertise which is not available within the Secretariat.

    The Committee of Ministers has replied to the following Recommendations:
    Recommendation 1213 (1993) on developments in biotechnology and the consequences for agriculture
    Recommendation 1226 (1993) on the improvement of Council of Europe staff careers
    Recommendation 1240 (1994) on protection and patentability of material of human origin
    Recommendation 1246 (1994) on the abolition of capital punishment
    and, Recommendation 1302 (1996) on the abolition of the death penalty in Europe
    Recommendation 1286 (1996) on a European strategy for children
    Recommendation 1287 (1996) on refugees, displaced persons and reconstruction in certain countries of the former Yugoslavia
    and, Recommendation 1288 (1996) on Albanian asylum-seekers from Kosovo
    and, Recommendation 1360 (1997) on the crisis in Kosovo
    Recommendation 1291 (1996) on Yiddish culture
    Recommendation 1295 (1996) on the Procedure for examining candidatures for the election of judges to the European Court of Human Rights
    Recommendation 1298 (1996) on Turkey's respect of commitments to constitutional and legislative reforms (follow-up to Recommendation 1266 (1995))
    Recommendation 1309 (1996) on training of officials receiving asylum-seekers at border points
    Recommendation 1310 (1996) on results and follow-up to European Nature Conservation Year 1995 (ENCY'95)
    Recommendation 1311 (1997) on the safety of nuclear installations in the countries of central and eastern Europe
    Recommendation 1312 (1997) on honouring of obligations and commitments by Albania
    Recommendation 1318 (1997) on the Council of Europe and Expo '98
    Recommendation 1319 (1997) on the organisation by the Council of Europe of a second European campaign on North-South interdependence and solidarity in 1998
    Recommendation 1320 (1997) on education, training and advisory services in agriculture, fisheries and forestry
    Recommendation 1321 (1997) on improving the situation of women in rural society
    Recommendation 1322 (1997) on civil service in an enlarged Europe
    Recommendation 1325 (1997) on traffic in women and forced prostitution in Council of Europe member states
    Recommendation 1326 (1997) on the honouring of obligations and commitments by Romania
    Recommendation 1328 (1997) and Recommendation 1316 (1997) on the state of emergency in Albania
    Recommendation 1329 (1997) on the follow-up to the Mediterranean Conference on Population, Migration and Development (Palma de Mallorca, 15-17 October 1996)
    Recommendation 1330 (1997) on the draft European charter of the Danube basin
    Recommendation 1332 (1997) on scientific and technical aspects of the new information and communications technologies
    Recommendation 1335 (1997) on the refugees and displaced persons in Transcaucasia
    Recommendation 1338 (1997) on the obligations and commitments of the Czech Republic as a member State
    Recommendation 1339 (1997) on the obligations and commitments of Lithuania as a member State
    Recommendation 1341 (1997) on European space policies
    Recommendation 1343 (1997) on anti-personnel landmines and their humanitarian implications
    Recommendation 1344 (1997) on the enlargement of the Council of Europe: the budgetary and administrative powers of the Assembly
    Recommendation 1347 (1997) on the enlargement of the European Union
    Recommendation 1349 (1997) on the draft European Charter of Regional Self-Government of the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE)
    Recommendation 1350 (1997) on global challenges for agriculture (including forestry, fisheries and aquaculture)
    Recommendation 1351 (1997) on food supply in the world
    Recommendation 1352 (1997) 2nd Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe (Strasbourg, 10-11 October 1997)
    Recommendation 1353 (1998) on access of minorities to higher education
    Recommendation 1355 (1998) on fighting social exclusion and strengthening social cohesion in Europe
    Recommendation 1356 (1998) on activities of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for refugees (UNHCR)1994-97.
    Recommendation 1357 (1998) on Bosnia and Herzegovina: return of refugees and displaced persons
    Recommendation 1358 (1998) on the situation in Algeria.
    Recommendation 1362 (1998) on discrimination between women and men in the choice of a surname and the passing on of parents' surnames to children
    Recommendation 1365 (1998) on relations with the European Union (follow-up to the European Union's Amsterdam Summit)
    Recommendation 1366 (1998) of the on progress of the Assembly's monitoring procedures (April 1997 – April 1998)

    Recommendation 1368 (1998) on the latest developments in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the situation in Kosovo
    Recommendation 1370 (1998) on the activities of the International Organization for Migration (IOM), 1994-1997
    Recommendation 1371 (1998) on abuse and neglect of children
    Recommendation 1372 (1998) on the Unidroit Convention on stolen or illegally exported cultural property
    Recommendation 1373 (1998) on freedom of movement of and issue of visas to members of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
    Recommendation 1374 (1998) on the situation of refugee women in Europe
    Recommendation 1376 (1998) on the crisis in Kosovo and the situation in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
    Recommendation 1381 (1998) on General Policy: Council of Europe and OSCE
    Recommendation 1384 (1998) on the crisis in Kosovo and the situation in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (including a proposal to organise an international conference on the future status of Kosovo)
    and, Recommendation 1385 (1998) on the situation of the Kosovo refugees, asylum seekers and displaced persons
    Recommendation 1386 (1998) on the latest developments in Albania

    Assembly Opinions, Resolutions and Orders
    The Committee of Ministers has taken note of the following Opinions:
    Opinion No. 204 (1998) on the Council of Europe draft Convention on the Protection of the Environment through Criminal Law
    Opinion No. 205 (1998) on the budgets of the Council of Europe for the financial years 1998 and 1999
    Opinion No. 206 (1998) on the expenditure of the Assembly for the financial year 1999.
    Opinion No. 207 (1998) on the draft criminal law convention on corruption.

    The Committee of Ministers has taken note of the following Resolutions:
    Resolution 1144 (1998) on the setting up of a committee on equal opportunities for women and men
    Resolution 1145 (1998) on executions in Ukraine
    Resolution 1146 (1998) on recent developments in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and their implications for the Balkan region
    Resolution 1147 (1998) on the threat to Europe from economic crime
    Resolution 1148 (1998) on the need to accelerate the development of tourism in central and eastern Europe
    Resolution 1149 (1998) on sustainable development in the Mediterranean and Black sea basins
    Resolution 1150 (1998) on the preliminary draft European Landscape Convention
    Resolution 1151 (1998) on the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe: recent activities and proposals for reform
    Resolution 1152 (1998) on European Youth co-operation and recent proposals for structural change
    Resolution 1153 (1998) on the participation of the leaders of political groups in meetings of the Political Affairs Committee.
    Resolution 1154 (1998) on democratic functioning of national parliaments
    Resolution 1155 (1998) on the progress of the Assembly's monitoring procedures (April 1997-April 1998)
    Resolution 1156 (1998) on the Palestine refugee situation in the context of the Middle East Peace Process
    Resolution 1157 (1998) on radioactive waste management
    Resolution 1158 (1998) on the activities of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
    Resolution 1159 (1998) on the composition of the Assembly's political groups
    Resolution 1160 (1998) on the election of the Assembly Vice-Presidents
    Resolution 1161 (1998) on the transition process of agriculture in the countries of central and eastern Europe.
    Resolution 1162 (1998) Activities of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 1997
    Resolution 1163 (1998) Agreement on Northern Ireland
    Resolution 1164 (1998) Japanese economy in the South-East Asian and world context
    Resolution 1165 (1998) Right to privacy.
    Resolution 1166 (1998) Human rights of conscripts
    Resolution 1167 (1998) OECD and the world economy
    Resolution 1168 (1998) Future challenges in European maritime science and technology
    Resolution 1169 (1998) The oceans: state of the marine environment and new trends in international law of the sea
    Resolution 1170 (1998) Sustainable exploitation of living marine resources
    Resolution 1171 (1998) Endangered Uralic minority cultures
    Resolution 1172 (1998) Situation of the French-speaking population living in the Brussels periphery
    Resolution 1173 (1998) Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA)
    Resolution 1174 (1998) Economic development in the Middle East and North Africa
    Resolution 1175 (1998) Energy co-operation in the Baltic Sea region
    Resolution 1176 (1998) Terms of reference of Assembly committees

    The Committee of Ministers has taken note of the following Orders:
    Order No. 537 (1998) on setting-up a committee on equal opportunities for women and men
    Order No. 538 (1998) on executions in Ukraine
    Order No. 539 (1998) on monitoring of commitments as regards social rights
    Order No. 540 (1998) on the threat to Europe from economic crime
    Order No. 541 (1998) on the need to accelerate the development of tourism in central and eastern Europe.
    Order No. 542 (1998) on democratic functioning of national parliaments
    Order No. 543 (1998) on international adoption.
    Order No. 544 (1998) Crisis in Kosovo and situation in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
    Order No. 545 (1998) Humanitarian situation of the Kurdish refugees and displaced persons in South-East Turkey and North Iraq
    Order No. 546 (1998) Basic education in science and technology.

    APPENDIX 2
    Texts adopted by the Committee of Ministers

    1. Sessions
    Final Communiqué of the 102nd Session of the Committee of Ministers
    (Strasbourg, 4-5 May 1998)
    The Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe held its 102nd Session on 5 May -Europe Day-, the 49th Anniversary of the Treaty of London, creating the Organisation, with Mr Klaus Kinkel, Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs of Germany, in the Chair.
    The Ministers took note of the interim report on the reform of structures and working methods of the Organisation, presented by Mario Soares, the former President of the Portuguese Republic, in his capacity as Chairman of the Committee of Wise Persons. The Ministers expressed satisfaction with the progress achieved and thanked the Committee for its work so far.
    The Ministers examined the first report of the Follow-up Committee on the Second Summit, presented by its Chairman, Ambassador Jacques Warin of France. They took note of progress made and instructed their Deputies to continue active pursuit of the implementation of decisions adopted at the Summit.
    The Ministers welcomed the deposit by Mr Evgeny Primakov, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, of the instruments of ratification of major European Conventions, notably the European Convention on Human Rights and the Protocol No. 11 thereto, which had now become binding on all forty member States.
    The Ministers expressed satisfaction at the support by all member States to the Resolution on the abolition of the death penalty, presented to the Human Rights Commission of the United Nations, and stressed their conviction that priority should be given to obtaining and maintaining a moratorium on executions, to be consolidated as soon as possible by complete abolition of the death penalty. They recognised the necessity of public awareness initiatives on this subject.
    The Ministers took note of the progress made in preparing the mandate for a Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, and instructed their Deputies to conclude this work as soon as possible.
    Regarding the fight against corruption, the Ministers adopted Resolution (98) 7 authorising the adoption of the Partial and Enlarged Agreement establishing the “Group of States against corruption (GRECO)”. This Group will be responsible for monitoring observance of the guiding principles in the fight against corruption and implementation of the international legal instruments to be adopted pursuant to the Programme of Action against corruption.
    The Ministers welcomed progress made in developing a new strategy for “Social Cohesion”, and the increased investment effort of the Social Development Fund, in particular with regard to job creation. They noted with satisfaction the good prospects that the Fund could participate with its resources and expertise in the Council of Europe's activity in this field, in accordance with its statutory aims and its modalities of operation.
    The Ministers decided to launch a programme for children, which will aim to advance the interests of children, to promote their participation in society and to protect them from all forms of exploitation. The Ministers underlined the Council of Europe's determination to combat child abuse and welcomed the holding, at the initiative of the Chairmanship, as a follow-up to the 1996 World Congress, of a Council of Europe Conference (Strasbourg, 28-29 April 1998). They welcomed the adoption of Resolution (98) 6 on the Youth Policy of the Council of Europe.
    The Ministers noted that work on education for democratic citizenship, as called for in the Action Plan adopted at the Summit, was continuing. The Bulgarian proposal concerning a declaration and a programme on this subject will be taken up in the context of this work.
    The Ministers noted with satisfaction the continued development of relations and co-operation between the Council of Europe, the OSCE and the European Union. They welcomed the results of the high-level meetings held in London on 12 March 1998 with the OSCE and in Strasbourg on 1 April 1998 with the European Union.
    The Ministers discussed the situation in South-East Europe, in connection with activities of the Council of Europe. They paid particular attention to the deteriorating situation in Kosovo and urged the parties concerned to desist from any form of violence and to enter into a constructive dialogue with third-party participation.
    At an informal meeting on 4 May, the Ministers discussed the recently concluded Belfast Agreement. The discussion was introduced by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Ireland, Mr David Andrews, and the Minister of State for Northern Ireland in the Government of the United Kingdom, Mr Paul Murphy. In a third introduction, Mr Bronislaw Geremek, the Foreign Minister of Poland and Chairman-in-Office of the OSCE, had commented on possible lessons to be drawn for other European areas, where there are deep-seated tensions.
    The ministerial meeting was preceded by the opening for signature of Protocol No. 2 to the Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation between Territorial Communities or Authorities.
    The Ministers noted that the 50th Anniversary of the Council of Europe will be celebrated in one year. They encouraged the creation of National Committees in member States, so that the 50th Anniversary will be commemorated at national level. They noted with satisfaction in this context that the commemoration of the 50th Anniversary will reach its high-point around 5 May 1999, with events in Strasbourg, London and Budapest.
    The Ministers decided to hold their 103rd Session on 4 November 1998, the day following the inauguration of the new European Court of Human Rights.

    Final Communiqué of the 103rd Session of the Committee of Ministers
    (Strasbourg, 3-4 November 1998)
    The Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe held its 103rd Session on 4 November 1998, with Mr Giorgos Papandreou, Alternate Minister for Foreign Affairs of Greece, and Deputy Foreign Minister Yannos Kranidiotis, in the Chair.
    The Ministers welcomed the formal inauguration of the new European Court of Human Rights on 3 November 1998, which considerably strengthens the structures of the Council of Europe and its control mechanisms in the field of human rights.
    The Ministers held a first exchange of views on the final report on the reform of structures and working methods of the Organisation, presented by Mario Soares, the former President of the Portuguese Republic, in his capacity as Chairman of the Committee of Wise Persons. They congratulated the Wise Persons on their work and instructed their Deputies to examine the proposals contained in the report, with a view to the adoption of structural reforms at the 104th Session of the Committee of Ministers in May 1999 in Budapest.
    In the light of the second report of the Follow-up Committee on the Second Summit, the Ministers took note of progress made and instructed their Deputies to continue active pursuit of the implementation of decisions at the Summit. The Ministers will receive a final report at the 104thSession.
    The Ministers took note of the fact that the new European Committee for Social Cohesion was holding its first meeting in Strasbourg during the same week. In this context, they welcomed the readiness of the Social Development Fund to be actively involved in the Council of Europe's activities in the field of social cohesion.
    The Ministers adopted the criminal law Convention on corruption. This constitutes a further step following the creation in May 1998 of the “Group of States against corruption (GRECO)”, responsible for monitoring observance of the guiding principles in this field. They agreed that the Convention should be opened for signature, on the occasion of the January 1999 Session of the Parliamentary Assembly, and authorised publication of the explanatory report.
    The Ministers noted with satisfaction progress made in the ongoing preparations for celebration, in spring 1999, of the 50th Anniversary in Strasbourg, London and Budapest. They welcomed the initiatives already taken by member States, at national, regional and local level, with a view to participating actively in the commemoration of the 50th Anniversary throughout 1999. They encouraged all member States to follow these examples by setting up a national committee or by any other appropriate action. They invited their Deputies to prepare a draft Political Declaration to mark the occasion for adoption at their 104th Session.
    The Ministers noted with satisfaction further progress made in drawing up a mandate for a Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, with a view to its adoption at their 104th Session.
    The Ministers discussed the subject, introduced by their Chairman, “Regional co-operation and settlement of conflicts in south-east Europe: the Council of Europe's role”, and confirmed the Organisation's increasing contribution to the efforts of the different international institutions.
    The Ministers expressed concern about the situation in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, in particular, Kosovo. They encouraged their Chairman and the Secretary General to pursue contacts with the OSCE to discuss ways in which the Council of Europe might participate in the international monitoring of human rights and in contributing to democratisation in general, as well as with other relevant international organisations and countries of the region.
    The Ministers, recalling their activities in the field of assistance and solidarity with a view to guaranteeing democratic development in Albania (the constitutional process, the legal and administrative systems and the judiciary), referred to the initiative of their Chairman and of the Secretary General to hold a dialogue on 19 September in Tirana with the country's leadership and with their OSCE counterparts, a visit which was followed by the Declaration of the four Chairmen (CE, EU, OSCE and WEU). They welcomed the intense efforts of the Parliamentary Assembly and the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE) and – for the process leading to a new constitution – of the Venice Commission for Democracy through Law. The Ministers called for the widest possible participation in the referendum on the Constitution to be held on 22 November 1998 to finalise this process in the interests of the country. The Ministers also welcomed the holding of the international Conference on Albania on 30 October 1998 in Tirana.
    The Ministers reaffirmed their determination to continue close co-operation with the OSCE and the European Union. In this context they recalled that the 12th Quadripartite meeting with the leadership of the latter, held in Strasbourg on 7 October 1998, at the invitation of the Chairman of the Committee of Ministers, expressed support for the Council of Europe's specific role, within the multi-institutional “Friends of Albania” Group, created on 30 September. The Ministers noted with satisfaction the active role of the Special Representative of the Secretary General in Tirana, in contributing to efforts to achieve stability in Albania.
    At an informal meeting on 3 November the Ministers held an exchange of views with Mr Vartan Oskanian and Mr Tofik Zulfugarov, Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Armenia and Azerbaijan, candidate countries for membership of the Council of Europe.
    The Ministers took note of the establishment of an ad hoc Working Group to examine the proposal of the Greek Chairmanship for a Declaration on a Code of Conduct concerning the human rights of refugees and asylum seekers.
    Before the ministerial meeting, a Colloquy, chaired by the President of the Parliamentary Assembly, took place on the subject “The role of the Council of Europe in conflict resolution in South-East Europe”.
    The ministerial meeting was preceded by the opening for signature of the Convention on the protection of the environment through criminal law.
    The Ministers confirmed that the 104th Session of the Committee of Ministers will be held in Budapest on 6-7 May 1999.

    2. Declarations

    Declaration on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    The Governments of the member States of the Council of Europe,
    1. Considering that today marks the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to which the member States of the Council of Europe are deeply committed and whose continued importance they reaffirm;
    2. Recalling that the Universal Declaration is the basis of the human rights protection systems of the United Nations, the Council of Europe and other organisations in different regions of the world;
    3. Recognising that the universal protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms is the foundation of justice and peace in the world, and an essential factor for the development and strengthening of pluralist democracy;
    4. Reaffirming that all human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated, be they civil, political, economic, social or cultural;
    5. Welcoming the progress made in the last 50 years in the universal acceptance and implementation of international human rights standards;
    6. Paying tribute to the work of the United Nations in this field at the global level and stressing the need for an in-depth assessment of progress in the implementation of the Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at the World Conference on Human Rights (Vienna, 1993);
    7. Recognising the indispensable contribution of non-governmental organisations as well as individuals to the defence of human rights throughout the world;
    8. Welcoming the adoption, on 17 July 1998 in Rome, of the Statute of the International Criminal Court, as an important step towards the establishment of the rule of law at the international level and a significant contribution to the international protection of human rights;
    9. Deploring strongly the fact that serious and large-scale violations of human rights continue to occur throughout the world;
    10. Believing that further efforts and enhanced co-operation are needed to ensure that human rights are effectively protected at the national, regional and international levels;
    11. Reaffirming in this context their attachment to the fundamental principles of the Council of Europe – pluralist democracy, respect for human rights, the rule of law and stressing its essential role in the protection, promotion and further development of human rights;
    12. Recalling the historic changes which have made Europe so much more united around common values than it was fifty years ago;
    13. Recalling that, by adopting the European Convention on Human Rights, the member States of the Council of Europe took the first steps to ensure the collective enforcement of rights stated in the Universal Declaration;
    14. Reaffirming:
    - the need to reinforce the protection of fundamental social and economic rights,
    - the need to combat racism, intolerance, xenophobia and anti-Semitism,
    - the importance of the protection of the rights of persons belonging to national minorities,
    all of which form an integral part of human rights protection;

    15. Welcoming therefore the entry into force of the collective complaints Protocol to the European Social Charter, the enhanced programme of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance and the implementation of the monitoring mechanism of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities;
    16. Stressing the need to secure the full enjoyment of human rights by women;
    17. Stressing the importance of effective protection of the rights of the child;
    18. Reaffirming that the protection of media freedoms is an integral part of the international protection of human rights;
    19. Recognising the need to promote a genuine human rights culture in all sectors of society through education and awareness-raising in human rights;
    20. Recalling the European regional colloquy "In Our Hands – The Effectiveness of Human Rights Protection 50 Years after the Universal Declaration", organised by the Council of Europe on 2-4 September 1998 as a contribution to the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Declaration;
    21. Bearing in mind the decisions of the First and Second Summits of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe (Vienna, October 1993 and Strasbourg, October 1997),
    I. CONDEMN VIGOUROUSLY the continuing serious and large-scale violations of human rights throughout the world, and CALL FOR immediate steps to put an end to them and to bring those responsible to justice;
    II. CALL ON STATES:
    - to become Party to the universal human rights instruments, wherever possible without reservations, to review existing reservations with a view to withdrawing them and to ensure the full and effective implementation of those instruments at the national level;
    - to refrain from any steps in contradiction with the General Comment of the United Nations Human Rights Committee of 29 October 1997 confirming that the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is not subject to denunciation or withdrawal;
    - to sign and ratify the Rome Statute and facilitate the rapid establishment of the International Criminal Court;
    III. FURTHER CALL ON ALL STATES:
    - to establish or reinforce independent national institutions for the protection and promotion of human rights;
    - to draw up and implement programmes and policies for education and awareness-raising in human rights for all sectors of society;
    IV. URGE ALL STATES to abolish the death penalty as soon as possible, to maintain a moratorium on executions pending complete abolition or to refrain from re-introducing the death penalty;
    V. REAFFIRM that the promotion and protection of human rights shall remain of the highest priority for the Council of Europe;
    VI. INVITE ALL MEMBER STATES to sign and ratify the human rights instruments of the Council of Europe, wherever possible without reservations, to review existing reservations with a view to their withdrawal and to ensure the full and effective implementation of those instruments at the national level;
    VII. HIGHLIGHT the significance of the establishment of the new European Court of Human Rights on 1 November 1998, for the consolidation of the judicial protection of human rights set up by the European Convention on Human Rights;
    VIII. CONFIRM their continued support for the other human rights treaties of the Council of Europe, as well as their supervisory mechanisms notably the European Social Charter, the European Convention for the prevention of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities;
    IX. UNDERTAKE to set up the institution of the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights as soon as possible in 1999;
    X. AGREE to finalise as soon as possible the text of a legally binding instrument providing for the prohibition of discrimination in all its forms;
    XI. UNDERTAKE, in the light of the decisions of the First and Second Summits, to take all necessary further steps so that:
    - priority continues to be given to the intergovernmental and other human rights activities of the Council of Europe;
    - the Council of Europe's human rights treaties and mechanisms are capable of effectively defending the rights of individuals throughout Europe;
    - the Council of Europe continues to play a pre-eminent role in the promotion and protection of human rights within Europe;
    XII. CALL on the members of the international community - both governmental and non-governmental - to co-operate in achieving the aims of the Universal Declaration.

    3. Conventions
    Protocol No. 2 to the European Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation between Territorial Communities or Authorities concerning Interterritorial Co-operation (ETS.169)

    adopted

    17 March

    opened to signature

    5 May

    Protocol of amendment to the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes (ETS.170)

    adopted

    12 February

    opened to signature

    22 June

    Protocol amending the European Convention on Transfrontier Television (ETS.171)

    adopted

    9 September

    opened to signature

    1 October

    Convention on the protection of the environment through criminal law (ETS.172)

    adopted

    9 September

    opened to signature

    4 November

    Criminal Law Convention on Corruption

    adopted

    4 November

    opened to signature

    -

    4. Recommendations
    Recommendation No. R (98) 1 on family mediation
    Recommendation No. R (98) 2 on provision of haematopoietic progenitor cells
    Recommendation No. R (98) 3 on access to higher education
    Recommendation No. R (98) 4 on measures to promote the integrated conservation of historic complexes composed of immoveable and moveable property
    Recommendation No. R (98) 5 concerning heritage education
    Recommendation No. R (98) 6 concerning modern languages
    Recommendation No. R (98) 7 concerning the ethical and organisational aspects of health care in prison
    Recommendation No. R (98) 8 on children's participation in family and social life
    Recommendation No. R (98) 9 on dependence
    Recommendation No. R (98) 10 on the use of human red cells for preparation of oxygen carrying substances
    Recommendation No. R (98) 11 on the organisation of health care services for the chronically ill
    Recommendation No. R (98) 12 on supervision of local authorities' action
    Recommendation No. R (98) 13 on the right of rejected asylum-seekers to an effective remedy against decisions on expulsion in the context of Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights
    Recommendation No. R (98) 14 on gender mainstreaming
    Recommendation No. R (98) 15 on the training of officials who first come into contact with asylum-seekers, in particular at border points

    Recommendations on the application of the European Social Charter
    Recommendation No. R ChS (98) 1 on the application of the European Social Charter by France during the period 1993-1994 – 13th supervision cycle – part IV
    Recommendation No. R ChS (98) 2 on the application of the European Social Charter by Germany during the period 1993-1994 – 13th supervision cycle – part IV
    Recommendation No. R ChS (98) 3 on the application of the European Social Charter by Italy during the period 1993-1994 – 13th supervision cycle – part IV
    Recommendation No. R ChS (98) 4 on the application of the European Social Charter by Turkey during the period 1993-1994 – 13th supervision cycle – part IV
    Recommendation No. R ChS (98) 5 on the application of the European Social Charter by Portugal during the period 1994-1995 (13th supervision cycle –part V)

    5. Resolutions
    Resolution (98) 3 on the Registry of the European Court of Human Rights to be set up under the terms of Protocol No. 11 to the European Convention on Human Rights
    Resolution (98) 4 on the cultural routes of the Council of Europe
    Resolution (98) 6 on the youth policy of the Council of Europe
    Resolution (98) 7 authorising the Partial and Enlarged Agreement establishing the “Group of states against corruption – GRECO”
    Resolution (98) 9 on the award of the European Human Rights Prize
    Resolution (98) 10 modifying Resolution (88) 15 setting up a European Support Fund for the Co-production and Distribution of Creative Cinematographic and Audiovisual Works (“Eurimages”)
    Resolution (98) 11 confirming the continuation of the European Centre for Modern Languages
    Resolution (98) 12 on the extension of the term of office of the Secretary General
    Resolution (98) 13 amending the Regulations on extra duties and night work (Appendix VIII to the Staff Regulations)
    Resolution (98) 14 on the renewal of the European Diploma awarded to the Wollmatinger Ried Nature Reserve (Germany)
    Resolution (98) 15 on the renewal of the European Diploma awarded to the Germano-Luxembourg Nature Park (Germany-Luxembourg)
    Resolution (98) 16 on the renewal of the European Diploma awarded to the Weltenburger Enge Nature Reserve (Germany)
    Resolution (98) 17 on the renewal of the European Diploma awarded to the Beinn Eighe Nature Reserve (United Kingdom)
    Resolution (98) 18 on the renewal of the European Diploma awarded to the Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park (Spain)
    Resolution (98) 19 on the renewal of the European Diploma awarded to the Store Mosse National Park (Sweden)
    Resolution (98) 20 on the renewal of the European Diploma awarded to Bullerö and Langviksskär Nature Reserves (Sweden)
    Resolution (98) 21 on the renewal of the European Diploma awarded to the Montecristo Island Nature Reserve (Italy)
    Resolution (98) 22 on the renewal of the European Diploma awarded to the Mercantour National Park (France)
    Resolution (98) 23 on the renewal of the European Diploma awarded to the Maritime Alps Nature Park (formerly the Argentera Nature Park (Italy)
    Resolution (98) 24 on the award of the European Diploma to the Strict Nature Reserve of Kostomuksha (Russian Federation)
    Resolution (98) 25 on the award of the European Diploma to the Tsentralno-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve (Russian Federation)
    Resolution (98) 26 on the award of the European Diploma to the Poloniny National Park (Slovakia)
    Resolution (98) 27 on the award of the European Diploma to the Bieszczady National Park (Poland)
    Resolution (98) 28 on the award of the European Diploma to the Dobrocský National Nature Reserve (Slovakia)
    Resolution (98) 29 on the Regulations for the European Diploma of Protected Areas
    Resolution (98) 30 on the Principality of Monaco
    Resolution (98) 31 on the Statute of the European Youth Centre and the Statute of the European Youth Foundation

    Human Rights Résolutions
    Final Resolution DH (98) 1 Application No. 201997/92 - Körner against Austria
    Final Resolution DH (98) 2 Application No. 21280/93 - Charuel against Belgium
    Final Resolution DH (98) 3 Application No. 25202/94 - Juchault against France
    Resolution DH (98) 4 Application No. 18143/91 - A.G. against France
    Resolution DH (98) 5 Application No. 18526/91 - J.-C.C. against France
    Resolution DH (98) 6 Application No. 21537/93 - Mandonnet against France
    Resolution DH (98) 7 Application No. 19946/92 - Haas against France
    Resolution DH (98) 8 Applications Nos. 18974/91 and 19334/92 - Laidi, Ruellan and Laumont against France
    Resolution DH (98) 9 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 26 August 1997 in the case of De Haan against the Netherlands
    Resolution DH (98) 10 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 2 May 1997 in the case of D. against the United Kingdom
    Resolution DH (98) 11 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 25 February 1997 in the case of Findlay against the United Kingdom
    Resolution DH (98) 12 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 24 September 1997 in the case of Coyne against the United Kingdom
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 13 Application No. 24906/94 - Rosenberg against Belgium
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 14 Application No. 24263/94 - Areno against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 15 Application No. 23321/94 - Delbec Annick I against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 16 Application No. 26514/95 - Delbec Annick II against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 17 Application No. 22411/93 - A. Ö. against the Netherlands
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 18 Application No. 28652/95 - Sala Pujolar and others against Spain
    Resolution DH (98) 19 Application No. 21106/92 - Kafkasli against Turkey
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 20 Application No. 26561/95 - Rebai and others against France
    Resolution DH (98) 21 Application No. 24239/94 - T. v. France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 22 Application No. 32284/96 - Buompastore against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 23 Application No. 32285/96 - Donato against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 24 Application No. 32300/96 - F.M., A.L. and C.A. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 25 Application No. 29040/95 - Faieta against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 26 Application No. 32296/96 - Filosa II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 27 Application No. 32279/96 - G.V. II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 28 Application No. 32283/96 - Giraldi Francesco against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 29 Application No. 32294/96 - Giraldi Germana against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 30 Application No. 32297/96 - Giusti II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 31 Application No. 32276/96 - L.M. VII against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 32 Application No. 32302/96 - M.V. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 33 Application No. 32278/96 - Marcello against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 34 Application No. 32298/96 - Martino against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 35 Application No. 32280/96 - Minnai against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 36 Application No. 32295/96 - Pansa against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 37 Application No. 32288/96 - Sapuppo against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 38 Application No. 32286/96 - Scipioni, Mancini C.M., Mancini E., Mancini B. and Mancini D. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 39 Application No. 32289/96 - Société Générale de Sucreries against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 40 Application No. 31637/96 - Troncato against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 41 Application No. 32287/96 - G.R. and P.M. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 42 Application No. 32292/96 - E.Z. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 43 Application No. 32291/96 - Lilli against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 44 Application No. 32301/96 - Mostacciulo against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 45 Application No. 32277/96 - Patrizi II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 46 Application No. 32293/96 - Prologo against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 47 Application No. 23356/94 - A. R. II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 48 Application No. 22873/93 - Arconte against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 49 Application No. 28166/95 - Forte II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 50 Application No. 28666/95 - G.N. IV against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 51 Application No. 28167/95 - Moni against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 52 Application No. 26806/95 - U.O. I against Italy
    Resolution DH (98) 53 Application No. 23229/94 - H.H. against the Netherlands
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 54 Application No. 27518/95 - A.S. against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 55 Application No. 31348/96 - Napoli against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 56 Application No. 27291/95 - Ribeiro Morgado against Portugal
    Resolution DH (98) 57 Elections to the list of experts eligible to serve on the Advisory Committee under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and appointment of ordinary members of the Advisory Committee
    Final Resolution DH (98) 58 Application No. 21611/93 - Haslhofer against Austria
    Resolution DH (98) 59 Application No.17588/90 - Linsbod against Austria
    Resolution DH (98) 60 Application No.21100/92 - R.W. against Belgium
    Resolution DH (98) 61 Application No.19008/91 - Serrien against Belgium
    Resolution DH (98) 62 Application No.16378/90 - Boulé Michel I against France
    Resolution DH (98) 63 Application No.21549/93 - Duclos II against France
    Resolution DH (98) 64 Application No.23107/93 - Duclos III against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 65 Application No.23313/94 - Erbs against France
    Resolution DH (98) 66 Application No.21244/93 - G. H. against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 67 Application No.27081/95 - Giorsetti against France
    Resolution DH (98) 68 Application No.24736/94 - Hayat against France
    Resolution DH (98) 69 Application No.25164/94 - Morlet against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 70 Application No.22730/93 - Segaud against France
    Resolution DH (98) 71 Application No.20415/92 - Mattheopoulos against Greece
    Resolution DH (98) 72 Application No.19937/92 - Stamatiades against Greece
    Resolution DH (98) 73 Application No.19106/91 - Vourakis against Greece
    Final Resolution DH (98) 74 Application No.27172/95 - Colombo against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 75 Application No.27481/95 - Criveller against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 76 Applications Nos 20290/92 - and 20413/92 - De Mitri G. and A. against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 77 Application No.22905/93 - Figoli against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 78 Applications Nos 22369/93 - and 22370/93 - N. B.. and G. A. against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 79 Application No.20358/92 - Savoia Nicola against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 80 Application No.24383/94 - Aires III against Portugal
    Final Resolution DH (98) 81 Application No.21370/93 - Gustafsson against Sweden
    Resolution DH (98) 82 Applications Nos. 15530/89 - and 155331/89 - Mitap and Müftüoğlu against Turkey
    Final Resolution DH (98) 83 Application No.22614/93 - Lochrie against the United Kingdom
    Final Resolution DH (98) 84 Application No.22613/93 - Moody against the United Kingdom
    Resolution DH (98) 85 concerning the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights of 26 April 1995 in the case of Fischer against Austria
    Resolution DH (98) 86 concerning the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights of 22 September 1994, of 3 July 1995 and of 3 July 1997 in the case of Hentrich against France
    Resolution DH (98) 87 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 18 March 1997 in the case of Mantovanelli against France
    Resolution DH (98) 88 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 27 November 1997 in the case of K.-F. against Germany
    Resolution DH (98) 89 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 25 March 1996 in the case of Mitap and Müftüoğlu against Turkey
    Resolution DH (98) 90 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 23 September 1997 in the case of Robins against the United Kingdom
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 91 Application No.21873/93 - Achilli against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 92 Application No.31263/96 - Fernández Fraga against Spain
    Resolution DH (98) 93 Application No.25062/94 - Honsik against Austria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 94 Application No.24915/94 - C.M.C. against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 95 Application No.26326/95 - Bernardet against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 96 Application No.27374/95 - Hourticq and Tassin de Montaigu against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 97 Application No.26081/94 - Keppi against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 98 Application No.29231/95 - Lestienne Gérard and Rolande against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 99 Application No.30355/96 - Mazzoni against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 100 Application No.29877/96 - Pauchet and others against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 101 Application No.33131/96 - C. D.L. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 102 Application No.33152/96 - Carbonaro against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 103 Application No.33160/96 - De Domenico and Giusa against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 104 Application No.33161/96 - G., R. and V.V. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 105 Applications Nos. 33134/96, 33135/96 and 33137/96 to 33139/96 - G.B., A.C. and L.V. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 106 Application No.33136/96 - G.B. C. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 107 Application No.33140/96 - Gatta against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 108 Application No.33144/96 - Guetti against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 109 Application No.33154/96 - M. and G.F. and A.T. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 110 Application No.33133/96 - M.G. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 111 Application No.33142/96 - Marchese against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 112 Application No.26254/95 - Medzihradszky against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 113 Application No.33163/96 - Minniti and Lucianò against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 114 Application No.33147/96 - Pesarin against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 115 Application No.29140/95 - Pierucci against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 116 Application No.33143/96 - S.C. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 117 Application No.33166/96 - Savini and Malaspina against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 118 Application No.33151/96 - Sestito F.A., Sestito V. and Zaccone against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 119 Application No.33148/96 - Sgrò against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 120 Application No.33146/96 - Sonego against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 121 Application No.33165/96 - Tartaglia against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 122 Application No.33155/96 - V.P. and F.P. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 123 Application No.33153/96 - Di Trapani and Crescimanno against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 124 Application No.33145/96 - Antonini against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 125 Application No.33141/96 - De Candia against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 126 Application No.33157/96 - Falbo against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 127 Application No.33162/96 - Stile against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 128 Application No.27141/95 - A.A.Q. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 129 Application No.26781/95 - U.O. II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 130 Application No.26782/95 - U.O. III against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 131 Application No.29336/95 - Antunes against Portugal
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 132 Application No.30030/96 - Gomes Martins against Portugal
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 133 regarding the fairness of hearings in proceedings before the Cour de Cassation in Belgium
    Resolution DH (98) 134 Elections to the list of experts eligible to serve on the Advisory Committee under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and appointment of ordinary members of the Advisory Committee
    Final Resolution DH (98) 135 Application No. 20223/92 - Schottenberger against Austria
    Resolution DH (98) 136 Application No. 18657/91 - G., A., G. against France
    Resolution DH (98) 137 Application No. 22641/93 - J.L. N. against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 138 Application No. 27415/95 - Hachemi and others against France
    Resolution DH (98) 139 Application No. 19616/92 - Lambert against France
    Resolution DH (98) 140 Application No. 23142/93 - Ruin against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 141 Application No. 27621/95 - Morais Sarmento against Portugal
    Resolution DH (98) 142 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 24 November 1993 in the case Informationsverein Lentia and others against Austria
    Resolution DH (98) 143 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 20 October 1997 in the case Radio ABC against Austria
    Resolution DH (98) 144 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 20 June 1997 in the case Telesystem Tirol Kabeltelevision against Austria
    Resolution DH (98) 145 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 1 July 1997 in the case Oberschlick Gerhard against Austria
    Resolution DH (98) 146 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 18 March 1997 in the case Foucher against France
    Resolution DH (98) 147 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights
    of 24 September 1997 in the case Garyfallou A.E.B.E. against Greece
    Resolution DH (98) 148 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 27 October 1994 in the case Kroon and others against the Netherlands
    Resolution DH (98) 149 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 21 February 1996 in the case Hussain against the United Kingdom
    Resolution DH (98) 150 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 21 February 1996 in the case Singh against the United Kingdom
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 151 Application No. 17798/91 - Deixler against Austria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 152 Application No. 29303/95 - Kovachev against Bulgaria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 153 Application No. 28537/95 - Pueyo against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 154 Application No. 23924/94 - C.A.R. S.r.l. against Italy
    Resolution DH (98) 155 Application No. 20251/92 - Pantano against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 156 Application No. 22384/93 - Kevin Murray against the United Kingdom
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 157 Application No. 19743/92 - Hrdlicka against Austria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 158 Application No. 29270/95 - J.E. against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 159 Application No. 30242/96 - Miot and Querrien against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 160 Application No. 25846/94 - T.B. against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 161 Application No. 28383/95 - Associazione Consumatori San Gregorio against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 162 Application No. 33802/96 - Bimbi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 163 Application No. 33782/96 - Borraci against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 164 Application No. 33790/96 - Buldini against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 165 Application No. 33792/96 - Cims Iole against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 166 Application No. 28384/95 - Cunsolo against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 167 Application No. 33797/96 - De Cicco against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 168 Application No. 30102/96 - De Camillis Emidio against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 169 Application No. 32299/96 - Della Corte against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 170 Application No. 33803/96 - Ficara against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 171 Application No. 33794/96 - G.P. IV against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 172 Application No. 32281/96 - G.S. VI against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 173 Application No. 33800/96 - Gambini and Macchia against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 174 Application No. 33791/96 - Golia against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 175 Application No. 33786/96 - Iorillo against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 176 Application No. 33788/96 - La Mantia against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 177 Application No. 33781/96 - Marino against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 178 Application No. 33779/96 - Mazzi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 179 Application No. 33796/96 - Micanzi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 180 Application No. 33798/96 - Milano against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 181 Application No. 33780/96 - Nati against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 182 Application No. 33167/96 - Piccininno against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 183 Application No. 33156/96 - R.L. P. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 184 Application No. 33793/96 - Scannella against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 185 Application No. 33787/96 - Sferlazza against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 186 Application No. 33801/96 - Verdelli against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 187 Application No. 33149/96 - Regino against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 188 Application No. 33799/96 - Tesauro against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 189 Application No. 33785/96 - Vespucci against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 190 Application No. 33783/96 - Visco and Montuoro I against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 191 Application No. 33784/96 - Visco and Montuoro II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 192 Application No. 33789/96 - Gigante E. and N. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 193 Application No. 30322/96 - Nani against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 194 Application No. 33168/96 - Pellegrini against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 195 Application No. 30928/96 - Nunes against Portugal
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 196 Application No. 25189/94 - Preložník against the Slovak Republic
    Resolution DH (98) 197 Application No. 25901/94 - Russell against the United Kingdom
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 198 Applications Nos. 29673/96 and 29674/96 - Scarlato G.S. and D. against Italy
    Resolution DH (98) 199 Election of members of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in respect of Croatia and Moldova.
    Final Resolution DH (98) 200 Application No. 20178/92 - Hengl against Austria
    Final Resolution DH (98) 201 Application No. 21967/93 - Sárközy against Hungary
    Final Resolution DH (98) 202 Application No. 20448/92 - A.T. against the United Kingdom
    Resolution DH (98) 203 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 20 March 1997 in the case of Loukanov against Bulgaria
    Resolution DH (98) 204 concerning the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights of 17 December 1996 in the case of Terra Woningen B.V. against the Netherlands
    Resolution DH (98) 205 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 25 November 1993 in the case of Holm against Sweden
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 206 Application No. 23962/94 - Beer against Austria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 207 Application No. 21842/93 - Kempers against Austria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 208 Application No. 26774/95 - A.D. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 209 Application No. 19734/92 - F.S. against Italy
    Resolution DH (98) 210 Application No. 34244/96 - R.B. against Italy
    Resolution DH (98) 211 Application No. 26955/95 - Psychex against Switzerland
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 212 Application No. 27237/95 - Govell against the United Kingdom
    Resolution DH (98) 213 Application No. 21656/93 - Hamill against the United Kingdom
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 214 Application No. 23496/94 - Quinn against the United Kingdom
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 215 Application No. 23957/94 - Breiteneder against Austria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 216 Application No. 25965/94 - Radolf against Austria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 217 Application No. 31450/96 - B.B. and G.B. against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 218 Application No. 31406/96 - Bernardet G. and B. against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 219 Application No. 32135/96 - Laborie against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 220 Application No. 30043/96 - Mayen against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 221 Application No. 32466/96 - Degroote against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 222 Application No. 27873/95 - Mouesca against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 223 Application No. 29719/96 - Odin against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 224 Application No. 30921/96 - R.L. and M.-J.L. against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 225 Application No. 34234/96 - Altieri and Cifani against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 226 Application No. 34268/96 - Barraco against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 227 Application No. 34260/96 - Baudone against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 228 Application No. 34266/96 - Bisaro against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 229 Application No. 34247/96 - Bonanno against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 230 Application No. 34243/96 - C.L.P.C. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 231 Application No. 34272/96 - Cecchi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 232 Application No. 34239/96 - Conte against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 233 Application No. 34273/96 - De Luca Antonio against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 234 Application No. 34251/96 - Di Domenico against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 235 Application No. 34249/96 - F.V. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 236 Application No. 34236/96 - G.D. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 237 Application No. 34233/96 - Castellucci Galtrucco against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 238 Application No. 34270/96 - Immobiliare LI.MA. S.A.S. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 239 Application No. 34263/96 - M.C. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 240 Application No. 34252/96 - M.T.P. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 241 Application No. 34280/96 - Magnaterra against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 242 Applications Nos. 34275/96 and 34276/96 - Maiorano G., C., and M., and Serafini M.R. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 243 Application No. 34248/96 - Mandelli against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 244 Application No. 34241/96 - Manni Salvatore against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 245 Application No. 34269/96 - Mercandino against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 246 Application No. 34250/96 - Monaco against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 247 Application No. 32282/96 - Monti against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 248 Application No. 34267/96 - Morticella against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 249 Application No. 34277/96 - Nazzaro against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 250 Application No. 34278/96 - Pezzini against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 251 Application No. 34245/96 - R.R. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 252 Application No. 34238/96 - Rossi Romano against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 253 Application No. 34237/96 - Scagliola against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 254 Application No. 34240/96 - Somigli against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 255 Application No. 34265/96 - Trapani against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 256 Application No. 34230/96 - Trippa against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 257 Application No. 34253/96 - Vedovato against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 258 Application No. 34274/96 - Pasquali Zanotti against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 259 Application No. 34257/96 - Zavatta against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 260 Application No. 34271/96 - Belloni against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 261 Application No. 34254/96 - De Sando against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 262 Application No. 34262/96 - Petrone against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 263 Application No. 34279/96 - Pristerà against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 264 Application No. 34246/96 - Sabio against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 265 Application No. 34255/96 - Sellan against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 266 Application No. 33510/96 - Romaniello against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 267 Application No. 34232/96 - Sparti against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 268 Application No. 24920/94 - Ballestra against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 269 Application No. 23968/94 - De Santis against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 270 Application No. 28591/95 - Frisaldi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 271 Application No. 28839/95 - Viezzer against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 272 Application No. 34283/96 - Stampacchia against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 273 Application No. 34286/96 - Balducci against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 274 Application No. 33821/96 - Castiglia against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 275 Application No. 34289/96 - Colacicco against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 276 Application No. 34285/96 - D'Alieso against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 277 Application No. 33823/96 - N.B. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 278 Application No. 34287/96 - N.C. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 279 Application No. 29251/95 - Silva Gomes and others against Portugal
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 280 Application No. 28903/95 - Motalli against Italy
    Resolution DH (98) 281 Election of members of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in respect of Germany and Ukraine.
    Final Resolution DH (98) 282 Application No. 20864/92 - Feingold against Austria
    Final Resolution DH (98) 283 Applications Nos. 16942/90 and 18624/91 - Lagler II and Lagler III against Austria
    Final Resolution DH (98) 284 Application No. 21836/93 - Hüttenmayer A. and F. against Austria
    Final Resolution DH (98) 285 Application No. 27850/95 - Société Damery-Vetter-Weil against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 286 Application No. 21978/93 - Bainier and others against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 287 Application No. 25024/94 - J.-J. C. against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 288 Application No. 26915/95 - Loyen against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 289 Application No. 23411/94 - Montion against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 290 Application No. 26222/95 - Mugler-Bentoumi against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 291 Application No. 23264/94 - P. S against France
    Resolution DH (98) 292 Application No. 24546/94 - Negroni against France
    Resolution DH (98) 293 Application No. 21881/93 - Bertuzzi against France
    Resolution DH (98) 294 Application No. 26642/95 - Zakowski against Greece
    Final Resolution DH (98) 295 Application No. 24908/94 - Fortini against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 296 Application No. 20730/92 - Mazzelli against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 297 Application No. 24765/94 - Posterino against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 298 Application No. 25293/94 - V. P. II against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 299 Application No. 30030/96 - Gomes Martins against Portugal
    Final Resolution DH (98) 300 Application No. 24462/94 - José Joaquim Aires II against Portugal
    Final Resolution DH (98) 301 Application No. 26095/95 - Rocha de Gouveia II against Portugal
    Final Resolution DH (98) 302 Application No. 24216/94 - Sobreira Calhaço against Portugal
    Final Resolution DH (98) 303 Application No. 25560/94 - Vultos against Portugal
    Final Resolution DH (98) 304 Application No. 24097/94 - Vieira Pimenta against Portugal
    Resolution DH (98) 305 Application No. 23762/94 - S. N. C. Molin Insaat against Turkey
    Resolution DH (98) 306 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 31 March 1998 in the case of Reinhardt and Slimane-Kaïd against France
    Resolution DH (98) 307 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 25 June 1996 in the case of Amuur and others against France
    Resolution DH (98) 308 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 17 December 1996 in the case of Vacher against France
    Resolution DH (98) 309 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 24 June 1993 and of 31 October 1995 in the case of Papamichalopoulos and others against Greece
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 310 Application No. 23671/94 - Gebhardt Fidler against Austria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 311 Application No. 24759/94 - Gertrude Fidler against Austria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 312 Application No. 31106/96 - Marango against Cyprus
    Resolution DH (98) 313 Application No. 23749/94 - Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation against Finland
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 314 Application No. 30175/96 - Avis Entreprises Hôtelières, Touristiques et Industrielles Rurales against Greece
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 315 Application No. 21073/92 - S.J., B.J. and G.J. against Sweden
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 316 Application No. 21387/93 - Watson against the United Kingdom
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 317 Application No. 34863/97 - Basile and Perazza against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 318 Application No. 34829/97 - Calandra against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 319 Application No. 34855/97 - Canocchi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 320 Application No. 34831/97 - Lombardi Satriani III against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 321 Application No. 34849/97 - Mastrocinque against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 322 Application No. 34828/97 - Mazzella against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 323 Application No. 34846/97 - Musci against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 324 Application No. 34864/97 - S.I.P.I. S.n.c. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 325 Application No. 34875/97 - Vitone against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 326 Application No. 34837/97 - Piconi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 327 Application No. 34288/96 - Porretta against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 328 Application No. 27411/95 - L.G. against Sweden
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 329 Application No. 34838/97 - Allegranzi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 330 Application No. 34841/97 - Angeli against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 331 Application No. 34852/97 - Balzani against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 332 Application No. 34872/97 - Buonfino against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 333 Application No. 34830/97 - Cerqueti against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 334 Application No. 34842/97 - Condominio Rosa Dei Venti against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 335 Application No. 34827/97 - Curatola against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 336 Application No. 34870/97 - D'Orsi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 337 Application No. 34859/97 - D.S. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 338 Application No. 34851/97 - Di Fabio against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 339 Application No. 34840/97 - Dionisi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 340 Application No. 34848/97 - Donati against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 341 Application No. 34868/97 - Filocarmo and Dominijanni against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 342 Application No. 32290/96 - G.C. IV against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 343 Application No. 34839/97 - L.S. III against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 344 Application No. 34861/97 - Imparato against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 345 Application No. 34845/97 - La Monica against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 346 Application No. 34835/97 - Limardi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 347 Application No. 34860/97 - Liut against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 348 Application No. 34873/97 - M.F.C. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 349 Application No. 34858/97 - P.T. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 350 Application No. 34862/97 - Pioli against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 351 Application No. 34834/97 - Polidoro against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 352 Aplication No. 34856/97 Tripodi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 353 Application No. 34844/97 Trivellini against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 354 Application No. 34836/97 - Valesani against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 355 Application No. 34259/96 - Zavatta Maria II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 356 Application No. 34850/97 - Grassi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 357 Application No. 33164/96 - Minieri against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 358 Applications Nos. 34865/97 and 34866/97 - Spezio and Di Furia against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 359 Application No. 34871/97 - Venzo against Italy
    Resolution DH (98) 360 Elections to the list of experts eligible to serve on the Advisory Committee on the framework Convention for the protection of national minorities and appointment of ordinary members of the Advisory Committee
    Final Resolution DH (98) 361 Application No. 26726/95 - Saas against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 362 Application No. 24352/94 - Eyoum-Priso against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 363 Application No. 24262/94 - Baretta against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 364 Application No. 23312/94- G.B. II against France
    Final Resolution DH (98) 365 Application No. 27482/95 - Tobia against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 366 Application No. 28001/95 - Sbrolla against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 367 Application No. 29172/95 - Santacatterina against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 368 Application No. 30114/96 - G.A. III against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 369 Application No. 30113/96 - P.P.T. against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 370 Applications Nos. 29673/96 and 29674/96 - Scarlato G. S. and D. against Italy
    Final Resolution DH (98) 371 Application No. 17821/91 - Kay against the United Kingdom
    Resolution DH (98) 372 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 16 September 1996 in the case of Gaygusuz against Austria
    Resolution DH (98) 373 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 23 April 1998 in the case of Doustaly against France
    Resolution DH (98) 374 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 17 December 1996 in the case of Duclos against France
    Resolution DH (98) 375 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 23 April 1998 in the case of Fisanotti against Italy
    Resolution DH (98) 376 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 23 April 1998 in the case of S. R. against Italy
    Resolution DH (98) 377 concerning the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 19 February 1998 in the case of Paulsen-Medalen and Svenson against Sweden
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 378 Application No. 26113/95 Wirtschafts-Trend Zeitschriften Verlagsgesellschaft m.b.H against Austria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 379 Application No. 26252/95 - Fischer Josef II against Austria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 380 Application No. 27014/95 - Fischer Josef III against Austria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 381 Application No. 28882/95 - Nankov against Bulgaria
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 382 Application No. 23050/93 - Iscache against France
    Resolution DH (98) 383 Application No. 31624/96 - Mastracchio against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 384 Application No. 31488/96 - Ciepłuch against Poland
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 385 Application No. 28418/95 - Maunier against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 386 Application No. 29878/96 - Charrière A. and P. against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 387 Application No. 31523/96 - Graillot against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 388 Application No. 31842/96 - Darmagnac Pierre V against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 389 Application No. 27870/95 - Sarda against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 390 Application No. 29349/95 - Harmant against France
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 391 Application No. 35296/97 - A. A. IV against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 392 Applications Nos. 37874/97, 37878/97 and 37879/97 - A. B., E. F. and C. C. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 393 Application No. 35334/97 - A. F. V against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 394 Application No. 35304/97 - A. I. II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 395 Application No. 34854/97 - Agnello against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 396 Application No. 35294/97 - Barbagiovanni Gasparo against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 397 Application No. 35342/97 - Basile Bernardo Domenico against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 398 Application No. 34869/97 - Bernardi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 399 Application No. 34261/96 - Bernardoni against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 400 Application No. 35308/97 - Bogliolo Giacomo I against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 401 Application No. 35309/97 - Bogliolo Giacomo II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 402 Application No. 35311/97 - Bogliolo Giacomo III against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 403 Application No. 34857/97 - C. C. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 404 Application No. 35340/97 - Cacace against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 405 Application No. 35292/97 - Calandrella F. and P., Angelone and Ponzi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 406 Application No. 35305/97 - Calipso Montana S.R.L. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 407 Application No. 35297/97 - Carloni against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 408 Application No. 35301/97 - Carrubba against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 409 Application No. 35332/97 - Casini against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 410 Application No. 35333/97 - Castelli against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 411 Application No. 34843/97 - Casula against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 412 Application No. 35287/97 - De Simon and Incontrera against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 413 Application No. 35337/97 - F. C. IV against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 414 Application No. 35319/97 - Fanni Bruno against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 415 Application No. 35330/97 - G. M. VII against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 416 Application No. 35341/97 - G. V. III against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 417 Application No. 35315/97 - Galazzi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 418 Application No. 34242/96 - Gatti against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 419 Application No. 35336/97 - I. S. IV against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 420 Application No. 35295/97 - Ianni Domenico II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 421 Application No. 35291/97 - L. P., Ga. C. and Gi. C. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 422 Application No. 34853/97 - La Gorga against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 423 Application No. 35331/97 - Liberi against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 424 Application No. 35273/97 - Lombardi Satriani IV against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 425 Application No. 35314/97 - Mansueto against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 426 Application No. 35335/97 - Marinelli against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 427 Application No. 35288/97 - Mengano and Morini against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 428 Application No. 34847/97 - Milani against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 429 Application No. 35293/97 - Mucciola and Bottino against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 430 Application No. 35329/97 - N. Z. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 431 Application No. 35302/97 - Panozzo against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 432 Application No. 34833/97 - Patteri against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 433 Application No. 35338/97 - Pellegrini Odilia against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 434 Application No. 35942/97 - Picconi and Puggioni against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 435 Application No. 35283/97 - Piscopo and five others against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 436 Application No. 35317/97 - Poligamma s.a.s. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 437 Application No. 35289/97 - Redaelli Tecna S.p.a. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 438 Application No. 35327/97 - Ricci against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 439 Application No. 34874/97 - Roselli Italo I against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 440 Application No. 35328/97 - Roselli Italo II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 441 Application No. 35326/97 - Sardo against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 442 Application No. 35271/97 - Società Immobiliare Sant'Andrea S.r.l. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 443 Application No. 34832/97 - Sorace against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 444 Application No. 35299/97 - Spadon against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 445 Application No. 35282/97 - Statile against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 446 Application No. 33661/96 - Tagliavini against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 447 Application No. 35267/97 - Tuso against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 448 Application No. 35306/97 - Vincenti Salvatore against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 449 Application No. 35339/97 - Cascone and Marrazzo T. and A. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 450 Application No. 35269/97 - F. V. II against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 451 Application No. 33150/96 - G.D. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 452 Application No. 33820/96 - G. L. against Italy
    Resolution DH (98) 453 Application No. 35303/97 - Cicerone E., S., S. and D. against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 454 Application No. 35300/97 - De Simone and six others against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 455 Application No. 35285/97 - Di Prisco and Cappon against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 456 Application No. 28664/95 - G. C. V against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 457 Application No. 30605/96 - Mongiardo against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 458 Application No. 29881/96 - Puccio against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 459 Application No. 29530/95 - Rossi Antonio against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 460 Application No. 29510/95 - Vocca against Italy
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 461 Application No. 32562/96 - Vieira Pimenta II against Portuga
    Interim Resolution DH (98) 462 Application No. 25419/94 - Denev Martin against Sweden
    Resolution DH (98) 463 Election of a member of the European Committee for the prevention of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in respect of Slovenia

    Resolutions on the implementation of the European Social Charter
    Resolution ChS (98) 1 on the implementation of the European Social Charter during the period 1993-94 – 13th supervision cycle – part IV).
    Resolution Chs (98) 2 on the implementation of the European Social Charter during the period 1994-95 (13th supervision cycle –part V)

    Resolutions on the application of the European Code of Social Security
    Resolution CSS (98) 1 on the application of the European Code of Social Security and the Protocol thereto by Belgium (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 2 on the application of the European Code of Social Security by Cyprus (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 3 on the application of the European Code of Social Security by Denmark (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 4 on the application of the European Code of Social Security by France (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 5 on the application of the European Code of Social Security and the Protocol thereto the Federal Republic of Germany (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 6 on the application of the European Code of Social Security by Greece (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 7 on the application of the European Code of Social Security by Ireland (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 8 on the application of the European Code of Social Security by Italy (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 9 on the application of the European Code of Social Security and the Protocol thereto by Luxembourg (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 10 on the application of the European Code of Social Security and the Protocol thereto by the Netherlands (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 11 on the application of the European Code of Social Security and the Protocol thereto by Norway (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 12 on the application of the European Code of Social Security and the Protocol thereto by Portugal (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 13 on the application of the European Code of Social Security by Spain (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 14 on the application of the European Code of Social Security and the Protocol thereto by Sweden (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 15 on the application of the European Code of Social Security by Switzerland (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 16 on the application of the European Code of Social Security by Turkey (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)
    Resolution CSS (98) 17 on the application of the European Code of Social Security by the United Kingdom (Period from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 1997)

    INDEX

    Activities for the development and consolidation of democratic stability, 79
    Ad Hoc Committee of experts on the legal Aspects of Territorial Asylum, refugees and Stateless Persons, 40
    ADACS, 79
    Albania, 10
    Anti-Doping Convention, 73
    Armenia, 12
    Art Exhibition, 71
    Audiovisual Observatory, 108
    Azerbaijan, 12

    Belarus, 10
    Bern Convention, 54
    Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy, 51
    Bosnia and Herzegovina, 10
    Human rights and civic education, 61

    CAHAR, 40
    CAHDI, 40
    CC-Cult, 66
    CC-ED, 57
    CC-HER, 64
    CC-PAT, 71
    CDBI, 38
    CDCC, 57
    CDCJ, 37
    CDCS, 43
    CDDH, 33
    CDEG, 27
    CDLR, 31
    CDMG, 47
    CDMM, 30
    CDPC, 39
    CDPO, 46
    CD-P-RR, 96
    CD-P-SP, 95
    CDSP, 50
    CDSS, 45
    Central and Eastern European States, 10
    Chernobyl, 100
    Children, 46
    CJ-IT, 41
    CJ-PD, 41
    cloning, 36
    CLRAE, 114
    CO-DBP, 52
    Commitments, 7
    Committee for the activities of the Council of Europe in the field of Biological and Landscape Diversity, 52
    Committee of Experts on Information Technology and Law, 41
    Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law, 40
    Committee on the Rehabilitation and Integration of People with disabilities, 96
    Compliance with commitments, 7
    Conference of European Ministers responsible for Social Security, 121
    Conferences of specialised ministers, 121
    Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe, 114
    Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, 54
    Convention on the Protection of the Environment through Criminal Law, 36
    Conventions, 131
    Cooperation Group for the Prevention of, Protection against, and Organisation of Relief in Major Natural and Technological Disasters, 100
    Co-production, 101
    Corruption, 36
    Council for Cultural Co-operation, 57
    Council for the Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy, 51
    CPT, 22
    Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, 36
    Cultural cohesion and cultural pluralism, 57
    Cultural heritage, 71
    Cultural Heritage Committee, 71
    Culture, 66
    Culture Committee, 66

    Data Protection, 41
    Declaration on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 129
    Disabilities, 96
    Disasters, 100

    ECML, 109
    ECRI, 35
    EDQM, 97
    Education, 57
    Education Committee, 57
    Education for Democratic citizenship, 59
    Elections, 120
    ENIC, 65
    ENTO, 119
    Environment, 51
    Convention on the Protection of the Environment through Criminal Law, 36
    Equality, 27
    ESSSE, 63
    EURIMAGES, 101
    EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement, 100
    European Agreement on the Transmission of Applications for Legal Aid, 41
    European Audiovisual Observatory, 108
    European Centre for Global Interdependence and Solidarity, 102
    European Centre for Modern Languages, 109
    European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, 35
    European Commission for Democracy through Law, 104
    European Committee for Social Cohesion, 43
    European Committee on Crime Problems, 39
    European Committee on Legal Co-operation, 37
    European Committee on Migration, 47
    European Conference of Ministers responsible for Youth, 121
    European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 22
    European Convention on Human Rights, 16
    European Convention on Spectator Violence, 73
    European Department for the Quality of Medicines, 97
    European dimension of education, 61
    European Diploma of Protected Areas, 53
    European Health Committee, 50
    European Heritage Days, 72
    European Population Committee, 46
    European Secondary School Student Exchanges, 63
    European Social Security Committee, 45
    European Union, 13
    European Youth Foundation, 76
    EYF, 76

    Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 11
    Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, 25

    Georgia, 12
    GMC, 38
    Graz Centre, 109
    Gypsies, 48

    Health, 49
    Higher Education and Research, 64
    Higher Education and Research Committee, 64
    History of Europe, 60
    History teaching, 60, 64
    Holy See, 13
    Human rights, 32, 79
    Human Rights - the Conventions, 16
    Human rights and civic education in the Russian Federation, 60

    Informal Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Sport, 121
    In-service Teacher Training Programme, 61

    Kosovo, 11

    Languages, 58
    Learning and Teaching about the History of Europe in the 20th Century, 60
    Legal Aid, 41
    Legal co-operation
    Activities for the consolidation and development of democratic stability, 84
    Local and Regional Authorities, 114
    Local democracy, 31

    Major Hazards Agreement, 100
    Media, 29
    Migration, 47
    Minorities, 25, 34
    Monaco, 13
    Monitoring Group of the Anti-Doping Convention, 73
    Multidisciplinary Group on Corruption, 38

    Network for School Links and Exchanges, 63
    New Modern Languages Project, 58
    North-South Centre, 102

    Observation of elections, 120
    OMCL, 98
    OSCE, 14

    Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy, 51
    Partial agreements, 89
    Pharmacopoeia, 97
    Pompidou Group, 98
    Population, 46
    Programme for children, 46
    Project Group on Data Protection, 41
    Protected Areas, 53
    Public health, 95

    Racism and intolerance, 35
    Recommendations, 131
    Reform of history teaching and preparation of new history textbooks, 64
    Resolutions, 132
    Roma, 48
    Rule of law, 36
    Russian Federation
    Human rights and civic education, 60

    School Links and Exchanges, 63
    Second Summit, 7
    Secondary School Student Exchanges, 63
    Secretary General, 15
    Sessions of the Committee of Ministers, 5
    Social and Public Health Partial Agreement, 94
    Social Charter, 18
    Social cohesion, 43
    Social Cohesion, Democratic Security and Educational Policies, 57
    Social Development Fund, 89
    Social Exclusion, 44
    Social policy, 43
    Social security, 44
    Social Security
    Conference of European Ministers responsible for Social Security, 121
    Sport, 73
    Informal Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Sport, 121
    SPRINT, 74
    Standing Committee of the European Convention on Spectator Violence, 73
    Standing Committee on Transfrontier Television, 30
    Steering Committee for Bioethics, 38
    Steering Committee for Equality between Women and Men, 27
    Steering Committee for Human Rights, 33
    Steering Committee on Local and Regional Democracy, 31
    Steering Committee on the Mass Media, 30
    STRA-CO, 51
    STRIM, 100
    Study sessions, 77
    Sustainable development, 56

    T-DO, 73
    Teacher Training, 61
    Texts adopted by the Committee of Ministers, 126
    Torture, 22
    Transfrontier cooperation, 85, 87
    T-RV, 73
    T-TA, 41
    T-TT, 30

    UniDem seminars, 106
    United Nations, 14

    Venice Commission, 104

    Youth, 75
    European Conference of Ministers responsible for Youth, 121
    Youth Card, 107
    Yugoslavia, 11

Note 1 Concerns the following States : Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" and Turkey. Non-member State : Holy See.
Note 2 Concerns the following States: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Observers to the Committee on the Rehabilitation and Integration of People with Disabilities (CD-P-RR): Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia and Canada.
Note 3 Concerns the following States : Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", Turkey and the United Kingdom. Non-member State : Bosnia and Herzegovina. Observers : Albania, Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, Morocco, Poland, Romania, Syria, Tunisia, Ukraine.
Note 4 Concerns the following States: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Note 5 Concerns the following States : Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Portugal, Russian Federation, San Marino, Spain, “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”, Turkey and Ukraine. Non-member States : Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Lebanon, Morocco and Monaco.
Note 6 Concerns the following States : Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey.
Note 7 Concerns the following States : Cyprus, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Non-member State : Holy See.
Note 8 Concerns the following States: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", Turkey and Ukraine. Associate members: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Georgia. Observers: Argentina, Canada, Holy See, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, the United States of America and Uruguay.
Note 9 Concerns the following States: Croatia, Cyprus, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, and Switzerland.
Note 10 Concerns the following States : Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Note 11 Concerns the following States : Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Switzerland and "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".


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