– the general provisions are intended to explain the foundations of the action to be taken at technical and operational level in order to promote, on the one hand, protection, management and planning according to landscape quality objectives (administrative and institutional questions) and, on the other, integration of the landscape dimension into all sectoral policies with landscape implications (criteria and instruments for implementing landscape policies).
The meetings of the Workshops of the Council of Europe on the Implementation of the European Landscape Convention have already carried out, and will continue, in-depth studies of useful themes as references for implementation of the convention.
The guidelines, with their appendices which are an integral part of them, are designed to facilitate the transposition of the provisions contained in the convention into national, regional and local regulations.
Part I – General principles
The general principles are designed to provide guidance on some of the fundamental articles of the European Landscape Convention.
I.1. Issues covered by the general principles
A. Consider the territory as a whole
The Convention applies to the entire territory and covers natural, rural, urban and peri-urban areas. It includes land, inland water and marine areas. It concerns landscapes that may be considered outstanding as well as everyday and degraded landscapes.
B. Recognise the fundamental role of knowledge
The identification, description and assessment of landscapes constitute the preliminary phase of any landscape policy. This involves an analysis of morphological, archaeological, historical, cultural and natural characteristics and their interrelations, as well as an analysis of changes. The perception of landscape by the public should also be analysed from the viewpoint of both its historical development and its recent significance.
C. Promote awareness
Active public involvement means that specialised knowledge should be accessible to all, that is, it should be easily available, structured and presented in a way understandable even by non-specialists.
D. Define landscape strategies
Each administrative level (national, regional and local) should draw up specific and/or sectoral landscape strategies within the limits of its competences. These are based on the resources and institutions which, when co-ordinated in terms of space and time, allow policy implementation to be programmed. The various strategies should be linked by landscape quality objectives.
E. Integrate the landscape dimension in territorial policies
The landscape dimension should be included in the preparation of all spatial management policies, both general and sectoral, in order to lead to higher-quality protection, management or planning proposals.
F. Integrate landscape into sectoral policies
Landscape should be fully taken into account via appropriate procedures allowing systematic inclusion of the landscape dimension in all policies that influence the quality of a territory. Integration concerns both the various administrative bodies and departments on the same level (horizontal integration) and the various administrative bodies belonging to different levels (vertical integration).
G. Make use of public participation
All action taken to define, implement and monitor landscape policies should be preceded and accompanied by procedures for participation by members of the public and other relevant stakeholders, with the aim of enabling them to play an active role in formulating, implementing and monitoring landscape quality objectives.
H. Achieve landscape quality objectives
Every planning action or project should comply with landscape quality objectives. It should in particular improve landscape quality, or at least not bring about a decline. The effects of projects, whatever their scale, on landscape should therefore be evaluated and rules and instruments corresponding to those effects defined. Each planning action or project should not only match, but also be appropriate to the features of the places.
I. Develop mutual assistance and exchange of information
Information exchange, the circulation of theoretical, methodological and empirical ideas between landscape specialists and learning from these experiences are of fundamental importance in ensuring the social and territorial relevance of the European Landscape Convention and in achieving its objectives.
I.2. Definition of landscape
“For the purposes of the Convention: a. ‘Landscape’ means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors.” (Article 1 of the European Landscape Convention – Definitions)
“Subject to the provisions contained in Article 15, this Convention applies to the entire territory of the Parties and covers natural, rural, urban and peri-urban areas. It includes land, inland water and marine areas. It concerns landscapes that might be considered outstanding as well as everyday or degraded landscapes.” (Article 2 of the European Landscape Convention – Scope)
The concept of landscape in the convention differs from the one that may be found in certain documents, which sees in landscape an “asset” (heritage concept of landscape) and assesses it (as “cultural”, “natural” etc. landscape) by considering it as a part of physical space. This new concept expresses, on the contrary, the desire to confront, head-on and in a comprehensive way, the theme of the quality of the surroundings where people live; this is recognised as a precondition for individual and social well-being (understood in the physical, physiological, psychological and intellectual sense) and for sustainable development, as well as a resource conducive to economic activity.
Attention is focused on the territory as a whole, without distinguishing between the urban, peri-urban, rural and natural parts, or between parts that may be regarded as outstanding, everyday or degraded; it is not limited to cultural, artificial and natural elements: the landscape forms a whole whose constituent parts are considered simultaneously in their interrelations.
The concept of sustainable development is understood as fully integrating the environmental, cultural, social and economic dimensions in an overall and integrated fashion, that is, by applying them to the entire territory.
The sensory (visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, taste) and emotional perception which a population has of its environment and recognition of the latter’s diversity and special historical and cultural features are essential for the respect and safeguarding of the identity of the population itself and for individual enrichment and that of society as a whole. It implies recognition of the rights and responsibilities of populations to play an active role in the processes of acquiring knowledge, taking decisions and managing the quality of the places where they live. Public involvement in decisions to take action and in the implementation and management of such decisions over time is regarded not as a formal act but as an integral part of management, protection and planning procedures.
I.3. Legal recognition of landscape
“Each Party undertakes: a. to recognise landscapes in law as an essential component of people’s surroundings, an expression of the diversity of their shared cultural and natural heritage, and a foundation of their identity;” (Article 5 of the European Landscape Convention – General measures)
The legal recognition of landscape implies rights and responsibilities on the part of all institutions and citizens of Europe towards their physical surroundings. The landscape in which they live is the result of many change-producing actions resulting from the activity of various stakeholders in territorial processes in highly varied ways and on differing scales of time and space. Such activities may be the outcome of action by public authorities in establishing a large-scale infrastructure or of individual action in a restricted space.
I.4. Landscape policies
“For the purposes of the Convention: … b.. ‘Landscape policy’ means an expression by the competent public authorities of general principles, strategies and guidelines that permit the taking of specific measures aimed at the protection, management and planning of landscapes;” (Article 1 of the European Landscape Convention – Definitions)
From the operational viewpoint, the convention presupposes:
– the drawing up of specific landscape policies and concurrently the systematic inclusion of the landscape dimension in all sectoral policies that have a direct or indirect influence on changes to the territory. Landscape is therefore not additional to other themes but is an integral part of them;
– a transition from a policy based only on protecting a territory’s features and parts recognised as outstanding to a policy based on the quality of all living surroundings, whether outstanding, everyday or degraded;
– a definition of and experience with new forms of collaboration between the various bodies and the various levels of administration;
– a new approach to observing and interpreting landscape, which should henceforth:
- view the territory as a whole (and no longer just identify places to be protected);
- include and combine several approaches simultaneously, linking ecological, archaeological, historical, cultural, perceptive and economic approaches;
- incorporate social and economic aspects.
I.5. Actions on landscape
The convention gives definitions of actions on landscape: protection, management and planning.
“For the purposes of the Convention: … d. ‘Landscape protection’ means actions to conserve and maintain the significant or characteristic features of a landscape, justified by its heritage value derived from its natural configuration and/or from human activity;” (Article 1 of the European Landscape Convention – Definitions)
The concept of protection includes the idea that landscape is subject to changes which, within certain limits, have to be accepted. Protective measures, which are currently being widely trialled, should not be designed to stop time or to restore natural or human-influenced characteristics that no longer exist; however, they may guide changes in sites in order to pass on their specific, material and immaterial features to future generations. A landscape’s characteristics depend on economic, social, ecological, cultural and historical factors, the origin of which often lies outside the sites concerned. Landscape protection should find the ways and means of acting, at an appropriate level, not only on the characteristics present at sites but also on external factors.
“For the purposes of the Convention: ... e. ‘Landscape management’ means action, from a perspective of sustainable development, to ensure the regular upkeep of a landscape, so as to guide and harmonise changes which are brought about by social, economic and environmental processes;” (Article 1 of the European Landscape Convention – Definitions)
Management of landscape is a continuing action aimed at influencing activities liable to modify landscape. It can be seen as a form of adaptive planning which itself evolves as societies transform their way of life, their development and surroundings. It can also be seen as a territorial project, which takes account of new social aspirations, anticipated changes in biophysical and cultural characteristics and access to natural resources.
“For the purposes of the Convention: … f. ‘Landscape planning’ means strong forward-looking action to enhance, restore or create landscapes.” (Article 1 of the European Landscape Convention – Definitions)
Landscape planning may be regarded in the same way as a territorial project and concerns forms of change that can anticipate new social needs by taking account of ongoing developments. It should also be consistent with sustainable development and allow for the ecological and economic processes that may occur in the medium and long terms. Planning also covers the rehabilitation of degraded land (mines, quarries, landfills, wasteland, etc.) so that they meet the stipulated landscape quality objectives.
Landscape action is a combination of protection, management and planning conducted over one and the same territory: certain parts and features can be protected, others, particularly processes, should be managed and still others should be intentionally adapted.
Part II – General provisions
The general provisions are intended to explain the foundations of the action to be taken at technical and operational level in order to promote, on the one hand, protection, management and planning according to landscape quality objectives (administrative and institutional questions) and, on the other, integration of the landscape dimension into all sectoral policies with landscape implications (criteria and instruments for implementing landscape policies).
II.1. Division of powers and administrative arrangements
“Each Party shall implement this Convention, in particular Articles 5 and 6, according to its own division of powers, in conformity with its constitutional principles and administrative arrangements, and respecting the principle of subsidiarity, taking into account the European Charter of Local Self-government. Without derogating from the provisions of this Convention, each Party shall harmonise the implementation of this Convention with its own policies.” (Article 4 of the European Landscape Convention – Division of responsibilities)
Certain states in Europe have long implemented landscape policies, both co-ordinated and sectoral, based on legislation on historic heritage or on nature dating from the first decades of the 20th century; policies are generally based on regulations relating to certain areas or features regarded as particularly worthwhile for different reasons (the dominant concept was generally natural or picturesque beauty, panoramic views, etc., associated with the cultural models of the 16th and 18th centuries expressed notably in paintings). In some of those states, administrative authority has been assigned to bodies responsible, at different levels, for the historic heritage and culture.
Other states have, especially over the past few decades, developed policies focusing particular attention on matters connected with regulation of the environment (air, water, earth, flora and fauna) and the landscape theme has often been placed on the same level as the environment. In several countries, landscape responsibilities have been assigned to administrative bodies responsible for managing nature, the environment or ecology.
In yet other states, specific responsibilities are included among those attributed to spatial-planning bodies.
Because of the complexity of landscape issues, other solutions have been found in the past few years at national level and, particularly, at regional and local levels, and landscape-related responsibilities have sometimes been conferred on sectors concerned with land-use and construction policies, sometimes on public-works sectors and sometimes on sectors concerned with agriculture, etc.
Each state decides on its own institutional organisation in landscape matters according to its own overall institutional organisation (centralised, decentralised, federal) at the existing government levels (from national to local levels) and according to its own administrative and cultural traditions and existing structures.
It is advisable, however, for landscape matters to receive specific recognition involving autonomy both in the allocation of administrative responsibilities and in knowledge-based and operational activities, irrespective of whether or not they are included in larger administrative sectors.
Competences should be allocated to the different administrative levels in line with the subsidiarity principle, which requires that action should be taken as close to the population as possible. However, higher administrative levels may assume the tasks of guidance and co-ordination where these are not dealt with at local level (e.g. guidance, co-ordination, specialist data banks, national and regional planning policies and instruments, etc.) or where this would lead to greater efficiency. The experience of the different states and regions can be used as a point of reference when deciding on appropriate courses of action.
In order to make sure that the landscape dimension is incorporated into territorial policies, it is essential to engage in consultation, particularly prior consultation, between the different levels responsible for administering the area concerned (government and local-authority departments) and between the different bodies and sectors of the same level (horizontal and vertical consultation).
Consultation should cover both the formulation of general strategies and operational decisions. In this way it will be possible to transcend the unrelated and particularistic interests inherent in a view of quality based only on the protection of specific areas and avoid the risk of different or, indeed, contradictory policies on the part of the various public-service sectors.
At national level, it would therefore be useful to establish permanent consultation processes and procedures and regular meetings between bodies with the most central administrative responsibility (ministries) in order to define and agree strategies and prepare consultation bodies (for example, a standing interdepartmental conference). The same could apply vertically between ministries and lower administrative levels (for example, state-region conferences) and also within the different administrative levels. In addition to these permanent bodies, procedures can be drawn up for collaboration between the different bodies and institutes (public and/or private) specialising in particular national and local problems, especially collaboration between departments responsible for different operational sectors in the regions, in supra-municipal bodies or in municipalities themselves.
Arrangements could also usefully be made for national, regional and local bodies of an advisory and guidance nature to provide assistance to the above-mentioned technical and administrative services (landscape observatories, landscape councils, landscape centres and institutes, etc.). These bodies could be composed of representatives of the administrative authorities, the scientific and professional communities concerned with landscape questions, and associations.
Within its landscape-administration structures and procedures each state should define the criteria for public participation and ways of organising it.
The public authorities should devote human and financial resources to landscape policy: such resources can either be specifically earmarked or come from other sectors (for example, the environment, tourism, public works, culture, etc.), perhaps with the introduction of landscape considerations into the aforementioned sectoral policies.
II.2. Criteria and instruments for landscape policies
The fundamental stages in the process leading to landscape action are:
– knowledge of the landscapes: identification, description and assessment;
– definition of landscape quality objectives;
– attainment of these objectives by protection, management and planning over a period of time (exceptional actions and measures and ordinary actions and measures);
– monitoring of changes, evaluation of the effects of policies, possible redefinition of choices.
Participation, consultation, pooling of ideas and approval (between institutions and the population, horizontal and vertical) should be organised at all stages in this process.
Here, the regulatory framework should concentrate more on principles than specific operational methods, which should be left to more technical instruments that can be more easily modified over time (implementation rules, appendices, etc.); they should encourage creativity in the research and experimentation which are already in hand in different states or which form part of collaborative action between several states.
II.2.1. Knowledge of the landscapes: identification, analysis, assessment
Landscape knowledge constitutes the first fundamental stage in a process either of formulation of choices or of the involvement of the stakeholders whose activities influence the landscape; it leads to the establishment of landscape quality objectives and to landscape action.
“C. Identification and assessment
1. With the active participation of the interested parties, as stipulated in Article 5.c, and with a view to improving knowledge of its landscapes, each Party undertakes:
a. i. to identify its own landscapes throughout its territory;
ii. to analyse their characteristics and the forces and pressures transforming them;
iii. to take note of changes;
b. to assess the landscapes thus identified, taking into account the particular values assigned to them by the interested parties and the population concerned.
2. These identification and assessment procedures shall be guided by the exchanges of experience and methodology, organised between the Parties at European level pursuant to Article 8.” (Article 6 of the European Landscape Convention – Specific measures)
The various texts relating to the convention and the various experimental practices already being developed or operational in different European states show a diversity of approach to knowledge production that also reflects the diversity of cultural concepts. However, there is an acute awareness of the inadequacies of the most frequently used theoretical and methodological instruments for operational needs. Too often, they belong to compartmentalised disciplinary universes, while the landscape demands adequate responses within cross-disciplinary time and space constraints which can meet the need for a knowledge of the permanent changes at local level. Approaches include:
– one that may be described as “description-interpretation”; this attempts to meet the requirement for knowledge imposed by instruments and measures for managing territorial changes (general plan, sector plan, landscape projects, etc.);
– approaches that are more analytical and descriptive, relatively independent and having operational purposes.
The term “identification” should therefore be understood in its broad sense as the expression of this preliminary requirement; it is composed of a phase of comprehension and analysis of specific characteristics (description) and a phase of quality problem identification (assessment), which may vary according to the complexity of situations and objectives. The term identification should not be interpreted simplistically nor be limited to an inventory of landscapes but should be linked to the establishment of landscape quality objectives.
Landscape knowledge should be developed according to an identification, description and assessment process, which includes:
– an understanding and description of the specific physical characteristics of the sites in their current conditions, revealing the traces left by natural and human processes and recognising that landscape characteristics result from the action of natural and/or human factors and their interrelations;
– examination of their developmental processes and highlighting the past, present and foreseeable time-related forces due to either human or natural factors and the possible pressures facing landscapes;
– recognition of characteristics and value systems based on analysis by experts or knowledge of the social perceptions of landscape. This knowledge can be gained through various forms of public involvement in the process of landscape policy definition and through analysis of the geographical distribution of the population.
Guidelines for measures should not be too interventionist as regards the methods, stages and stakeholders involved in the process of knowledge production: certain public authorities may provide landscape catalogues or atlases for use as a stand-alone instrument, with bodies having specific responsibility for producing them. Depending on the state, such documents have various titles: landscape atlas, landscape catalogue, landscape map, landscape character assessment map, and so on. These supply a common reference framework and constitute a common language which makes communication easier between stakeholders. Other documents may leave it to the experts to choose whether to use descriptive analysis or interpretative description as the first stage in obtaining the knowledge required by the instruments of landscape policy definition and implementation, depending on the administrative level, scale, objectives and tools (programmes, plans, charters, etc.).
Action should be taken to:
– promote integration of the different knowledge-production approaches to observation of the territory (economic, social, environmental, historic/cultural, perceptive/visual, etc.);
– check that analyses concern the entire territory (which take account of outstanding, everyday and degraded parts) and not only parts or features regarded as significant or exceptional;
– ensure ease of access, clarity and transparency in the organisation and presentation of knowledge, with the particular aim of securing public involvement in landscape policy choices;
– encourage the establishment and availability of landscape databases; these should concern the condition of places, their past and present dynamics, pressures and risks, and both natural and human aspects of them. Information should be updated periodically, most frequently when changes are rapid. They should comply with nationally, and where possible internationally, recognised criteria so as to encourage exchanges of experience between states, regions and territorial communities at other levels.
II.2.2. Definition of landscape quality objectives
“D. Landscape quality objectives
Each Party undertakes to define landscape quality objectives for the landscapes identified and assessed, after public consultation in accordance with Article 5.c.” (Article 6 of the European Landscape Convention – Specific measures)
Certain natural and/or historic elements of places may be given particular attention in order to preserve their specific role, particular historical meaning, and environmental and other potential, for example, in parts of the territory devoted to agriculture, hedges, planted areas, dry-stone or earth walls, terraces, individual monumental trees, springs or historic canal networks. The instruments used may range from forms of legal protection to grants to owners and farmers for upkeep, replanting or integration and to forms of improvement possibly accompanied by teaching material which provides guidance and passes on traditional methods of landscape upkeep.
Specific instructions and regulations may be introduced for certain types of operation and change that strongly influence quality of place, for example, electricity lines, telephone networks and masts, wind farms, quarries, mines, commercial and political advertising, leisure facilities (for example, campsites, caravans, recreational facilities) and so on.
Certain urban development themes and problems, which should be categorised according to the particular features of the different areas, may be the subject of specific instructions and regulations and may be mentioned as topics for special landscape studies: for example, town approaches, urban fringe, peri-urban areas, linear links between historic centres (ribbon developments) and so on.
Conditions for public access to landscapes should be guaranteed with due respect for private property, but access roads, roads, lanes and paths should allow the landscape to be enjoyed; to this end, in agreement with the relevant stakeholders, the authorities may arrange for the removal of visual obstacles or for the construction of viewing corridors on landscape deserving such treatment. Such access roads should also provide facilities for the welfare of users, that is, for their comfort and safety, and comply with sustainable development requirements.
The definition of quality objectives should be based on knowledge of the specific characteristics and qualities of the places concerned, and identification of their dynamics and of potential as well as of how landscape is perceived by the public. Certain landscape questions or aspects may receive special attention. Landscape quality objectives represent the end result of the process of devising landscape operations, which implies knowledge production, public consultation, policy formulation and action and monitoring strategies.
The objectives should constitute the preliminary guidelines for drawing up the measures to be taken to protect, manage and plan landscapes and manage them over time. They should be drawn up, linking the social requirements and values attached to the landscape by the public to the choice of policy decisions made concerning the substance of the landscape components. Particular importance should be devoted to the range of social perceptions, which reflect the population’s diversity.
The concrete application of protection, management and planning choices should cover the whole landscape and refrain from dividing it into the number of elements which compose it: landscape is characterised by the interrelations between several domains (physical, functional, symbolic, cultural and historic, formal, etc.) that constitute both ancient and recent landscape systems. These may be interwoven and superimposed on the same section of territory. Landscape is not simply the sum of its constituent parts.
Landscape quality objectives should be defined by general landscape policy instruments for the different levels (national, regional, local, etc.) and formally implemented by town and country planning and development documents, as well as by sectoral instruments; in return, these documents can make a specific contribution to the formulation of landscape quality objectives.
To make the process successful, it is necessary to consult the public and all other relevant stakeholders from the outset and secure their approval and involvement.
II.2.3. Participation, awareness raising, training, education
“Each Party undertakes:
… c. to establish procedures for the participation of the general public, local and regional authorities, and other parties with an interest in the definition and implementation of the landscape policies mentioned in paragraph b above;” (Article 5 of the European Landscape Convention – General measures)
The certainty that strengthening the relationship between the population and its living surroundings underpins sustainable development affects the whole process of landscape policy definition. Moreover, participation is regarded as an instrument for strengthening the identities of populations, which recognise themselves in their surroundings.
Public involvement, which may entail contradictions resulting from the diversity of the value systems espoused by the various social groups, should be regarded as enriching and as an opportunity to validate knowledge and the definition of objectives and action.
Participation implies two-way communication from experts and scientists to the population and vice versa. The population possesses empirical knowledge (local and naturalistic knowledge) that may be useful in completing and contextualising specialist knowledge.
This also has an influence on “assessment” activity, understood as a dialectical comparison between analyses by experts and the values attached by the population to landscape, in the knowledge that different systems of “values” and “non-values” exist that may be well-entrenched or still in the process of definition; these value systems (universal, specific to national cultures, to local cultures, to each individual’s culture) belong to both scholarly culture and to popular culture: they are qualitative and not quantifiable and some of them are sometimes mutually opposed. The concept of participation involves taking into account the social perception of landscape and popular aspirations in choices regarding landscape protection, management and planning. In this sense, the concept of landscape proposed by the convention implies an exercise in democracy whereby differences are accepted, common characteristics found and operational compromises eventually reached; these represent an alternative to the drawing up by experts of hierarchical classifications of landscape qualities.
The means of participation should be chosen by each state from among methods appropriate to the different problems identified, taking account of current consultation and comparison customs, the different administrative organisations, the characteristics of the various territorial situations, the types of operational instruments used, the scales of operation, and experience both past and present at international level. In any case, participation should involve all the relevant stakeholders: national, regional and local authorities, the population directly affected, the general public, non-governmental organisations, economic operators and landscape professionals and scientists.
Participation should be a feature of all the different phases in the processes of drawing up and implementing landscape policies, in particular those of landscape appraisal, definition of landscape quality objectives, decision-making and implementation of actions over time. Participation should also be regarded as a system for the mutual information of the relevant stakeholders. It is particularly important that participation take place at all stages of implementation, from the initial knowledge phase through to the implementation of agreed actions, that is, in the execution of projects in which all relevant stakeholders have participated.
In defining the procedures for approving choices, reference may be made to tried and tested processes such as consultation, public inquiries, information meetings and educational exhibitions. These processes may also be used simultaneously.
Each Party undertakes to increase awareness among the civil society, private organisations, and public authorities of the value of landscapes, their role and changes to them.” (Article 6 of the European Landscape Convention – Specific measures)
The need to make civil society, private organisations and public authorities aware of the value of landscapes, their role and changes in them does not mean that these bodies are not sensitive to the quality of the places where people have their lives (their cadre de vie). It in fact means that existing sensitivities are not always in working order and that the parties do not always recognise the link between landscape and their daily lives. Awareness-raising is therefore a way of making clear the relations that exist between people’s cadre de vie, the activities pursued by all parties in the course of their daily lives and the characteristics of the natural environment, housing and infrastructure. Awareness-raising based on personal contacts is made up of the experience gained from exchanges between local people affected by the planning decisions to be taken and persons possessing scientific and technical knowledge, that is, scientists and experts.
Various forms of awareness-raising may be used on a permanent, periodic or occasional basis:
– publications, exhibitions, audiovisual means, simulations and shows by artists and photographers may be employed nationally, regionally or locally. Already widely used, written and audiovisual presentations may take the form of illustrated booklets, slide shows with sound or exhibitions, all on various scales. These methods are often used at local level to talk about the landscape of a municipality or a number of municipal territories. They may also be the subject of presentations followed by a debate with the local population, which makes it possible to ascertain local people’s views. Landscape simulation or representation tools employing 3-D methods or block diagrams lead to better understanding and discussion between all involved;
– television broadcasts, though still inadequate, should be developed for both general issues and local experiences;
– local awareness-raising experiences, such as guided visits to an area involving local people, elected representatives and experts or scientists. Such experiences may give rise to a debate and lead to collective thinking about the future of the landscape. Some of these experiences may form part of wider festivals.
Awareness-raising should include not only populations, elected representatives and representatives of the public authorities but also companies, non-governmental organisations, the scientific and technical community and artists. Awarenes-raising should be understood as a knowledge-spreading process operating in all directions from policymakers to field personnel and local inhabitants and vice versa.
“ B. Training …
Each Party undertakes to promote:
a. training for specialists in landscape appraisal and operations;
b. multidisciplinary training programmes in landscape policy, protection, management and planning, for professionals in the private and public sectors and for associations concerned;” (Article 6 of the European Landscape Convention – Specific measures)
Many states now have training for specialists in landscape appraisal and operations. Such training should be encouraged and developed. Courses should be geared to a view of landscape linked to sustainable development, that is, they should train people in the relationship between landscape and economic development, between landscape and the renewal of natural resources and between landscape and social justice.
Courses of this nature are aimed at training designers, managers, engineers and technicians specialising in landscape protection, management and planning. They cover both the commissioning and management of projects. They lead to a state-recognised diploma and are now part of a European educational programme under which university exchanges between states are possible.
Training meets the needs of all involved for specialist and refresher education:
– national and local institutions and bodies responsible for landscape and training should promote the setting up of specialist courses aimed at training, on a multi-disciplinary basis, landscape appraisal and operations specialists and offering landscape research training;
– non-specialist university courses should allow for the introduction of landscape themes into the training of technicians whose activities influence a territory’s landscape characteristics;
– special information and in-service training programmes should be provided for elected representatives, the technical staff of public authorities of all levels and sectors, professionals in the private and public sectors whose activities affect the landscape (agriculture, cultivation, etc., in such a way as to increase the inclusion of landscape in sectoral policies) and the associations concerned;
– theoretical and applied research programmes on landscape should be developed on a multidisciplinary basis and promoted by states and the other administrative levels in a context of international co-operation. The anticipated contributions of landscape research concern theoretical knowledge, relations between landscape and sustainable development, public policies and their evaluation, links between landscape research and education, landscape economics, the history of landscape and its representations, the relationship between landscape appraisal approaches and public action, the integration of sectoral disciplinary viewpoints in order to appraise places from the landscape perspective, participation of the relevant stakeholders in drawing up and implementing landscape policies and the definition of policy implementation instruments. On the whole, research should be directed more specifically at “action research” whereby there is a close relationship between fundamental research and public action. This link between the two can bring about valuable results for landscape protection, management and planning on the theoretical, methodological and operational levels.
“B. ... and education
Each Party undertakes to promote: …
c. school and university courses which, in the relevant subject areas, address the values attaching to landscapes and the issues raised by their protection, management and planning.” (Article 6 of the European Landscape Convention – Specific measures)
While schools in certain states already offer landscape training, such training should be strengthened so as to develop children’s sensitivity to questions which they are likely to experience when looking at the quality of their surroundings. Furthermore, this is a way of reaching a population through the family.
This can come about through education in several disciplines, whether geography, history, the natural sciences, economics, literature, arts, architecture or engineering disciplines, or civics education.
School curricula at various levels should foster an awareness of landscape themes through learning to read landscapes and through sensitisation to relations between cadre de vie and landscape, to relations between ecology and landscape problems and to social and economic questions.
Landscape constitutes a teaching resource because, when reading it, pupils are brought face to face with visible signs of their surroundings that relate to spatial-planning issues. Landscape reading also makes it possible to understand current and historical approaches to landscape production as an expression of a community’s identity.
II.3. Methods of implementation
To put landscape policies into effect, each Party undertakes to introduce instruments aimed at protecting, managing and/or planning the landscape.” (Article 6 of the European Landscape Convention – Specific measures)
The means of implementing landscape policies or introducing the landscape dimension into sectoral policies may be either regulatory or voluntary. New methods of implementation could also be used. The choice of method can depend on the local situation, which will vary even within the same country.
Implementation of landscape policies or of policies to introduce the landscape dimension into sectoral policies may combine these different means according to the ends in view, the specific characteristics of the territory, the population and administrative organisation concerned, and so on. This applies to all landscape situations and all activities that shape them. Implementation may be included in general and sectoral instruments at the different administrative, programming and spatial-planning levels; it may provide for land acquisition by the competent authorities.
II.3.1. Regulatory implementation
Regulatory implementation depends on the legislation that exists and the type of objective; that is, it depends on the desired outcome in terms of protection, management or planning. Measures may be included in spatial-planning documents or provide for specific instruments.
– Inclusion of objectives in a protection policy: measures should ensure the conservation and upkeep of significant or characteristic aspects of a landscape; protection should be accompanied by a phased management plan. Existing specific legislation could be used or new legislation could be drawn up.
– Inclusion of objectives in a management policy: measures may provide for the upkeep of existing landscape structures (some of these may be acquired by the competent authority).
– Inclusion of objectives in a planning policy: the measures may provide for planning schemes or for appropriate new facilities. Financial provisions for financing the proposed actions and/or technical and operational aids may be laid down.
II.3.2. Voluntary implementation
Voluntary implementation is based on agreements, charters, quality labels or contracts between the authorities and relevant stakeholders. It may involve financial provisions for funding the proposed actions and/or technical and operational assistance, for example:
– in the case of a protection policy: conventions (or other forms of agreement) providing for the upkeep of a landscape. It may be appropriate for compensation to be awarded to those adversely affected by the impact of a landscape-friendly measure;
– in the case of a management policy: conventions or contracts (or other forms of agreement) providing for the upkeep of existing landscape structures. If necessary, funding equivalent to the cost of upkeep may be granted (for example, upkeep of hedges, canals, paths, etc.);
– in the case of a planning policy: conventions or contracts (or other forms of agreement) providing for the creation of new structures or facilities with appropriate financing. These new structures or facilities should blend in with the existing landscape, that is, they should comply with defined landscape quality objectives.
II.3.3. Instruments for landscape policies
To implement landscape policies, a general planning and development process should be introduced: this should use specific instruments and provide for the landscape dimension to be included in sectoral instruments. It should be based both on general principles at national level, even if decentralisation is anticipated, and on the linkage of competences at several levels and several types of implementation instruments.
Instruments are already being put to use in several countries and each of them can be a model for either the creation of new instruments or the improvement of existing ones.
The main categories of instruments are:
– landscape planning: landscape study plans included in spatial planning;
– inclusion of the landscape in sectoral policies and instruments;
– shared charters, contracts, strategic plans;
– impact and landscape studies;
– evaluations of the effects of operations on landscape not subject to an impact study;
– protected sites and landscapes;
– relationship between landscape and regulations concerning the cultural and historic heritage;
– resources and financing;
– landscape awards;
– landscape observatories, centres and institutes;
– reports on the state of the landscape and landscape policies;
– transfrontier landscapes.
Examples of instruments used to implement
the European Landscape Convention
The purpose of this appendix is to provide some examples of instruments used to implement the European Landscape Convention. It can be supplemented by the experiences of parties to the convention on their own territories, which will provide useful lessons for improving the approach to landscape action.
It is proposed that each party contribute to the setting up of a database to appear on the website of the Council of Europe’s European Landscape Convention. The database would be a “toolbox” which would help provide mutual technical and scientific assistance through the collection and exchange of landscape experience and research, as provided for in Article 8 of the European Landscape Convention on mutual assistance and exchange of information.
1. Landscape planning: autonomous landscape plans or landscape studies as part of spatial planning
It is necessary to emphasise that landscape issues should be approached through a systematic landscape planning process adapted to the different administrative levels, from national to local, throughout the whole territory, including urban and extra-urban areas.
The process could take the form of:
a. a proper landscape planning and development system endowed with specific instruments, interconnected at the different administrative levels (landscape plan);
b. a systematic introduction of the landscape dimension into ordinary planning at different levels (national, regional, local), supplemented by specific studies and instructions (landscape studies). All spatial planning should have a landscape dimension.
Such choices may present themselves simultaneously in a range of situations, even within one and the same state.
Irrespective of the question of regulatory and operational autonomy, it is important that there should always be specific studies on the appraisal of surroundings from a landscape perspective or that the direction of operations should be specifically defined.
In accordance with the definition in the European Landscape Convention, such studies and directions should concern protection of the characteristics of areas already recognised as being high-quality, the ordinary quality of areas or reassessment and rehabilitation problems.
– operational provisions concerning protection, management and planning, re-assessment and/or rehabilitation;