CM(2007)119 7 August 20071
1005 Meeting, 26 September 2007
7 Education and culture
7.1 Steering Committee for Education (CDED)
a. Abridged Report of the 6th meeting (Strasbourg, 12-14 March 2007)
b. Draft Recommendation CM/Rec(2007)… of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the religious dimension of intercultural education: principles, objectives and teaching approaches
c. Draft Recommendation CM/Rec(2007)… of the Committee of Ministers to member states on gender mainstreaming in education
Item to be prepared by the GR-C on 11 September 2007
The 6th annual plenary session of the Steering Committee for Education (CDED) was held at Council of Europe headquarters in Strasbourg from Monday 12 to Wednesday 14 October 2007 with Mr Cézar Bîrzéa (Romania) in the Chair. Forty-five delegations from States Parties to the European Cultural Convention participated in it.
The agenda for the meeting appears in Appendix 1 and the list of participants can be obtained from the Secretariat.
TEXTS OF THE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS AND THE PARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY
1. took note of Recommendations 1778 (2007), 1780 (2007), 1774 (2006), 1787 (2007), 1773 (2006) and 1775 (2006) adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly at the first part-session (22-26 January 2007) and by the Standing Committee;
2. examined and adopted the following draft opinions:
- draft opinion on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1778 (2007) on “Child victims: stamping out all forms of violence, exploitation and abuse”, as set out in Appendix 2 to this document;
- draft opinion on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1780 (2007) on the “Current situation in Kosovo”, as set out in Appendix 3 to this document;
- draft opinion on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1774 (2006) on “The Turkish presence in Europe: migrant workers and new European citizens”, as set out in Appendix 4 to this document;
- draft opinion on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1787 (2007) on “The precautionary principle and responsible risk management”, as set out in Appendix 5 to this document;
- draft opinion on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1773 (2006) on “The 2003 guidelines on the use of minority languages in the broadcast media and the Council of Europe standards: need to enhance co-operation and synergy with the OSCE”, as set out in Appendix 6 to this document;
- draft opinion on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1775 (2006) on “The situation of Finno-Ugric and Samoyed peoples”, as set out in Appendix 7 to this document;
3. agreed to forward them to the Committee of Ministers.
ESTABLISHING CRITERIA FOR LAUNCHING, DISCONTINUING AND EVALUATING COUNCIL OF EUROPE PROJECTS
4. noted with interest the CM information document (CM (2006) 101 final) concerning the establishment of criteria for launching, discontinuing and evaluating Council of Europe projects;
5. while stressing the importance of criteria for effective project management, expressed reservations regarding undue emphasis on profitability, which would be harmful to co-operation in the field of education;
6. bearing in mind the specific nature of educational co-operation, instructed the Bureau and the Secretariat to develop indicators for each criterion which would be used for the evaluation of all Council of Europe projects in the education sector.
THIRD SUMMIT OF HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT - IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ACTION PLAN
Centre of Excellence in Education for Democratic Citizenship, Human Rights and Intercultural Education
7. took note of the information provided by the secretariat on the progress of reflection within the Committee of Ministers on the setting up of such a centre and noted more specifically a number of aspects and requirements which, in the Secretariat’s view, might constitute a possible basis on which such an initiative could be built, viz:
- the central theme of the work of such a centre would be intercultural education in the context of education for democratic citizenship and human rights;
- this initiative should not have an adverse financial effect on the current work programme of the Steering Committee for Education;
- full co-ordination should be ensured with the various components of the committee’s programme, and in particular with the current “Pestalozzi” training programme for education professionals;
- the centre would act as a “network leader”, drawing inspiration from and contributing to relevant initiatives in the member states, and its activities would complement and enrich the Council of Europe programme in the EDC and intercultural education field;
- all the member countries should be able to benefit from the added value of such a centre, which would serve the Council of Europe’s policy without any financial compensation whatsoever.
8. noted that the Council of Europe in Strasbourg should retain its leading role in the EDC/HRE field;
9. asked the Secretariat and the Bureau to study the possibilities for co-operation with the European Union in connection with this initiative, which had also been advocated in the report by the Luxembourg Prime Minister, Mr Juncker and to keep it directly informed as the process of reflection and consultation progressed;
Secondary school based educational and intercultural exchanges
10. asked the Secretariat to prepare in consultation with the Bureau and taking account of the available expertise and experience in the field, a working paper on a conceptual framework encompassing the integration of intercultural education in the curriculum, its inclusion into the initial and in - service training of teachers, as well as guidelines for the organisation of pupil exchanges in a intercultural education perspective.
“Europe at school”
11. took note of the information on the consultation process underway as to the possible future involvement of the Council of Europe in a renewed "Europe at School" activity, in particular of a) the proposed re-focusing on intercultural education, b) the need to be attractive to and manageable for different Council of Europe member states, c) the need for the Council of Europe to develop a high quality "Council of Europe - specific" initiative, thus avoiding competition and overlap with other activities; d) the request to the Secretariat to submit a document on the outcome of the consultation process to the next Bureau meeting.
Efficiency and effectiveness of committees under the Programme of Activities of the Council of Europe
12. adopted the evaluation report of the work of the Committee (CDED (2007) 25) and instructed the Bureau to follow this matter in close consultation with the Secretariat and to continue the discussion at its meetings.
22ND SESSION OF THE STANDING CONFERENCE OF EUROPEAN MINISTERS OF EDUCATION, ISTANBUL, TURKEY, 4 AND 5 MAY 2007
13. finalised the programme, the texts and documents to be submitted to the Ministers for discussion and adoption and thanked the delegation of Slovenia for its offer to host the 23rd session of the Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education in 2010.
PROJECT: "EDUCATION FOR DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP AND HUMAN RIGHTS" (EDC/HRE)
14. held an exchange of views on the Tool 2 of the EDC Pack, Democratic Governance of Schools, with its authors, Elisabeth Bäckman and Bernard Trafford, and thanked them for their excellent work;
15. gave its full support to the Project as a whole and emphasised the crucial role of the EDC/HRE coordinators for the success of the Project;
16. encouraged the Secretariat to continue to develop partnerships and co-operation with the different stakeholders interested in EDC/HRE;
PROJECT: “THE NEW CHALLENGE OF INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION: RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY AND DIALOGUE IN EUROPE"
17. approved the draft Recommendation on the “Religious dimension of intercultural education: principles, objectives and pedagogical approaches”, with its Explanatory Memorandum, and decided to submit it to the Committee of Ministers with a view to its adoption. The draft Recommendation appears as Appendix 8 to the present report and the draft Explanatory Memorandum appears in document CM(2007)119 add1.
PROJECT: “POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR TEACHING SOCIOCULTURAL DIVERSITY”
18. noted with great interest the results of this survey conducted as part of the first stage of the project and approved the report prepared by the group of experts and its conclusions and recommendations;
19. instructed the group of experts to continue with the second stage of the project and to focus work during this stage on defining the basic competences of teachers with a view to managing and enhancing socio-cultural diversity;
PROJECT: “EDUCATION OF ROMA CHILDREN IN EUROPE”
20. noted with great satisfaction the progress of work on the project and in particular the development of a new section on Teaching of the Genocide against Roma and approved the documents submitted for publication, in particular the document “Political and legislative framework for the education of Roma children : reference texts and support systems”, the model pedagogical sheet and table of contents for the publication “The Roma on screen”, and the “Roma school mediator/assistant guide”;
21. welcomed very positively the approach and methodology chosen for the development of the project and the links created with the various organisations working on this issue;
PROJECT: "DAY OF REMEMBRANCE OF THE HOLOCAUST AND FOR THE PREVENTION OF CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY"
22. emphasised the importance of this issue for society and welcomed the offers from Austria, Poland, Croatia, Norway and Belgium to organise events in 2007 and 2008;
"PESTALOZZI" TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR EDUCATION PROFESSIONALS
23. took note of the progress of work on the “Pestalozzi” programme as a whole and confirmed its interest in the programme and expressed its support for new sessions organised within the programme on the training of trainers;
PROJECT: "THE IMAGE OF THE OTHER IN HISTORY TEACHING"
24. took note of the report of the first seminar on “the image of the Muslim world in history teaching in Europe” DGIV/EDU/HISTDIM (2007)01 and expressed its support for the development of future activities as part of the project;
PROGRAMME: LANGUAGE POLICIES FOR DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP AND SOCIAL INCLUSION
The Committee :
25. took note of the progress made with the Language Education Policy profiles for Ireland, Slovakia, Poland, Valle d’Aosta (Italy) and Austria and approved the application made by Estonia;
26. took note of the significant progress made with regard to the programme of activities and underlined the importance, relevance and diversity of the projects being conducted by the Division;
27. took note of the support of the European Commission, which underlined the complementarity of the work done by the two Organisations in the field of languages
CO-OPERATION WITH THE CDEG – DRAFT RECOMMENDATION ON GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN EDUCATION AND DRAFT EXPLANATORY MEMORANDUM
28. approved the draft Recommendation on Gender mainstreaming in Education, with its Explanatory Memorandum, and decided to submit it to the Committee of Ministers with a view to its adoption. The draft Recommendation appears as Appendix 9 to the present report and the draft Explanatory Memorandum appears in document CM(2007)119 add 2.
CO-OPERATION WITH THE PARTIAL AGREEMENT IN THE SOCIAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH FIELD
29. took note of the presentation, by the Secretariat of the Partial Agreement in the Social and public Health Field, of the Council of Europe’s “Action Plan to promote the rights and full participation in society of people with disabilities: improving the quality of life of people with disabilities in Europe 2006-2015" and decided to appoint Jorma Kauppinen as its representative to the European Co-ordination Forum for the Council of Europe Disability Action Plan 2006-2015 (CAHPAH).
CO-OPERATION WITH THE DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF HUMAN RIGHTS - MEDIA DIVISION
30. listened with great interest to the presentation by the Secretariat of the Media and New Information Technologies Division concerning Recommendation Rec(2006)12 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on empowering children in the new information and communications environment;
31. proposed that the tools developed should begin to be gradually introduced into the training sessions of the Pestalozzi programme;
32. suggested resuming consideration of this item in the light of the conclusions of the 22nd session of the Standing Conference, particularly where children’s rights were concerned;
CO-OPERATION WITH INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND OBSERVERS
33. took note with great interest of the intervention of the European Commission delegate who emphasised the fruitful complementarity which exists between the work of the Council of Europe and that of the European Union in the education domain. The legal framework and intergovernmental nature of the Council of Europe facilitate the development of principles and instruments – such as those which exist in the field of education for democratic citizenship or languages – to which all European countries subscribe. These principles and instruments gain added value by being taken up and more widely disseminated through EU processes such as the Education and Training 2010 work programme.
34. took note with great interest of the information provided by the representative of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights of the United Nations on the implementation of the plan of action of the World Programme for Human Rights Education;
35. took note of the intervention of the chair of the NGO Grouping “Education and Culture”
DATES OF MEETINGS OF THE BUREAU AND OF THE 7TH PLENARY SESSION OF THE STEERING COMMITTEE FOR EDUCATION
36. The CDED decided to hold its 7th plenary session from Monday 10 to Wednesday 12 March 2008 and took note of the meetings dates of the Bureau, which will hold its 11th meeting on 17 and 18 September 2007 and its 12th meeting on 10 and 11 December 2007.
37. The CDED instructed the Bureau to draw up new terms of reference for the Committee and to submit them to the Committee of Ministers for adoption before the end of 2007.
1. OPENING OF THE MEETING
2. ADOPTION OF THE AGENDA
3. STATEMENTS BY THE CHAIR AND THE SECRETARIAT
4. TEXTS OF THE COMMITTEE OF MINISTERS AND THE PARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY
5. THIRD SUMMIT OF HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT
6. 22ND SESSION OF THE STANDING CONFERENCE OF EUROPEAN MINISTERS OF
EDUCATION, ISTANBUL, TURKEY, 4 AND 5 MAY 2007
7. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 2007 PROGRAMME OF ACTIVITIES
7.1. PROJECT: "EDUCATION FOR DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP AND HUMAN RIGHTS"
7.2. PROJECT: "THE NEW CHALLENGE OF INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION: RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY
AND DIALOGUE IN EUROPE"
7.3. PROJECT: "POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR TEACHING SOCIOCULTURAL DIVERSITY"
7.4. PROJECT: "EDUCATION OF ROMA CHILDREN IN EUROPE"
7.5. PROJECT: "DAY OF REMEMBRANCE OF THE HOLOCAUST AND FOR THE PREVENTION OF
CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY"
7.6. "PESTALOZZI" PROGRAMME FOR TEACHER TRAINERS AND EDUCATION PROFESSIONALS
7.7. PROJECT: "THE IMAGE OF THE OTHER IN HISTORY TEACHING"
7.8. PROGRAMME: "LANGUAGE POLICIES FOR DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP AND SOCIAL
8. CO-OPERATION WITH OTHER BODIES OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE, OTHER
INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND OBSERVERS
9. DATES OF MEETINGS OF BUREAU ANDOF THE 7TH PLENARY SESSION OF THE STEERING
COMMITTEE FOR EDUCATION
10 ANY OTHER BUSINESS
11. ADOPTION OF DECISIONS
Opinion of the Steering Committee for Education on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1778 (2007) on "Child victims: stamping out all forms of violence, exploitation and abuse"
The Steering Committee for Education (CDED):
Having examined with great interest Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1778 (2007) "Child victims: stamping out all forms of violence, exploitation and abuse", shares the Assembly's concerns relating to the effective implementation of the provisions of international and European legal instruments on child protection;
Recalls its previous opinion on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1666 (2004) "Europe-wide ban on corporal punishment of children";
Welcomes the recommendations in paragraphs 2 and 3 and would point out on this occasion that, at the 22nd session of the Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education (4 and 5 May 2007), the theme "Children's rights in an educational perspective" will be discussed in order to promote children's rights generally, as effectively as possible, and will cover school curricula, teacher training and the organisation of schools;
Shares the Assembly's opinion, as expressed in paragraph 2.2, concerning the need to enhance specialist training for professionals dealing with children. Teachers need to be adequately trained so that they can not only teach children's rights but also ensure that these rights are respected at school, and avoid discrimination and all other breaches of these rights. The committee will suggest that this subject be included among the priority themes of the "Pestalozzi" training programme for education professionals;
Endorses the Assembly's request, in paragraph 4, that measures be introduced to facilitate and optimise children's access to appeals and complaints procedures and notes that this issue could be discussed in the context of its project "Education for democratic citizenship and human rights".
Opinion of the Steering Committee for Education on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1780 (2007) on “Current situation in Kosovo”
The Steering Committee for Education (CDED):
Takes note with great interest of Recommendation 1780 (2007) of the Parliamentary Assembly “Current situation in Kosovo” and fully endorses the Assembly’s recommendations with regard to the special role that the Council of Europe must play in fostering democracy and the rule of law in Kosovo;
Stresses the vital role of education in introducing the principles of human rights, democracy, tolerance and mutual respect, the rule of law and the peaceful resolution of conflicts in everyday teaching and in preparing young people and adults to take an active part in democratic life by exercising their rights and responsibilities in society;
Draws attention to the fact that the relevant authorities of the UNMIK administration and of Kosovo have taken part in several informal ministerial conferences, organised by the Steering Committee for Education (CDED), on specific problems posed by the reform of educational systems in South-East Europe. The representative of UNMIK took part in the 22nd session of Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education (4-5 May 2007, Istanbul), which considered the role that education should play in building a more humane and inclusive Europe;
Endorses the Assembly’s request in paragraphs 3, 3.1.1, 3.1.3, 3.1.4 and 3.1.5, that there should be closer co-operation with other international organisations and the European Commission in protecting human rights, fostering intercultural dialogue and protecting minorities in Kosovo;
Draws attention to the fact that the Directorate of Education has just proposed that a joint programme be launched in Kosovo in co-operation with the European Commission. This programme will entail:
- modernising the education system in Kosovo and ensuring that it participates in European reforms, such as the Bologna Process on higher education reform in Europe;
- promoting education in democratic citizenship and human rights through the development of new study programmes, the dissemination of teaching materials, the training of teachers and teacher trainers, the introduction of a system for guaranteeing the standard of teaching, raising awareness of and providing instruction in democratic governance in schools;
- increasing institutional capacities in education by setting up a network of teacher trainers, whose main aim will be to promote “living together” in a multicultural context at local, regional and international level;
- reforming the teaching of history, in accordance with the Council of Europe’s standards and values;
- devising policies and norms concerning the languages used in teaching and modern languages, including the languages spoken by minorities.
Points out that, from 2000 to 2002, in co-operation with the World Bank, the Directorate of Education conducted a large-scale project on reforming higher education in Kosovo. This project concerned the drafting or a new law on primary and secondary education, the preparation of new legislation in the field of higher education and the upgrading of professional medical and legal qualifications.
Stresses, in relation with paragraph 3.3, that it will continue its multilateral projects with Serbia and other countries of the Western Balkans.
Opinion of the Steering Committee for Education on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1774 (2006) on the “Turkish presence in Europe: migrant workers and new European citizens”
The Steering Committee for Education (CDED):
Takes note of Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1774 (2006) on the “Turkish presence in Europe: migrant workers and new European citizens” and of the Committee of Ministers’ invitation to comment on the text;
Underlines that this opinion concerns only point 11.3.6 regarding education, which is the CDED’s area of responsibility;
Points out that several projects in its multilateral programme of activities respond to the concerns expressed by the Parliamentary Assembly concerning the role of education in the social integration of immigrants in general, including those from Turkey;
Put forward its reservations on point 188.8.131.52 and consider that the application of this measure must be open to all, as far as possible and under the condition that it is compatible with national education policies.
Endorses the provisions of paragraph 184.108.40.206 of the recommendation and underlines that it is currently conducting two projects on the specific language needs of minorities, migrants and Roma:
- a project launched in 2006 by the CDED on Languages of School Education, which will produce a reference framework for languages of instruction (national or official languages, including mother tongues) in the member states. This will take account of the needs of all pupils in compulsory education, including disadvantaged learners and those from immigrant backgrounds;
- another project on Adult Migrants and Language Policies for Integration, which will produce general guidelines and tools for helping member states to deal with the main language proficiency difficulties affecting the integration of adult migrants;
Unreservedly endorses the Parliamentary Assembly’s call to member states “to devise specific training courses for primary teachers on the theme “How to live in a multicultural society/How to live with diversity” (paragraph 220.127.116.11) and wishes to underline that:
- under its Pestalozzi training programme for education professionals, several European workshops on managing diversity and multiculturalism are held every year, involving several hundred teachers from different signatories to the European Cultural Convention;
- it is finalising its project on the New Challenge of Intercultural Education: Religious Diversity in Europe with a policy recommendation and a reference work for teachers and trainers on managing religious diversity in intercultural education;
- in 2006, it launched a new project on Policies and Practices for Teaching Socio-cultural Diversity, which will draw up a series of fundamental principles to be included in teacher training programmes to help teachers manage cultural and social diversity in schools;
- it is finalising, in co-operation with the CDEG, a draft recommendation on gender mainstreaming in education with a view to promoting and encouraging measures specifically aimed at introducing gender mainstreaming at all levels of the education system and in teacher training so as to achieve real gender equality and improve the quality of education;
Opinion of the Steering Committee for Education on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1787 (2007) on “The precautionary principle and responsible risk management”
The Steering Committee for Education (CDED):
Welcomes this new recommendation from the Parliamentary Assembly on “The precautionary principle and responsible risk management”. The CDED would like first of all to encourage the Parliamentary Assembly’s approach vis-à-vis advocating a culture of precaution incorporating the precautionary principle into scientific research processes, with respect for freedom of research and innovation. To that end, the priority in the educational field should be given to promoting scientific education at all educational levels within an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary framework;
Accordingly subscribes fully to paragraph 9.1.1 on the need to promote scientific education as from primary school. Being aware of the need to encourage scientific education early on in order to attract pupils to the science curricula, which are gradually being deserted, the committee advocates making primary school courses less theoretical and linking them more closely to the child’s day-to-day experience;
Would also like to stress the importance of promoting diversity in science classes, in which girls are traditionally underrepresented;
Informs the Committee of Ministers that it will nevertheless be unable to propose any programmes specifically geared to promoting scientific education. In fact, other programmes which the CDED has already established promote an interdisciplinary approach and encourage students to shoulder responsibility for social issues, with an eye to breaking down interdisciplinary barriers and opening up to Others. This desire is well illustrated by the CDED’s efforts in the field of education for democratic citizenship and human rights education, language policies and teacher training.
Opinion of the Steering Committee for Education on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1773 (2006) on “The 2003 guidelines on the use of minority languages in the broadcast media and the Council of Europe standards: need to enhance cooperation and synergy with the OSCE”
The Steering Committee for Education (CDED):
Welcomes the Parliamentary Assembly’ initiative in adopting Recommendation 1773 (2006) on “The 2003 guidelines on the use of minority languages in the broadcast media and the Council of Europe standards: need to enhance cooperation and synergy with the OSCE”.
Stresses that some of the programmes that are currently being implemented under its auspices include sustained co-operation with the OSCE, especially under the educational reforms being conducted in the countries of the western Balkans;
Considers that language diversity is one of the essential features of cultural life in the 49 States signatory to the European Cultural Convention, whose inestimable value is undisputed;
Recalls that its programme of activities helps maintain and enhance such linguistic and cultural diversity by co-operating with member states in devising policies to promote bilingual and plurilingual education. Some of these activities cover problems arising out of the teaching of the mother tongues of minority and majority groups;
Informs the Committee of Ministers that in 2007 the Directorate of Education will be publishing a Compendium of best practice in the field of education for human rights, citizenship and diversity, which also covers minority languages.
Opinion of the Steering Committee for Education on Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1775 (2006) on the “Situation of Finno-Ugric and Samoyed Peoples”
The Steering Committee for Education (CDED):
Welcomes the initiative by the Standing Committee, acting on behalf of the Parliamentary Assembly, to help protect the Finno-Ugric and Samoyed minorities;
Supports the call to the relevant authorities of the Russian Federation to sign and ratify the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and points out that the said authorities have signed and ratified the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities;
Believes that the monitoring machinery for the framework convention, which protects, inter alia, the freedoms of language, thought, expression, religious conscience, media access and education, should enable the groups concerned to receive the necessary support for the protection of their rights;
Expresses reservations about the advisability of setting up a European centre to protect a group of specific languages;
Urges the Finno-Ugric and Samoyed peoples to play an active part in the campaign to promote linguistic diversity and multilingualism among citizens, in particular on European Day of Languages, which is celebrated every year on 26 September.
Draft Recommendation CM/Rec(2007)…
of the Committee of Ministers to member states
on the religious dimension of intercultural education: principles, objectives and teaching approaches
(Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on … … 2007
at the …th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies)
The Committee of Ministers, under the terms of Article 15.b of the Statute of the Council of Europe,
Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve greater unity between its members, while seeking to strengthen democratic citizenship;
Bearing in mind the European Cultural Convention (1954) (ETS No. 18) which underlines the need for education to develop mutual understanding between peoples;
Having regard to its Recommendation No. R (84) 18 on the training of teachers in education for intercultural understanding, notably in a context of migration;
Considering the provisions of its Recommendation Rec (2002)12 on education for democratic citizenship in which the Committee of Ministers state:
– that education for democratic citizenship is a factor for social cohesion, mutual understanding, intercultural and inter-religious dialogue, and solidarity;
– that the implementation of education for democratic citizenship requires recognising and accepting differences, and developing a critical approach to information, thought patterns and philosophical, religious, social, political and cultural concepts, at the same time remaining committed to the fundamental values and principles of the Council of Europe;
Bearing in mind its Resolution Res(2003)7 on the youth policy of the Council of Europe, which considers the promotion of intercultural dialogue, and in particular dialogue between civilisations, and peace as a priority thematic for the years ahead;
Considering Recommendation 1111 (1989) of the Parliamentary Assembly on the European dimension of education, stressing that tolerance and solidarity result from a greater understanding and knowledge of “others”;
Considering Recommendation 1346 (1997) of the Parliamentary Assembly on human rights education which calls for the introduction of elements to promote tolerance and respect for people from different cultures;
Considering Recommendation 1396 (1999) of the Parliamentary Assembly on religion and democracy which invites member states to promote better relations with and between religions and to promote the cultural and social expression of religions;
Considering Recommendation 1720 (2005) on “Education and Religion” of the Parliamentary Assembly which declares that education is essential for combating ignorance, stereotypes and misunderstanding of religions;
Bearing in mind that the Council of Europe, following the events of 11 September 2001, has sought to facilitate still further communication and advocate conflict prevention through cultural policy and the use of dialogue to combat terror;
Having regard to the European conference “The religious dimension of intercultural education” (Oslo,
6-8 June 2004), which identified the necessary conditions for applying the religious dimension of intercultural education in member states’ schools in the light of the results of the 21st session of the Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education (Athens, 10-12 November 2003);
Bearing in mind the Wroclaw Declaration on fifty years of European cultural co-operation (10 December 2004) which underlined the importance of systematically encouraging intercultural and inter-religious dialogue based on the primacy of common values, as a means of promoting awareness and understanding of each other, preventing conflicts, promoting reconciliation and ensuring the cohesion of society, through formal and non-formal education;
Having regard to the Action Plan adopted at the 3rd Summit of Heads of State and Government (Warsaw, 16 and 17 May 2005) which makes explicit reference to intercultural dialogue and to the specific challenges of religious diversity;
Noting that the Steering Committee for Education’s (CDED) project “The new challenge to intercultural education: religious diversity and dialogue in Europe” (2002-2005) has made it possible, amongst other things:
– to make considerable progress in the conceptual approach to, the content of and the learning methods for the religious dimension of intercultural education;
– to underline the fundamental importance of taking into account the religious dimension of intercultural education in order to promote mutual understanding, tolerance and a culture of “living together”;
– to put forward proposals for innovative teaching approaches and learning strategies which take into account religious diversity within intercultural dialogue;
– to produce a reference book containing a whole series of concepts and pedagogical approaches to make teachers aware of the religious dimension of intercultural education;
1. Recommends that the governments of member states, with due regard for their constitutional structures, national or local situations and educational system:
a. draw on the principles set out in the appendix to this recommendation in their current or future educational reforms;
b. pursue initiatives in the field of intercultural education relating to religious diversity in order to promote tolerance and the development of a culture of “living together”;
c. ensure that this recommendation is brought to the attention of the relevant public and private bodies, in accordance with national procedures;
2. Calls on the Secretary General of the Council of Europe to bring this recommendation to the attention of the states party to the European Cultural Convention that are not members of the Council of Europe.
Appendix to Recommendation CM/Rec(2007)…
Scope and definitions
1. The recommendation’s aim is to ensure taking into account the religious dimension of intercultural education at the following three levels:
– education policies, in the form of clear-cut education principles and objectives,
– institutions, especially through open learning settings and inclusive policies,
– professional development of teaching-staff, through adequate training.
2. For the purpose of this recommendation “religion” is considered as a cultural fact.
Principles for taking religious dimension into account in the framework of intercultural education
3. Religion is a diverse phenomenon, so the religious dimension of intercultural education should reflect the diversity of religions at local, regional and global level.
4. The following principles should form the basis and define the perspective from which religion has to be taken into account in a framework of intercultural education:
– agreement that religion is at least a "cultural fact" that contributes, along with other elements such as language and historical and cultural traditions, to social and individual life.
– information on and knowledge of religions and philosophies fall within the public sphere and should be taught in order to develop tolerance as well as mutual understanding and trust;
– religious or philosophical conceptions of the world and beliefs develop on the basis of individual learning and experience, and should not be entirely predefined by one’s family or community;
– an integrated approach to religious, moral and civic values should be encouraged in education;
– intercultural dialogue and its religious dimension are an essential precondition for the development of tolerance and a culture of “living together”.
Objectives of an intercultural approach concerning religious dimension in education
5. Education, through formal syllabuses or by developing cross-disciplinary competences should:
– nurture a sensitivity to religious and philosophical diversity as an element contributing to the richness of Europe;
– ensure that teaching about religious diversity is consistent with the aims of education for democratic citizenship and human rights;
– promote communication and dialogue between people from different cultural and religious backgrounds including those with no religious affiliation;
– develop attitudes of tolerance, empathy and respect with regard to religious diversity;
– promote civic-mindedness and moderation in asserting one’s identity;
– encourage awareness of the different facets (symbols, practices, etc.) of religious diversity;
– make it possible to address the sensitive or controversial issues to which religious diversity may give rise;
– develop skills of critical evaluation and reflection with regard to understanding different religious perspectives and ways of life;
– combat prejudice and stereotypes vis-à-vis difference and educate children in this respect;
– foster an ability to analyse and interpret the many varied items of information relating to religious diversity.
Preconditions for dealing with religious diversity in an educational context
6. The following attitudes should be promoted in order to remove obstacles that prevent a proper treatment of religious diversity in an educational context in relation to intercultural education:
– recognising the place of religion in the public sphere as a topic for discussion and reflection;
– accepting that religious affiliation is often an important part of individual identity;
– understanding that people have different perceptions as believers or non-believers;
– recognising the idea that laicity and secular society are compatible with the expression of religious allegiance exercised with due respect for others, public order and human rights;
– overcoming prejudices and stereotypes concerning religions, especially the practices of minority groups or recently arrived immigrants;
– avoiding the depreciation or the idealisation of the role of religions and other convictions in history and cultural heritage.
Teaching aspects of an intercultural approach to religious dimension in education
7. In order to encourage consideration of the religious dimension in the educational context the following educational preconditions and learning methods can be seen as highly appropriate examples:
7.1. Educational preconditions
– communication between individuals based on empathy in order to establish an environment where mutual trust and understanding is fostered;
– co-operative learning which allows pupils of all traditions to be represented;
– provision of a safe learning space to encourage expression without fear of being judged or held to ridicule;
– the ability to distinguish between understanding and value judgments vis-à-vis others.
7.2 Various learning methods
– use of “simulations” to create teaching situations involving dilemmas, dialogue and reflection;
– encouraging pupils to stand back and reflect objectively on their own and others’ existence and views;
– role-playing in an attempt to reproduce and understand the point of view and emotions of others;
– co-operation rather than competition in order to construct a positive self-image;
– a phenomenological approach aimed at cultivating an empathetic understanding of the religious experience of others;
– an interpretive approach which encourages a flexible understanding of religions, and avoids placing them in a rigid pre-defined framework;
– a dialogue-based approach enabling pupils to open up to the values and ideas of others with empathy;
– a contextual approach taking account of local and global learning conditions.
Consequences for school policies on the training of teaching staff
8. Member states, in accordance with the principles, objectives and teaching approaches stated above, are requested to:
– emphasise that in-service training is one of the main ways of increasing the skills of teachers who, as such, also have a duty to help build a more tolerant society;
– provide teachers with the training and means to acquire relevant teaching resources with the aim to develop the necessary skills for taking into account the religious dimension;
– make provision, when devising training policies, for the necessary resources for research and evaluation of the results, successes and difficulties as well as practices;
– develop teaching approaches that take into account the widespread and growing use of new information technologies, both in and out of school and enable teachers to:
o constitute rich and varied teaching resources;
o exchange resources and successful experiences regarding the religious dimension of intercultural education;
o promote critical evaluation of the reliability and validity of sources;
o facilitate opportunities for exchanges and dialogue between pupils from different cultural environments;
o exercise constant vigilance, with due regard for legal rules and the freedom of expression, in order to combat the dissemination of proselytising, racist or xenophobic content.
Draft Recommendation CM/Rec(2007)…
of the Committee of Ministers to member states
on gender mainstreaming in education
(Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on … … 2007
at the …th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies)
The Committee of Ministers under the terms of Article 15.b of the Statute of the Council of Europe;
Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve greater unity between its members, and that this aim may be pursued, in particular, through common action in the cultural field;
Bearing in mind Recommendation Rec(2002)12 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on education for democratic citizenship, adopted on 16 October 2002, which declares that “education for democratic citizenship is a factor for social cohesion, mutual understanding, intercultural and inter-religious dialogue, and solidarity, that it contributes to promoting the principle of equality between men and women, and that it encourages the establishment of harmonious and peaceful relations within and among peoples, as well as the defence and development of democratic society and culture”;
Bearing in mind Recommendation Rec(2003)3 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on balanced participation of women and men in political and public decision making, adopted on 12 March 2003, in which it invites member states to incorporate into school curricula education and training activities aimed at sensitising young people about gender equality and preparing them for democratic citizenship”;
Bearing in mind that the European ministers responsible for equality between women and men recommended, at the 4th Ministerial Conference on Equality between Women and Men (Istanbul, 13-14 November 1997), that the Steering Committee for Equality between Women and Men (CDEG) and the Steering Committee for Education (CDED) work on a joint project “aimed at promoting gender equality education and non-stereotyped education at all levels of the education system”;
Bearing in mind Recommendation No. R (98) 14 of the Committee of Ministers to the member states of the Council of Europe on gender mainstreaming, which recommends that the governments of member states encourage decision makers to “create an enabling environment and facilitate conditions for the implementation of gender mainstreaming in the public sector”;
Having noted the Declaration of the European Ministers of Education on the main theme of the 20th Session of the Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education on “Educational Policies for Democratic Citizenship and Social Cohesion: challenges and strategies for Europe”, (Krakow, 15-17 October 2000);
Recalling the Declaration of the European Ministers of Education adopted at the 21st Session of the Standing Conference of European Ministers of Education on “Intercultural Education in the New European Context” (Athens, 10-12 November 2003);
Bearing in mind the following texts adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly: Recommendation 1229 (1994) on equality of rights between men and women and Recommendation 1281 (1995) on gender equality in education;
Bearing in mind the Council of Europe European Charter for a Democratic School without Violence (2003);
Reaffirming their commitments under the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW, 1979), particularly Articles 2, 4 and 10;
Mindful that, despite the fact that there is a considerable amount of legislation at national and international level to guarantee equal opportunities, that boys and girls are increasingly being educated together in many member states and that there are a greater number of women in the education system, there are still excessive disparities between girls and boys, women and men, in our societies with respect to school and social practices, educational and career guidance, training, employment, participation in society in general and, in particular, decision making, and that these disparities undermine the human rights of both men and women, which include the right to participate fully, as equal partners, in all aspects of life;
Mindful that these disparities negatively impact on women’s and men’s lives and have implications for our societies, which are too often deprived of women’s contribution in the public arena and men’s contribution in the private sphere;
Considering that democratic societies must be based on partnership and the equal sharing of rights and responsibilities between women and men, cater for their respective needs, ensure balanced participation in all areas of life and full citizenship rights to every woman and man;
Mindful that representations of femininity and masculinity and models for assigning social roles, which shape our societies, are replicated at school, and that eradicating formal discrimination will not be sufficient to ensure that the school system is a vehicle for de facto equality;
Mindful that stereotyped social roles for the sexes limit opportunities for women and men in fulfilling their potential, that equality calls for gender partnerships to be positive and dynamic, so as to bring about structural change at all levels and, eventually, a new social order;
Concerned about the fact that girls’ academic success does not automatically lead to success in terms of the transition from education to the workforce and participation in political and economic decision making and about the lack of academic success and acquisition of social and personal skills by boys;
Mindful of the education system’s responsibility to educate pupils/students for active participation in the various aspects of democratic life, be they political, civic, social or cultural, and at all levels – local, regional and national;
Acknowledging that teachers can become agents for the perpetuation of gender-based selection mechanisms or, on the contrary, for social change, and that it is essential to involve schools and the various participants in the education process in promoting gender equality;
Mindful that teacher education and training is crucial in fostering gender equality in education;
Mindful that, at school, the non-formal sphere, namely the hidden curriculum, is just as important as the formal sphere in constructing girls’ and boys’ identities;
Convinced that equality between women and men and the gender perspective must be incorporated at all levels of the education system from the earliest age, so as to foster, among girls and boys, women and men, the values of justice and participation necessary for the effective and active exercise of democratic citizenship and the building of a genuine partnership between women and men in the private and public spheres,
Recommends to the governments of member states that they:
I. review their legislation and practices with a view to implementing the strategies and measures outlined in this recommendation and its appendix;
II. promote and encourage measures aimed specifically at implementing gender mainstreaming at all levels of the education system and in teacher education with a view to achieving de facto gender equality and improve the quality of education;
III. create mechanisms, throughout the education system, to favour the promotion, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of gender mainstreaming in schools;
IV. bring this recommendation to the attention of the relevant political institutions and public and private bodies, in particular, the ministries and/or public authorities responsible for framing and implementing education policies at central, regional and local level, school management bodies, local and regional authorities, trade unions and non-governmental organisations;
V. monitor and evaluate progress arising from the adoption of gender mainstreaming at school, and submit reports at regular intervals to the Committee of Ministers on the measures undertaken and the progress achieved in this field.
Appendix to Recommendation CM/Rec(2007) …
For the purpose of the present recommendation;
“gender mainstreaming” means: the (re)organisation, improvement, development and evaluation of policy processes, to ensure that a gender equality perspective is incorporated at all levels and stages of all policies by those normally involved in policy making;
“gender budgeting” means: the application of gender mainstreaming to the budgetary process, namely, gender-based assessment of budgets, bringing a gender perspective into all levels of that process, and restructuring revenue and expenditure to promote gender equality;
“quality education” means: taking account of the following three elements:
– matching performance to expectations (fitness for purpose);
– self-improvement and transformation (focus on processes);
– empowerment, motivation and participation (focus on learners);
“democratic citizenship” means: assuming and exercising one’s rights and responsibilities in society, by participating in civic and political life, and by valuing human rights and social and cultural diversity;
“democratic school” means: a school where governance is based on human rights, empowerment and involvement of students, staff and stakeholders in all important decisions.
The governments of member states are invited to consider the following measures with a view to implementing them:
1. incorporating the principle of equality between women and men into national laws on education, for the purpose of giving girls and boys equal rights and opportunities at school, and promoting de facto equality betw
2. assessing the gender impact of future laws on education and, where necessary, reviewing existing laws from a gender perspective;
Education policies and support structures:
3. launching special programmes to bring the gender mainstreaming strategy into education policies and schools;
4. drawing up action plans and allocating resources to implement the gender mainstreaming programme, including inbuilt monitoring and evaluation;
5. studying the impact of education policies on girls and boys, women and men, providing qualitative and quantitative instruments for gender impact assessment, and using the gender budgeting strategy to promote equal access to, and enjoyment of, school resources;
6. ensuring that the statistics produced by education ministries and authorities are broken down by sex, and published regularly;
7. ensuring that committees or task forces set up by those ministries and/or authorities are gender-balanced;
8. organising awareness-raising initiatives and/or training on gender equality and gender mainstreaming for the staff of education ministries;
9. preparing general documentation on incorporating the gender perspective and gender equality dimension, and particularly examples of good practices, and disseminating this material, inter alia via the websites of education ministries and/or authorities;
10. preparing and disseminating guidelines for schools, teachers and curriculum planners on incorporating the gender perspective and gender equality dimension; making school inspectors more aware of gender mainstreaming as an element in evaluation of schools, and devising indicators for quality assurance and self-evaluation;
11. providing teachers and other education staff with information on international agreements and guidelines on equality between women and men, particularly in the education field;
School governance and school organisation:
12. encouraging school management bodies to introduce gender mainstreaming in schools;
13. sensitising parents and guardians and involving them in schools’ work on gender mainstreaming and gender equality;
14. encouraging the wider education community to accept schools’ objectives and mission in the matter of gender mainstreaming, and play an active part in implementing that strategy;
15. promoting balanced representation of women and men at all levels of the education process, particularly among school managers and principals,
16. promoting a holistic approach to informal and formal education in schools – an approach that includes life-skills programmes, covers human rights, human dignity and gender equality, develops self-esteem and self-respect, and encourages informed decision making, thus preparing girls and boys for community and family life;
17. promoting a democratic school culture, which includes adopting educational practices designed to enhance girls’ and boys’ capacity for participation and action, and for coping with change and gender partnership, as a prerequisite for the full exercise of citizenship;
18. encouraging balanced participation of boys and girls in collective decision making and school management, and in all extra-curricular activities, for example, school councils, children’s parliaments, youth forums and clubs, students’ associations, outings, school exchanges, voluntary work, meetings with local political leaders and information campaigns;
19. encouraging local authorities and relevant officials to support any conversion work (sanitary facilities and accommodation, etc.) needed for schools to accommodate both girls and boys and their lifestyles;
Initial and in-service education and training for teachers and trainers:
20. promoting awareness raising and training on gender equality for all education personnel, and particularly school principals; producing classroom aids and teacher-training materials on gender mainstreaming in education, and distributing them to teachers;
21. including, in initial and in-service training, content which allows teachers to reflect on their own identity, beliefs, values, prejudices, expectations, attitudes and representations of femininity/masculinity, as well as their teaching practice; teachers should be encouraged to challenge sex-stereotyped attitudes and beliefs, which can inhibit boys’ and girls’ personal development and prevent them from realising their full potential;
22. bringing equality, diversity and the gender perspective into various areas of initial and in-service teacher training, and particularly: the production, reproduction and transmission of knowledge; the dynamics of teaching (teaching materials and methods; interaction and assessment) and institutional culture (organisation of the school day, school layout and interior design, recreational activities, posters and advertisements);
23. improving the teaching profession’s public image and, when necessary, increasing teachers’ salaries, for the purpose of encouraging both men and women to opt for careers in teaching, particularly at pre-school, primary and secondary level;
Course programmes, school curricula, subjects and examinations:
24. paying special attention to the gender dimension in course programme content and general curriculum development (particularly for scientific and technological subjects), and revising curricula as necessary;
25. evaluating the place of women in school curricula and the various disciplines, and highlighting their experience and contributions in the subjects taught;
26. taking account, in planning curricula, of girls’ and boys’ interests and preferences in respect of learning and teaching styles, for the purpose of fostering academic success and broadening the range of educational and career options;
27. making education for private life part of the school curriculum, when necessary, in order to encourage boys and girls to be self-reliant in this area, make them more responsible in their
emotional and sexual relationships and behaviour, combat sexist role stereotyping, and prepare young people for a new gender partnership in private and public life;
28. making authors and publishers of school textbooks, and of educational, teaching, assessment and career guidance materials, aware of the need to make gender equality one of the quality criteria for the production of these materials and the development of multi-media products for use in schools;
29. encouraging teachers to analyse, challenge and so help to eliminate sexist stereotypes and distortions which these textbooks, materials and products may convey in their content, language and illustrations;
30. encouraging teachers to analyse and counter sexism in the content, language and illustrations of comics, children’s books and games, video games, websites and films, which shape young people’s attitudes, behaviour and identity;
31. devising and disseminating indicators for the appraisal of teaching materials – particularly textbooks and multi-media products – from a gender perspective;
Teaching methods and practices:
32. including analysis of teaching methods and practices from a gender perspective in guidelines for self-evaluation and quality assurance in schools;
33. making teachers aware of research done on teachers’ interaction with pupils of each sex;
34. promoting gender mainstreaming in sports and leisure activities, where gender-based stereotypes and expectations may affect girls’ and boys’ self-image, identity-building, health, skills acquisition, intellectual development, social integration and gender relations;
35. encouraging girls and boys to explore new roles, activities and areas, and ensuring that they have equal access to all parts of the curriculum and to the same learning experiences;
36. ensuring that non-sexist language is used, and account taken of the gender dimension in teaching practice and throughout schools;
Education for democratic citizenship and human rights:
37. making gender equality a central part of education for democratic citizenship and human rights, and including that and other issues which are vital to democracy – namely, the individual’s rights and responsibilities in the private and public spheres – in basic legislation on school systems, as aims to be achieved in curricula, school culture and teacher training;
38. creating school learning contexts which focus on the needs and interests of both girls and boys regarding issues which affect our societies; enabling them to develop and exercise democratic citizenship, inter alia by acknowledging both girls and boys as agents for social change, and devising projects which encourage initiative, give them action-geared knowledge and skills, and so forge links between life at school and outside;
Educational and career guidance:
39. making gender mainstreaming one of the objectives of educational and career guidance;
40. encouraging and training guidance staff to use gender mainstreaming, so that they can analyse and counter the effects of sexist socialisation when necessary;
41. exploring the influence of female and male role perceptions on girls’ and boys’ identities and life plans, and promoting discussion of educational and career choices in the classroom;
42. promoting co-operation between schools and firms, for the purpose of giving girls and boys a better idea of the openings available in various sectors, and particularly in occupations dominated by one sex;
43. compiling and disseminating sex-based statistics on various careers;
Preventing and combating sexist violence:
44. teaching young people to consider and interpret relationships with reference to gender equality, human rights, power relations and violence;
45. providing guidelines to help schools to ensure that respect for human beings is the basis of their activity, and prevent/combat any forms of individual or collective violence or discrimination which generate unsafe situations, fear, persecution, psychological or sexual harassment, physical assault or sexual violation of girls and boys in ordinary school life;
46. raising the awareness of education staff and training them to detect, analyse, respond to, and combat all forms of sexist violence;
47. making girls and boys aware of the dangers of exploitation, sexual abuse and trafficking to which they are exposed, ensuring that schools can respond quickly to serious violations of their sexual integrity and safety (incest, rape, paedophilia);
48. requiring schools to devise policies and procedures to deal with gender-based bullying, harassment and violence;
49. making school principals and teachers aware of violence rooted in custom and culture, affecting either women or men, so that they can analyse and act on it, and support the right of girls to self-determination;
50. promoting specific measures for girls and boys from groups whose customs and culture make for early school-leaving, and focusing parents’ attention on this issue;
51. promoting specific measures for young people from disadvantaged groups, both boys and girls, who drop out and/or face social exclusion;
New information and communication technologies:
52. adopting cross-sectoral strategic guidelines on the need to apply gender equality criteria in using information and communication technologies (ICT) in education and, in particular, developing and selecting multi-media products for use in schools;
53. promoting equal access to, and use of, ICT for girls and boys from an early age in schools, and other formal and non-formal training and education contexts;
54. analysing how new information and communication technologies are used by girls and boys,
55. encouraging exploration of the role which the media can play in teaching and helping young people (girls and boys) to develop critical attitudes to sexist representations of femininity, masculinity and gender relations in society;
Research on gender and education issues:
56. initiating and supporting research on gender and education, for example:
– research on sexism in the oral and written language used in the classroom and elsewhere in schools, including inter-pupil communication;
– research on innovative projects on gender stereotyping and pupil behaviour, representations of masculinity and femininity, new identities for girls, and relations between girls and boys, with special reference to aggressive and abusive behaviour;
57. collecting and processing, on a regular and ongoing basis, statistics on pupils and other participants in the education process, broken down by gender and covering levels of instruction, courses of study, disciplines and career options (particularly in scientific and technical subjects), publishing them regularly, and ensuring that they are widely distributed;
58. implementing this recommendation by monitoring and evaluating gender mainstreaming policies, practices and results;
59. regularly evaluating measures adopted and action taken, publishing the findings and disseminating them widely among the parties concerned.
Note 1 This document has been classified restricted at the date of issue. Unless the Committee of Ministers decides otherwise, it will be declassified according to the rules set out in Resolution Res(2001)6 on access to Council of Europe documents.